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Author (up) Bakker, T.C.M.; Pomiankowski, A. file  url
  Title The genetic basis of female mate preferences Type Journal Article
  Year 1995 Publication Journal of Evolutionary Biology Abbreviated Journal J Evolution Biol  
  Volume 8 Issue 2 Pages 129-171  
  Keywords Callosobruchus maculatus; Genetic variation; Mate preferences; Female; Male; Beetle  
  Abstract We review the evidence for genetic variation in female and male mate preferences. Genetic differences between species and partially isolated races show that preferences can evolve and were genetically variable in the past. Within populations there is good evidence of genetic variation, both of discrete genetic effects (8 cases) and quantitative genetic effects (17 cases), from a diverse range of taxa. We also review evidence for the presence of genetic covariance between mate preferences and sexual traits in the other sex. The 11 studies go a long way to validating the theoretical prediction of positive genetic covariance. The few negative results are best explained by a lack of appropriate experimental design. One unresolved question is whether genetic covariance is due to linkage disequilibrium between unlinked genes or physical linkage. Some evidence points to linkage disequilibrium but this is not yet conclusive.  
  Call Number Serial 1694  
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Author (up) Cope, J.M.; Fox, C.W. file  url
  Title Oviposition decisions in the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae): effects of seed size on superparasitism Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Journal of Stored Products Research Abbreviated Journal Journal of Stored Products Research  
  Volume 39 Issue 4 Pages 355-365  
  Keywords Beetle; Egg dispersion; Egg load; Seed size; Superparasitism; Callosobruchus maculatus; Cowpeas  
  Abstract The seed parasite Callosobruchus maculatus generally disperses eggs uniformly among seeds. We used cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) of two class sizes (large and small) to test predictions based on a simple resource threshold model that females will distribute eggs among seeds in a manner that maximizes the amount of resources allocated to each offspring. When females were presented with multiple seeds of the same size, they tended to distribute their eggs relatively uniformly among seeds (0.27 where I is the variance/mean ratio, and I=1 reflects a random Poisson distribution). However, when seeds varied in size females distributed their eggs in a manner that maximized the amount of resources per offspring; females distributed eggs as predicted by seed differences in mass rather than as predicted by seed differences in surface area. Therefore, females must evaluate the relative quantity of resources available inside of a seed more accurately than if they compared the ratio of surface areas between seeds of varying size. Instead, females must either use cues other than surface area when estimating seed mass, or must have the ability to extrapolate non-linearly from surface area to seed mass. Females with higher egg loads (4-d-old females) laid more eggs when presented with seeds, but did not distribute their eggs less uniformly, than females with lower egg loads (1-d-old females), indicating that high egg load does not reduce female sensitivity to seed size and the presence of conspecific eggs.  
  Call Number Serial 2138  
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Author (up) Credland, P.F.; Dick, K.M.; Wright, A.W. file  url
  Title Relationships between larval density, adult size and egg production in the cowpea seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus Type Journal Article
  Year 1986 Publication Ecological Entomology Abbreviated Journal Ecol Entomol  
  Volume 11 Issue 1 Pages 41-50  
  Keywords Beetle; Cowpeas; Adult eclosion  
  Abstract 1The eggs of the cowpea seed bettle Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) are attached to cowpeas. On hatching, the larvae penetrate the testa and remain in the seed until development is complete and adult eclosion has occurred. The adults do not need to feed and were not allowed to do so.

2Strains from Brazil and Nigeria can produce more than twelve adults from a seed bearing numerous eggs, whereas a strain from the Yemen Republic rarely produced more than three.

3In all three strains the mean weight of the adults produced from a single cowpea declined with increasing initial larval density in the seed.

4Egg production by females is positively correlated with their weight at the time of mating, shortly after emergence.

5Lifetime egg production by females of the Brazilian and Nigerian strains was lower if they came from cowpeas with higher initial larval densities. No such relationship could be demonstrated in the Yemen strain.

6The fecundity of one generation of these beetles, at least in some geographical strains, is significantly affected by the number of larvae entering the hosts in which the adults of that generation have developed.
  Call Number Serial 2134  
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Author (up) den Hollander, M.; Gwynne, D.T. file  url
  Title Female fitness consequences of male harassment and copulation in seed beetles, Callosobruchus maculatus Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Animal Behaviour Abbreviated Journal Animal Behaviour  
  Volume 78 Issue 5 Pages 1061-1070  
  Keywords Bruchid; Callosobruchus maculatus; Fitness; Nuptial gift; Polyandry; Seed beetle; Sexual harassment  
  Abstract Despite widespread evidence for the benefits of polyandry, there are costs associated with each mating for females, and for many species, it is unknown whether the costs of extra matings outweigh the benefits. In the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae), costs might come from male harassment during mating attempts or from injuries that females sustain during copulation. Benefits of mating might come from nutrients or water transferred in the ejaculate. If mating is costly overall, male presence (sexual harassment) and multiple mating in C. maculatus is expected to reduce female fitness. Females were housed with differing numbers of males (1�4) and differing opportunities for copulation. When females were both harassed by and could remate with more than one male, they had lower lifetime reproductive rates and reduced life span relative to monandrous females. These results indicate that when females are continually exposed to multiple males, the direct benefits of multiple mating do not compensate for the costs.  
  Call Number Serial 1696  
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Author (up) Eady, P.E.; Hamilton, L.; Lyons, R.E. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Copulation, genital damage and early death in Callosobruchus maculatus Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Proceedings. Biological Sciences / The Royal Society Abbreviated Journal Proc Biol Sci  
  Volume 274 Issue 1607 Pages 247-252  
  Keywords Animals; Female; Fertility/physiology; Genitalia, Female/*injuries; Likelihood Functions; Longevity/*physiology; Male; Semen/physiology; Sexual Behavior, Animal/*physiology; Weevils/*physiology; Beetle  
  Abstract Antagonistic sexual coevolution stems from the notion that male and female interests over reproduction are in conflict. Such conflicts appear to be particularly obvious when male genital armature inflicts damage to the female reproductive tract resulting in reduced female longevity. However, studies of mating frequency, genital damage and female longevity are difficult to interpret because females not only sustain more genital damage, but also receive more seminal fluid when they engage in multiple copulations. Here, we attempt to disentangle the effects of genital damage and seminal fluid transfer on female longevity in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Males copulating for the sixth time in succession inflicted greater levels of genital damage, but transferred smaller ejaculates in comparison with virgin males. The number of copulations performed by males was negatively related to female fecundity and positively related to female longevity, suggesting a trade-off between fecundity and longevity. However, inclusion of fecundity as a covariate revealed sperm and/or seminal fluid transfer to have a negative impact on female longevity above that caused by the fecundity-longevity trade-off. The consequences of multiple copulations on female longevity were examined. Females that mated twice laid more eggs and died sooner than those that mated once. However, incorporation of fecundity as a covariate into our statistical model removed the effect of female mating frequency on female longevity, indicating that double-mated females suffer greater mortality owing to the trade-off between fecundity and longevity. Males of this species are known to transfer very large ejaculates (up to 8% of their body weight), which may represent a significant nutritional benefit to females. However, the receipt of large ejaculates appears to carry costs. Thus, the interpretation of multiple mating experiments on female longevity and associated functional explanations of polyandry in this species are likely to be complex.  
  Call Number Serial 338  
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