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Author (up) Anton, S.D.; Martin, C.K.; Han, H.; Coulon, S.; Cefalu, W.T.; Geiselman, P.; Williamson, D.A. file  url
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  Title Effects of stevia, aspartame, and sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 55 Issue 1 Pages 37-43  
  Keywords  
  Abstract UNLABELLED: Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may be one of the dietary causes of metabolic disorders, such as obesity. Therefore, substituting sugar with low calorie sweeteners may be an efficacious weight management strategy. We tested the effect of preloads containing stevia, aspartame, or sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels. DESIGN: 19 healthy lean (BMI=20.0-24.9) and 12 obese (BMI=30.0-39.9) individuals 18-50 years old completed three separate food test days during which they received preloads containing stevia (290kcal), aspartame (290kcal), or sucrose (493kcal) before the lunch and dinner meal. The preload order was balanced, and food intake (kcal) was directly calculated. Hunger and satiety levels were reported before and after meals, and every hour throughout the afternoon. Participants provided blood samples immediately before and 20min after the lunch preload. Despite the caloric difference in preloads (290kcal vs. 493kcal), participants did not compensate by eating more at their lunch and dinner meals when they consumed stevia and aspartame versus sucrose in preloads (mean differences in food intake over entire day between sucrose and stevia=301kcal, p<.01; aspartame=330kcal, p<.01). Self-reported hunger and satiety levels did not differ by condition. Stevia preloads significantly reduced postprandial glucose levels compared to sucrose preloads (p<.01), and postprandial insulin levels compared to both aspartame and sucrose preloads (p<.05). When consuming stevia and aspartame preloads, participants did not compensate by eating more at either their lunch or dinner meal and reported similar levels of satiety compared to when they consumed the higher calorie sucrose preload.

Subject Headings: Adolescent; Adult; Aspartame/pharmacology; Blood Glucose/*analysis; Body Mass Index; Eating/*drug effects; Female; Food; Humans; Hunger/drug effects; Insulin/*blood; Male; Middle Aged; Obesity/*blood/therapy; Satiation/*drug effects; Stevia; Sucrose/pharmacology; Sweetening Agents/*pharmacology; Taste

Keywords: Effects of stevia, aspartame, and sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels
 
  Call Number Serial 2714  
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Author (up) Birch, L.L.; Marlin, D.W. file  url
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  Title I don't like it; I never tried it: effects of exposure on two-year-old children's food preferences Type Journal Article
  Year 1982 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 3 Issue 4 Pages 353-360  
  Keywords Age Factors; Child, Preschool; Feeding Behavior; *Food; *Food Preferences; Humans  
  Abstract The relationship between frequency of exposure to foods and preference for those foods was investigated in two experiments. Participants in both studies were two-year-old children. In Experiment 1, each of six children received 20, 15, 10, 5 or 2 exposures of five initially novel cheeses during a 26-day series of familiarization trials in which one pair of foods was presented per day. In Experiment 2, eight children received 20, 15, 10, 5 and 0 exposures to five initially novel fruits, following the same familiarization procedures, for 25 days. The particular food assigned to an exposure frequency was counterbalanced over subjects. Initial novelty was ascertained through food history information. Within ten days after the familiarization trials, children were given ten choice trials, comprising all possible pairs of the five foods. Thurstone scaling solutions were obtained for the series of choices: when the resulting scale values for the five stimuli were correlated with exposure frequency, values of r = 0·95, p < 0·02; r = 0·97, p < 0·01; and r = 0·94, p < 0·02 were obtained for the data of Experiments 1, 2, and the combined sample, respectively. A second analysis, employing subjects rather than stimuli as degrees of freedom, revealed that 13 of 14 subjects chose the more familiar stimulus in the sequence of ten choice trials at greater than the level expected by chance, providing evidence for effects within subjects as well as consistency across subjects. These results indicate that preference is an increasing function of exposure frequency. The data are consistent with the mere exposure hypothesis (Zajonc, 1968) as well as with the literature on the role of neophobia in food selection of animals other than man.

Subject Headings: Age Factors; Child, Preschool; Feeding Behavior; *Food; *Food Preferences; Humans

Keywords: I don't like it; I never tried it: effects of exposure on two-year-old children's food preferences
 
  Call Number Serial 2686  
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Author (up) Bodenlos, J.S.; Wormuth, B.M. file  url
openurl 
  Title Watching a food-related television show and caloric intake. A laboratory study Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 61 Issue 1 Pages 8-12  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Television watching has been positively associated with overeating and obesity. How popular food-related television shows affects eating behavior has not been examined. An experimental study was conducted to examine how exposure to a food-related television program affects amount and type of food consumed in adults (N=80). Participants were randomized to watch a cooking or nature television program and were then presented with 800 total calories of chocolate covered candies, cheese curls, and carrots. Food was weighed before and after the ad libitum eating session to determine amount consumed. After controlling for dietary restraint, hunger and food preference, significantly more chocolate covered candies were consumed among individuals who watched the cooking program compared to the nature program. No significant differences between conditions were found for overall caloric intake or for cheese curl or carrot consumption. Findings suggest that watching food-related television programs may affect eating behavior and has implications for obesity prevention and intervention efforts.

Subject Headings: Adolescent; Adult; Body Mass Index; *Choice Behavior; *Energy Intake; *Feeding Behavior; Female; *Food Preferences; Humans; Hunger; Male; Obesity/prevention & control; Surveys and Questionnaires; *Television; Young Adult

Keywords: Watching a food-related television show and caloric intake. A laboratory study
 
  Call Number Serial 2760  
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Author (up) Boggiano, M.M.; Wenger, L.E.; Turan, B.; Tatum, M.M.; Morgan, P.R.; Sylvester, M.D. file  url
openurl 
  Title Eating tasty food to cope. Longitudinal association with BMI Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 87 Issue Pages 365-370  
  Keywords *Adaptation, Psychological; Adolescent; Adult; *Body Mass Index; Body Weight; Bulimia/psychology; Cross-Sectional Studies; Eating/*psychology; Emotions; Feeding Behavior/psychology; Female; Humans; Linear Models; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Motivation; Obesity/psychology; Overweight/psychology; Reproducibility of Results; Risk Factors; Self Report; Students; Young Adult; Assessment; Binge-eating; Emotions; Motivation; Obesity; Reward  
  Abstract The goals of this study were to determine if a change in certain motives to eat highly palatable food, as measured by the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS), could predict a change in body mass index (BMI) over time, to assess the temporal stability of these motive scores, and to test the reliability of previously reported associations between eating tasty foods to cope and BMI. BMI, demographics, and scores on the PEMS and the Binge Eating Scale were obtained from 192 college students. Test-retest analysis was performed on the PEMS motives in groups varying in three gap times between tests. Regression analyses determined what PEMS motives predicted a change in BMI over two years. The results replicated previous findings that eating palatable food for Coping motives (e.g., to forget about problems, reduce negative feelings) is associated with BMI. Test-retest correlations revealed that motive scores, while somewhat stable, can change over time. Importantly, among overweight participants, a change in Coping scores predicted a change in BMI over 2 years, such that a 1-point change in Coping predicted a 1.76 change in BMI (equivalent to a 10.5 lb. change in body weight) independent of age, sex, ethnicity, and initial binge-eating status (Cohen's f(2) effect size = 1.44). The large range in change of Coping scores suggests it is possible to decrease frequency of eating to cope by more than 1 scale point to achieve weight losses greater than 10 lbs. in young overweight adults, a group already at risk for rapid weight gain. Hence, treatments aimed specifically at reducing palatable food intake for coping reasons vs. for social, reward, or conformity reasons, should help achieve a healthier body weight and prevent obesity if this motive-type is identified prior to significant weight gain.  
  Call Number Serial 1202  
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Author (up) Bruce, A.S.; Lim, S.-L.; Smith, T.R.; Cherry, J.B.C.; Black, W.R.; Davis, A.M.; Bruce, J.M. file  url
openurl 
  Title Apples or candy? Internal and external influences on children's food choices Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 93 Issue Pages 31-34  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The goal of this concise narrative review is to examine the current literature regarding endogenous and exogenous influences on youth food choices. Specifically, we discuss internal factors such as interoception (self-awareness) of pain and hunger, and neural mechanisms (neurofunctional aspects) of food motivation. We also explore external factors such as early life feeding experiences (including parenting), social influences (peers), and food marketing (advertising). We conclude with a discussion of the overlap of these realms and future directions for the field of pediatric food decision science.

Subject headings: Adolescent; Candy; Child; Choice Behavior/*physiology; Food Preferences/physiology/*psychology; Humans; Hunger; Malus; Marketing; Motivation; Parenting; Peer Influence; Breastfeeding; Decision; Interoception; Marketing; Neuroscience; Pediatric

Keywords: Apples or candy? Internal and external influences on children's food choices
 
  Call Number Serial 2886  
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Author (up) Clendenen, V.I.; Herman, C.P.; Polivy, J. file  url
openurl 
  Title Social facilitation of eating among friends and strangers Type Journal Article
  Year 1994 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 23 Issue 1 Pages 1-13  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Research suggests that meals eaten with other people are larger than meals eaten alone. The effect of group size and acquaintance on consumption was investigated by serving dinner to female subjects alone, in pairs or in groups of four. Subjects dined alone, with friends or with strangers. Subjects in both pairs and groups of four ate more than did subjects alone, suggesting that the mere presence of others is more important in enhancing intake than the specific number of people present. Subjects with friends ate more dessert than subjects with strangers, indicating that the relationship of dining companions is an important factor contributing to social facilitation.

Subject Headings: Adult; *Eating; Female; Food; Humans; Interpersonal Relations; *Social Facilitation

Keywords: Social facilitation of eating among friends and strangers
 
  Call Number Serial 2625  
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Author (up) Cornil, Y.; Chandon, P. file  url
openurl 
  Title Pleasure as an ally of healthy eating? Contrasting visceral and Epicurean eating pleasure and their association with portion size preferences and wellbeing Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 104 Issue Pages 52-59  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Research on overeating and self-regulation has associated eating pleasure with short-term visceral impulses triggered by hunger, external cues, or internal emotional urges. Drawing on research on the social and cultural dimensions of eating, we contrast this approach with what we call “Epicurean” eating pleasure, which is the enduring pleasure derived from the aesthetic appreciation of the sensory and symbolic value of the food. To contrast both approaches, we develop and test a scale measuring Epicurean eating pleasure tendencies and show that they are distinct from the tendency to experience visceral pleasure (measured using the external eating and emotional eating scales). We find that Epicurean eating pleasure is more prevalent among women than men but is independent of age, income and education. Unlike visceral eating pleasure tendencies, Epicurean eating tendencies are associated with a preference for smaller food portions and higher wellbeing, and not associated with higher BMI. Overall, we argue that the moralizing approach equating the pleasure of eating with 'low-level' visceral urges should give way to a more holistic approach which recognizes the positive role of Epicurean eating pleasure in healthy eating and wellbeing.

Subject Headings: Adult; Eating/*psychology; Emotions; Factor Analysis, Statistical; Female; Food Preferences/*psychology; Healthy Diet/*psychology; Humans; Male; *Pleasure; Portion Size/*psychology; *Food choices; *Food reward; *Pleasure; *Portion size; *Wellbeing

Keywords: Pleasure as an ally of healthy eating? Contrasting visceral and Epicurean eating pleasure and their association with portion size preferences and wellbeing
 
  Call Number Serial 2757  
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Author (up) Elsbernd, S.L.; Reicks, M.M.; Mann, T.L.; Redden, J.P.; Mykerezi, E.; Vickers, Z.M. file  url
openurl 
  Title Serving vegetables first: A strategy to increase vegetable consumption in elementary school cafeterias Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 96 Issue Pages 111-115  
  Keywords Bell peppers; Children; School lunch; Vegetable consumption  
  Abstract Vegetable consumption in the United States is low despite the wealth of evidence that vegetables play an important role in reducing risk of various chronic diseases. Because eating patterns developed in childhood continue through adulthood, we need to form healthy eating habits in children. The objective of this study was to determine if offering vegetables before other meal components would increase the overall consumption of vegetables at school lunch. We served kindergarten through fifth-grade students a small portion (26-33 g) of a raw vegetable (red and yellow bell peppers) while they waited in line to receive the rest of their lunch meal. They then had the options to take more of the bell peppers, a different vegetable, or no vegetable from the lunch line. We measured the amount of each vegetable consumed by each child. Serving vegetables first greatly increased the number of students eating vegetables. On intervention days most of the vegetables consumed came from the vegetables-first portions. Total vegetable intake per student eating lunch was low because most students chose to not eat vegetables, but the intervention significantly increased this value. Serving vegetables first is a viable strategy to increase vegetable consumption in elementary schools. Long-term implementation of this strategy may have an important impact on healthy eating habits, vegetable consumption, and the health consequences of vegetable intake.  
  Call Number Serial 1258  
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Author (up) English, L.; Lasschuijt, M.; Keller, K.L. file  url
openurl 
  Title Mechanisms of the portion size effect. What is known and where do we go from here? Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 88 Issue Pages 39-49  
  Keywords Cues; *Feeding Behavior; Humans; Portion Size/*psychology; Eating behavior; Mechanisms; Portion size  
  Abstract Childhood obesity is a persistent problem worldwide, and of particular concern in the United States. Clarifying the role of the food environment in promoting overeating is an important step toward reducing the prevalence of obesity. One potential contributor to the obesity epidemic is the increased portion sizes of foods commonly served. Portion sizes of foods served both at home and away from home have dramatically increased over the past 40 years. Consistently, short-term studies have demonstrated that increasing portion size leads to increased food intake in adults and children, a phenomenon known as the portion size effect. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect are poorly understood. Understanding these mechanisms could assist in clarifying the relationship between portion size and weight status and help inform the development of effective obesity interventions. First, we review the role of visual cues, such as plate size, unit, and utensil size as a potential moderator of the portion size effect. In addition, we discuss meal microstructure components including bite size, rate, and frequency, as these may be altered in response to different portion sizes. We also review theories that implicate post-ingestive, flavor-nutrient learning as a key moderator of the portion size effect. Furthermore, we present preliminary data from an ongoing study that is applying neuroimaging to better understand these mechanisms and identify modifiable child characteristics that could be targeted in obesity interventions. Our tentative findings suggest that individual differences in cognitive (e.g. loss of control eating) and neural responses to food cues may be critical in understanding the mechanisms of the portion size effect. To advance this research area, studies that integrate measures of individual subject-level differences with assessment of food-related characteristics are needed.  
  Call Number Serial 1644  
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Author (up) Fisher, J.O.; Birch, L.L. file  url
openurl 
  Title Restricting access to foods and children's eating Type Journal Article
  Year 1999 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 32 Issue 3 Pages 405-419  
  Keywords Child Behavior/*psychology; Child, Preschool; Feeding Behavior/*psychology; Female; Food Preferences; Humans; Male; *Mother-Child Relations; Nutritional Requirements; Obesity/psychology; Sex Factors  
  Abstract This study evaluated maternal restriction of children's access to snack foods as a predictor of children's intake of those foods when they were made freely available. In addition, child and parent eating-related “risk” factors were used to predict maternal reports of restricting access. Participants were 71, 3-to-5-year-old children (36 boys, 35 girls) and their parents. Children's snack food intake was measured immediately following a meal, in a setting offering free access to palatable snack foods. Child and maternal reports of restricting children's access to those snack foods were obtained. In addition, information on child and parent adiposity as well as parents' restrained and disinhibited eating was used to examine “risk” factors for restricting access. For girls only, child and maternal reports of restricting access predicted girls' snack food intake, with higher levels of restriction predicting higher levels of snack food intake. Maternal restriction, in turn, was predicted by children's adiposity. Additionally, parents' own restrained eating style predicted maternal restriction of girls' access to snack foods.  
  Call Number Serial 1690  
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