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Author Zhou, W.; Li, J.H.; Chen, J.; Liu, X.Y.; Xiang, T.T.; Zhang, L.; Wan, Y.J. file  url
openurl 
  Title The red pigment prodigiosin is not an essential virulence factor in entomopathogenic Serratia marcescens Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2016 Publication Journal of Invertebrate Pathology Abbreviated Journal J Invertebr Pathol  
  Volume 136 Issue Pages 92-94  
  Keywords Prodigiosin; Serratia marcescens; Silkworm; Virulence  
  Abstract Although pigments produced by pathogenic microbes are generally hypothesized as essential virulence factors, the role of red pigment prodigiosin in the pathogenesis of entomopathogenic Serratia marcescens is not clear. In this study, we analyzed the pathogenicity of different pigmented S. marcescens strains and their non-pigmented mutants in silkworms. Each pigmented strain and the corresponding non-pigmented mutants showed very similar LD50 value (statistically no difference), but caused very different symptom (color of the dead larva). Our results clearly indicated that the red pigment prodigiosin is not an essential virulence factor in entomopathogenic S. marcescens.  
  Call Number Serial 1634  
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Author Lapenda, J.C.; Silva, P.A.; Vicalvi, M.C.; Sena, K.X.F.R.; Nascimento, S.C. file  url
openurl 
  Title Antimicrobial activity of prodigiosin isolated from Serratia marcescens UFPEDA 398 Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2015 Publication World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology Abbreviated Journal World J Microbiol Biotechnol  
  Volume 31 Issue 2 Pages 399-406  
  Keywords Acinetobacter/drug effects; Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry/*pharmacology; Bacteria/*drug effects/growth & development; Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests; Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects; Escherichia coli/drug effects; Prodigiosin/chemistry/*pharmacology; Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects; Serratia marcescens/*chemistry; Spectrophotometry; Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects; Streptococcus pyogenes/drug effects  
  Abstract Prodigiosin is an alkaloid and natural red pigment produced by Serratia marcescens. Prodigiosin has antimicrobial, antimalarial and antitumor properties and induces apoptosis in T and B lymphocytes. These properties have piqued the interest of researchers in the fields of medicine, pharmaceutics and different industries. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of prodigiosin against pathogenic micro-organisms. The red pigments produced by S. marcescens exhibited absorption at 534 nm, Rf of 0.59 and molecular weight of 323 m/z. Antimicrobial activity was tested against oxacillin-resistant Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Acinetobacter sp. and oxacillin-resistant S. aureus. The standard antibiotics employed were ampicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin and oxacillin. The disc-diffusion tests demonstrated significant inhibition zones for S. aureus (35 +/- 0.6), E. faecalis (22 +/- 1.0) and S. pyogenes (14 +/- 0.6). However, prodigiosin showed resistance to E. coli, P. aeruginosa and acinetobacter, where no significant formation of inhibitory halos were observed. We determined the inhibitory minimum concentrations and bactericidal for 20 strains of oxacillin-resistant S. aureus (ORSA). The pattern was the antibiotic oxacillin. The minimum inhibitory concentrations observed ranged from 1, 2 and 4.0 mug/mL, respectively, while the minimum bactericidal concentrations ranged from 2, 4, 8 and 16 mug/mL. The S. marcescens prodigiosin produced by showed bactericidal and bacteriostatic effect showing promising antimicrobial activity and suggesting future studies regarding its applicability in antibiotics therapies directed ORSA.  
  Call Number Serial 1672  
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Author Danyuo, Y.; Obayemi, J.D.; Dozie-Nwachukwu, S.; Ani, C.J.; Odusanya, O.S.; Oni, Y.; Anuku, N.; Malatesta, K.; Soboyejo, W.O. file  url
openurl 
  Title Prodigiosin release from an implantable biomedical device: kinetics of localized cancer drug release Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2014 Publication Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications Abbreviated Journal Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl  
  Volume 42 Issue Pages 734-745  
  Keywords Acrylic Resins/chemistry; Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry/*pharmacokinetics; Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/instrumentation; Diffusion; Drug Delivery Systems/instrumentation; Drug Liberation; Drug Therapy/*instrumentation; Hydrogels/chemistry; Hyperthermia, Induced; Kinetics; Prodigiosin/chemistry/*pharmacokinetics; *Prostheses and Implants; Biomedical device; Breast cancer; Hyperthermia; Localized chemotherapy; Poly(N-Isopropylacrylamide)-based hydrogels; Prodigiosin  
  Abstract This paper presents an implantable encapsulated structure that can deliver localized heating (hyperthermia) and controlled concentrations of prodigiosin (a cancer drug) synthesized by bacteria (Serratia marcesce (subsp. marcescens)). Prototypical Poly-di-methyl-siloxane (PDMS) packages, containing well-controlled micro-channels and drug storage compartments, were fabricated along with a drug-storing polymer produced by free radical polymerization of Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)(PNIPA) co-monomers of Acrylamide (AM) and Butyl-methacrylate (BMA). The mechanisms of drug diffusion of PNIPA-base gels were elucidated. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was also used to study the heterogeneous porous structure of the PNIPA-based gels. The release exponents, n, of the gels were found to between 0.5 and 0.7. This is in the range expected for Fickian (n=0.5). Deviation from Fickian diffusion was also observed (n>0.5) diffusion. The gel diffusion coefficients were shown to vary between 2.1x10(-12)m(2)/s and 4.8x10(-6)m(2)/s. The implications of the results are then discussed for the localized treatment of cancer via hyperthermia and the controlled delivery of prodigiosin from encapsulated PNIPA-based devices.  
  Call Number Serial 1605  
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Author Tenconi, E.; Guichard, P.; Motte, P.; Matagne, A.; Rigali, S. file  url
openurl 
  Title Use of red autofluorescence for monitoring prodiginine biosynthesis Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2013 Publication Journal of Microbiological Methods Abbreviated Journal J Microbiol Methods  
  Volume 93 Issue 2 Pages 138-143  
  Keywords Biological Products/*analysis; Prodigiosin/*analogs & derivatives/analysis; Sensitivity and Specificity; Streptomyces coelicolor/chemistry/*metabolism  
  Abstract Prodigiosin-like pigments or prodiginines (PdGs) are promising drugs owing to their reported antitumor, antibiotic, and immunosuppressive activities. These natural compounds are produced by several bacteria, including Streptomyces coelicolor and Serratia marcescens as most commonly studied models. The bright red color of these tripyrrole pigments made them excellent reporter molecules for studies aimed at understanding the molecular mechanisms that control secondary metabolite production in microorganisms. However, the natural red fluorescence of PdGs has only been rarely used as a biophysical parameter for detection and assessment of PdG biosynthesis. In this work, we used S. coelicolor in order to exemplify how intrinsic red fluorescence could be utilized for rapid, low-cost, sensitive, specific and accurate semi-quantitative analyses of PdG biosynthesis. Additionally, and contrary to the colorimetric-based approach, the fluorescence-based method allows in situ spatio-temporal visualization of PdG synthesis throughout a solid culture of S. coelicolor. As PdG production is related to cell differentiation, their red autofluorescence could be exploited, by means of confocal microscopy, as a natural marker of the entrance into a crucial developmental stage in the course of the S. coelicolor life cycle.  
  Call Number Serial 1608  
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Author Shanks, R.M.Q.; Lahr, R.M.; Stella, N.A.; Arena, K.E.; Brothers, K.M.; Kwak, D.H.; Liu, X.; Kalivoda, E.J. file  url
openurl 
  Title A Serratia marcescens PigP homolog controls prodigiosin biosynthesis, swarming motility and hemolysis and is regulated by cAMP-CRP and HexS Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2013 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 8 Issue 3 Pages e57634  
  Keywords Bacterial Proteins/*genetics/metabolism; Depsipeptides/*biosynthesis/genetics/pharmacology; Erythrocytes/drug effects; *Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial; Genetic Complementation Test; Hemolysis/drug effects; Hexosyltransferases/genetics/metabolism; Humans; Membrane Proteins/genetics/metabolism; Movement/drug effects; Mutation; Operon; Prodigiosin/*biosynthesis; Sequence Homology, Amino Acid; Serratia marcescens/*genetics/metabolism; Signal Transduction; Transcription Factors/*genetics/metabolism  
  Abstract Swarming motility and hemolysis are virulence-associated determinants for a wide array of pathogenic bacteria. The broad host-range opportunistic pathogen Serratia marcescens produces serratamolide, a small cyclic amino-lipid, that promotes swarming motility and hemolysis. Serratamolide is negatively regulated by the transcription factors HexS and CRP. Positive regulators of serratamolide production are unknown. Similar to serratamolide, the antibiotic pigment, prodigiosin, is regulated by temperature, growth phase, HexS, and CRP. Because of this co-regulation, we tested the hypothesis that a homolog of the PigP transcription factor of the atypical Serratia species ATCC 39006, which positively regulates prodigiosin biosynthesis, is also a positive regulator of serratamolide production in S. marcescens. Mutation of pigP in clinical, environmental, and laboratory strains of S. marcescens conferred pleiotropic phenotypes including the loss of swarming motility, hemolysis, and severely reduced prodigiosin and serratamolide synthesis. Transcriptional analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays place PigP in a regulatory pathway with upstream regulators CRP and HexS. The data from this study identifies a positive regulator of serratamolide production, describes novel roles for the PigP transcription factor, shows for the first time that PigP directly regulates the pigment biosynthetic operon, and identifies upstream regulators of pigP. This study suggests that PigP is important for the ability of S. marcescens to compete in the environment.  
  Call Number Serial 1612  
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