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Author Zhou, W.; Li, J.H.; Chen, J.; Liu, X.Y.; Xiang, T.T.; Zhang, L.; Wan, Y.J. file  url
openurl 
  Title The red pigment prodigiosin is not an essential virulence factor in entomopathogenic Serratia marcescens Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2016 Publication Journal of Invertebrate Pathology Abbreviated Journal J Invertebr Pathol  
  Volume 136 Issue Pages 92-94  
  Keywords Prodigiosin; Serratia marcescens; Silkworm; Virulence  
  Abstract Although pigments produced by pathogenic microbes are generally hypothesized as essential virulence factors, the role of red pigment prodigiosin in the pathogenesis of entomopathogenic Serratia marcescens is not clear. In this study, we analyzed the pathogenicity of different pigmented S. marcescens strains and their non-pigmented mutants in silkworms. Each pigmented strain and the corresponding non-pigmented mutants showed very similar LD50 value (statistically no difference), but caused very different symptom (color of the dead larva). Our results clearly indicated that the red pigment prodigiosin is not an essential virulence factor in entomopathogenic S. marcescens.  
  Call Number Serial 1634  
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Author Prabhu, V.V.; Hong, B.; Allen, J.E.; Zhang, S.; Lulla, A.R.; Dicker, D.T.; El-Deiry, W.S. url  openurl
  Title Small-Molecule Prodigiosin Restores p53 Tumor Suppressor Activity in Chemoresistant Colorectal Cancer Stem Cells via c-Jun-Mediated DeltaNp73 Inhibition and p73 Activation Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2016 Publication Cancer Research Abbreviated Journal Cancer Res  
  Volume 76 Issue 7 Pages 1989-1999  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Tumor suppressor p53 is frequently mutated or inactivated in colorectal cancer. In contrast, p53 family member p73 is rarely mutated in colorectal cancer and p73 activation elicits p53-like tumor suppression. Colorectal cancer stem cells (CRCSC) comprise a rare self-renewing subpopulation that contributes to tumor maintenance and chemoresistance. p53 restoration is known to target CRCSCs, but p73 restoration in CRCSCs has not been examined. In this study, we investigated the effects of the small-molecule prodigiosin, which restores the p53 pathway in tumor cells via p73 activation, on CRCSCs in vitro and in vivo Prodigiosin prevented colonosphere formation independent of p53 status and reduced the viability of self-renewing, 5-fluorouracil-resistant Aldefluor positive [Aldefluor(+)] CRCSCs in vitro Furthermore, prodigiosin inhibited the growth of xenograft tumors initiated with Aldefluor+ cells without toxic effects and limited the tumorigenic potential of these cells. Consistently, prodigiosin induced activation of a p53-responsive luciferase reporter in colonospheres, Aldefluor(+) cells, and tumor xenografts. Mechanistic studies revealed that prodigiosin increased the levels of p73 and reduced levels of the oncogenic N-terminally truncated isoform DeltaNp73 in Aldefluor(+) cells. Accordingly, p73 knockdown or DeltaNp73 overexpression suppressed prodigiosin-mediated inhibition of colonosphere formation. Moreover, prodigiosin increased levels of the transcription factor c-Jun, a regulator of p73 and DeltaNp73, in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. c-Jun knockdown attenuated prodigiosin-mediated p53-reporter activation, DeltaNp73 downregulation, p73 activation, and cell death. Collectively, our findings highlight the previously uncharacterized use of p73-activating therapeutics to target CRCSCs. Cancer Res; 76(7); 1989-99. (c)2016 AACR.  
  Call Number Serial 1518  
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Author Lapenda, J.C.; Silva, P.A.; Vicalvi, M.C.; Sena, K.X.F.R.; Nascimento, S.C. file  url
openurl 
  Title Antimicrobial activity of prodigiosin isolated from Serratia marcescens UFPEDA 398 Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2015 Publication World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology Abbreviated Journal World J Microbiol Biotechnol  
  Volume 31 Issue 2 Pages 399-406  
  Keywords Acinetobacter/drug effects; Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry/*pharmacology; Bacteria/*drug effects/growth & development; Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests; Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects; Escherichia coli/drug effects; Prodigiosin/chemistry/*pharmacology; Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects; Serratia marcescens/*chemistry; Spectrophotometry; Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects; Streptococcus pyogenes/drug effects  
  Abstract Prodigiosin is an alkaloid and natural red pigment produced by Serratia marcescens. Prodigiosin has antimicrobial, antimalarial and antitumor properties and induces apoptosis in T and B lymphocytes. These properties have piqued the interest of researchers in the fields of medicine, pharmaceutics and different industries. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of prodigiosin against pathogenic micro-organisms. The red pigments produced by S. marcescens exhibited absorption at 534 nm, Rf of 0.59 and molecular weight of 323 m/z. Antimicrobial activity was tested against oxacillin-resistant Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Acinetobacter sp. and oxacillin-resistant S. aureus. The standard antibiotics employed were ampicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin and oxacillin. The disc-diffusion tests demonstrated significant inhibition zones for S. aureus (35 +/- 0.6), E. faecalis (22 +/- 1.0) and S. pyogenes (14 +/- 0.6). However, prodigiosin showed resistance to E. coli, P. aeruginosa and acinetobacter, where no significant formation of inhibitory halos were observed. We determined the inhibitory minimum concentrations and bactericidal for 20 strains of oxacillin-resistant S. aureus (ORSA). The pattern was the antibiotic oxacillin. The minimum inhibitory concentrations observed ranged from 1, 2 and 4.0 mug/mL, respectively, while the minimum bactericidal concentrations ranged from 2, 4, 8 and 16 mug/mL. The S. marcescens prodigiosin produced by showed bactericidal and bacteriostatic effect showing promising antimicrobial activity and suggesting future studies regarding its applicability in antibiotics therapies directed ORSA.  
  Call Number Serial 1672  
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Author Danyuo, Y.; Obayemi, J.D.; Dozie-Nwachukwu, S.; Ani, C.J.; Odusanya, O.S.; Oni, Y.; Anuku, N.; Malatesta, K.; Soboyejo, W.O. file  url
openurl 
  Title Prodigiosin release from an implantable biomedical device: kinetics of localized cancer drug release Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2014 Publication Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications Abbreviated Journal Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl  
  Volume 42 Issue Pages 734-745  
  Keywords Acrylic Resins/chemistry; Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry/*pharmacokinetics; Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/instrumentation; Diffusion; Drug Delivery Systems/instrumentation; Drug Liberation; Drug Therapy/*instrumentation; Hydrogels/chemistry; Hyperthermia, Induced; Kinetics; Prodigiosin/chemistry/*pharmacokinetics; *Prostheses and Implants; Biomedical device; Breast cancer; Hyperthermia; Localized chemotherapy; Poly(N-Isopropylacrylamide)-based hydrogels; Prodigiosin  
  Abstract This paper presents an implantable encapsulated structure that can deliver localized heating (hyperthermia) and controlled concentrations of prodigiosin (a cancer drug) synthesized by bacteria (Serratia marcesce (subsp. marcescens)). Prototypical Poly-di-methyl-siloxane (PDMS) packages, containing well-controlled micro-channels and drug storage compartments, were fabricated along with a drug-storing polymer produced by free radical polymerization of Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)(PNIPA) co-monomers of Acrylamide (AM) and Butyl-methacrylate (BMA). The mechanisms of drug diffusion of PNIPA-base gels were elucidated. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was also used to study the heterogeneous porous structure of the PNIPA-based gels. The release exponents, n, of the gels were found to between 0.5 and 0.7. This is in the range expected for Fickian (n=0.5). Deviation from Fickian diffusion was also observed (n>0.5) diffusion. The gel diffusion coefficients were shown to vary between 2.1x10(-12)m(2)/s and 4.8x10(-6)m(2)/s. The implications of the results are then discussed for the localized treatment of cancer via hyperthermia and the controlled delivery of prodigiosin from encapsulated PNIPA-based devices.  
  Call Number Serial 1605  
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Author Tenconi, E.; Guichard, P.; Motte, P.; Matagne, A.; Rigali, S. file  url
openurl 
  Title Use of red autofluorescence for monitoring prodiginine biosynthesis Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2013 Publication Journal of Microbiological Methods Abbreviated Journal J Microbiol Methods  
  Volume 93 Issue 2 Pages 138-143  
  Keywords Biological Products/*analysis; Prodigiosin/*analogs & derivatives/analysis; Sensitivity and Specificity; Streptomyces coelicolor/chemistry/*metabolism  
  Abstract Prodigiosin-like pigments or prodiginines (PdGs) are promising drugs owing to their reported antitumor, antibiotic, and immunosuppressive activities. These natural compounds are produced by several bacteria, including Streptomyces coelicolor and Serratia marcescens as most commonly studied models. The bright red color of these tripyrrole pigments made them excellent reporter molecules for studies aimed at understanding the molecular mechanisms that control secondary metabolite production in microorganisms. However, the natural red fluorescence of PdGs has only been rarely used as a biophysical parameter for detection and assessment of PdG biosynthesis. In this work, we used S. coelicolor in order to exemplify how intrinsic red fluorescence could be utilized for rapid, low-cost, sensitive, specific and accurate semi-quantitative analyses of PdG biosynthesis. Additionally, and contrary to the colorimetric-based approach, the fluorescence-based method allows in situ spatio-temporal visualization of PdG synthesis throughout a solid culture of S. coelicolor. As PdG production is related to cell differentiation, their red autofluorescence could be exploited, by means of confocal microscopy, as a natural marker of the entrance into a crucial developmental stage in the course of the S. coelicolor life cycle.  
  Call Number Serial 1608  
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