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Author (up) Bennetto, L.; Pennington, B.F.; Rogers, S.J. file  url
  Title Intact and impaired memory functions in autism Type Journal Article
  Year 1996 Publication Child Development Abbreviated Journal Child Dev  
  Volume 67 Issue 4 Pages 1816-1835  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Autistic Disorder--complications, physiopathology; Child; Frontal Lobe--physiopathology; Humans; Memory; Memory Disorders--complications; Verbal Learning  
  Abstract This study examined memory functions in individuals with autism. Based on previous evidence of executive function (EF) deficits, we hypothesized that subjects with autism would demonstrate a pattern of intact and impaired memory functions similar to that found in other groups with EF deficits, such as patients with frontal lobe pathology. We compared the performance of high-functioning children and adolescents with autism (n = 19) and clinical comparison subjects (n = 19) matched on sex, CA, and VIQ on measures of memory and EF. The group with autism performed significantly worse than comparison subjects on measures of temporal order memory, source memory, supraspan free recall, working memory, and EF, but not on short- and long-term recognition, cued recall, or new learning ability, consistent with the predictions of the EF theory. The cognitive measures were significantly more intercorrelated in the autism group than the comparison group, consistent with a limit in central cognition.  
  Call Number Serial 56  
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Author (up) Block, J.H.; Block, J.; Gjerde, P.F. file  url
  Title The personality of children prior to divorce: a prospective study Type Journal Article
  Year 1986 Publication Child Development Abbreviated Journal Child Dev  
  Volume 57 Issue 4 Pages 827-840  
  Keywords Adolescent; Child; Child Development; Child, Preschool; *Divorce; Female; Humans; Intelligence; Male; *Personality; Personality Development; Prospective Studies; Sex Factors; Stress, Psychological/psychology  
  Abstract In a longitudinal study, the personalities of children from intact families at ages 3, 4, and 7 were reliably assessed by independent sets of raters using Q-items reflecting important psychological characteristics of children. A number of these families subsequently experienced divorce. The behavior of boys was found, as early as 11 years prior to parental separation or formal dissolution of marriage, to be consistently affected by what can be presumed to be predivorce familial stress. The behavior of boys from subsequently divorcing families was characterized by undercontrol of impulse, aggression, and excessive energy prior to parental divorce. The behavior of girls from subsequently divorcing families was found to be notably less affected by the stresses in families prior to parental divorce. The prospective relations afforded by the longitudinal analyses suggest that the behavior of conflicting, inaccessible parents during the preseparation period may have serious consequences for personality development, especially for boys. Hence, some characteristics of children commonly seen to be a consequence of divorce may be present prior to marital dissolution.  
  Call Number Serial 280  
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Author (up) Buchanan, C.M.; Maccoby, E.E.; Dornbusch, S.M. file  url
  Title Caught between parents: adolescents' experience in divorced homes Type Journal Article
  Year 1991 Publication Child Development Abbreviated Journal Child Dev  
  Volume 62 Issue 5 Pages 1008-1029  
  Keywords Adaptation, Psychological; Adolescent; *Adolescent Psychology; Antisocial Personality Disorder/psychology; Anxiety/psychology; Depression/psychology; Divorce/*psychology; Female; Humans; Male; *Parent-Child Relations; Parenting/psychology; *Personality Development; Social Environment  
  Abstract This study examined adolescents' feelings of being caught between parents to see whether this construct helps to explain (1) variability in their postdivorce adjustment and (2) associations between family/child characteristics and adolescent adjustment. Adolescents 10 to 18 years old (N = 522) were interviewed by telephone 4 1/2 years after their parents' separation. Feeling caught between parents was related to high parental conflict and hostility and low parental cooperation. Being close to both parents was associated with low feelings of being caught. The relation between time spent with each parent and feeling caught depended on the coparenting relationship. Adolescents in dual residence were especially likely to feel caught when parents were in high conflict, and especially unlikely to feel caught when parents cooperated. Feeling caught was related to poor adjustment outcomes. Parental conflict was only related to adjustment outcomes indirectly, through adolescents' feelings of being caught.  
  Call Number Serial 281  
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Author (up) Chase-Lansdale, P.L.; Cherlin, A.J.; Kiernan, K.E. file  url
  Title The long-term effects of parental divorce on the mental health of young adults: a developmental perspective Type Journal Article
  Year 1995 Publication Child Development Abbreviated Journal Child Dev  
  Volume 66 Issue 6 Pages 1614-1634  
  Keywords Adaptation, Psychological; Adolescent; Adult; Affective Symptoms/diagnosis/psychology; Child; Divorce/*psychology; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Individuality; Learning Disorders/diagnosis/psychology; Male; *Personality Development; Personality Inventory; Risk Factors  
  Abstract The effects of parental divorce during childhood and adolescence on the mental health of young adults (age 23) were examined, using the National Child Development Study (NCDS), a longitudinal, multimethod, nationally representative survey of all children born in Great Britain during 1 week in 1958 (N = 17,414). Children were assessed at birth and subsequently followed up at ages 7, 11, 16, and 23 by means of maternal and child interviews, and by psychological, school, and medical assessments. Parental divorce had a moderate, long-term negative impact on adult mental health, as measured by the Malaise Inventory total score, and controlling for economic status, children's emotional problems, and school performance preceding marital dissolution. The likelihood of scoring above the clinical cutoff of the Malaise Inventory rose from 8% to 11% due to parental divorce. This indicated that the relative risk of serious emotional disorders increased in the aftermath of divorce, but that the large majority of individuals did not exhibit such risks. Path analyses revealed that the negative effects of divorce on adult mental health operated indirectly through higher emotional problems and lower levels of school achievement and family economic status at age 16. Results related to timing of divorce, remarriage, and interactions between age 7 emotional problems and divorce, and between age 7 emotional problems and child gender, are also discussed.  
  Call Number Serial 282  
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Author (up) Chilamkurti, C.; Milner, J.S. file  url
  Title Perceptions and evaluations of child transgressions and disciplinary techniques in high- and low-risk mothers and their children Type Journal Article
  Year 1993 Publication Child Development Abbreviated Journal Child Dev  
  Volume 64 Issue 6 Pages 1801-1814  
  Keywords Child; Child Abuse/diagnosis; Child Behavior/psychology; Cognition; Female; Humans; Imagination; *Interpersonal Relations; Male; Maternal Behavior; *Mother-Child Relations; *Mothers; *Parenting  
  Abstract Perceptions and evaluations of children's transgressions (moral, conventional, personal), parental disciplinary actions (power assertion, love withdrawal, induction), and expected outcomes (compliance) were assessed in matched high- and low-risk (for physical abuse) mothers and their children. High-risk mothers and their children evaluated conventional and personal transgressions as more wrong than low-risk mothers and their children. Although both high- and low-risk mothers and their children varied disciplinary responses according to the type of transgression, high-risk mothers used power assertion (verbal and physical force) more often and induction (reasoning and explanation) less often. High-risk mothers also perceived the use of power assertion by others as more appropriate. With respect to outcomes, high-risk mothers, compared to low-risk mothers, expected less compliance following moral transgressions and more compliance after personal transgressions. Children of both high- and low-risk mothers made compliance predictions following moral and personal transgressions that were similar to the low-risk mothers' predictions.  
  Call Number Serial 1732  
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Author (up) Gershoff, E.T.; Grogan-Kaylor, A.; Lansford, J.E.; Chang, L.; Zelli, A.; Deater-Deckard, K.; Dodge, K.A. file  url
  Title Parent discipline practices in an international sample: associations with child behaviors and moderation by perceived normativeness Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Child Development Abbreviated Journal Child Dev  
  Volume 81 Issue 2 Pages 487-502  
  Keywords Child; Child Behavior/*ethnology/*psychology; *Cross-Cultural Comparison; *Developing Countries; Female; Humans; Italy; Male; Motivation; Parent-Child Relations; Parenting/*ethnology/*psychology; Punishment; Reward; Social Values/*ethnology; *Socialization  
  Abstract This study examined the associations of 11 discipline techniques with children's aggressive and anxious behaviors in an international sample of mothers and children from 6 countries and determined whether any significant associations were moderated by mothers' and children's perceived normativeness of the techniques. Participants included 292 mothers and their 8- to 12-year-old children living in China, India, Italy, Kenya, Philippines, and Thailand. Parallel multilevel and fixed effects models revealed that mothers' use of corporal punishment, expressing disappointment, and yelling were significantly related to more child aggression symptoms, whereas giving a time-out, using corporal punishment, expressing disappointment, and shaming were significantly related to greater child anxiety symptoms. Some moderation of these associations was found for children's perceptions of normativeness.  
  Call Number Serial 1733  
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Author (up) Hala, S.; Chandler, M.; Fritz, A.S. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Fledgling Theories of Mind: Deception as a Marker of Three-Year-Olds' Understanding of False Belief Type Journal Article
  Year 1991 Publication Child Development Abbreviated Journal Child Development  
  Volume 62 Issue 1 Pages 83-97  
  Keywords Unexpected change; False belief; Fledgling theory of mind  
  Abstract 3 studies involving more than 70 3- and 4-year-olds were carried out in an effort to better secure an earlier but controversial set of findings interpreted as demonstrating that children younger than 4 already have a grasp of the possibility of false belief, and consequently deserve to be credited with some authentic if fledgling theory of mind. These studies, which relied on a measure of deceptive hiding rather than more familiar “unexpected change” procedures for indexing false belief understanding, all demonstrated that even the youngest of these subjects: (a) accurately anticipated the likely impact of their deceptive strategies on both the behaviors (Study 1) and beliefs (Study 3) of their opponents, and (b) were able to selectively employ these same methods of information management as a means of helping as well as hindering the efforts of others (Study 2).  
  Call Number Serial 648  
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Author (up) O'Doherty, K.; Troseth, G.L.; Shimpi, P.M.; Goldenberg, E.; Akhtar, N.; Saylor, M.M. file  url
  Title Third-party social interaction and word learning from video Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Child Development Abbreviated Journal Child Dev  
  Volume 82 Issue 3 Pages 902-915  
  Keywords Attention; Child, Preschool; Comprehension; Cues; Female; Humans; Imitative Behavior; *Interpersonal Relations; *Language Development; Male; *Social Environment; *Speech Perception; Television; *Verbal Learning; *Video Recording  
  Abstract In previous studies, very young children have learned words while “overhearing” a conversation, yet they have had trouble learning words from a person on video. In Study 1, 64 toddlers (mean age=29.8 months) viewed an object-labeling demonstration in 1 of 4 conditions. In 2, the speaker (present or on video) directly addressed the child, and in 2, the speaker addressed another adult who was present or was with her on video. Study 2 involved 2 follow-up conditions with 32 toddlers (mean age=30.4 months). Across the 2 studies, the results indicated that toddlers learned words best when participating in or observing a reciprocal social interaction with a speaker who was present or on video.  
  Call Number Serial 1969  
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Author (up) Steinberg, L.; Lamborn, S.D.; Darling, N.; Mounts, N.S.; Dornbusch, S.M. file  url
  Title Over-time changes in adjustment and competence among adolescents from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful families Type Journal Article
  Year 1994 Publication Child Development Abbreviated Journal Child Dev  
  Volume 65 Issue 3 Pages 754-770  
  Keywords Achievement; Adolescent; *Authoritarianism; *Family; Female; Humans; Male; Parenting; *Social Adjustment; Somatoform Disorders/psychology  
  Abstract In a previous report, we demonstrated that adolescents' adjustment varies as a function of their parents' style (e.g., authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, neglectful). This 1-year follow-up was conducted in order to examine whether the observed differences are maintained over time. In 1987, an ethnically and socioeconomically heterogeneous sample of approximately 2,300 14-18-year-olds provided information used to classify the adolescents' families into 1 of 4 parenting style groups. That year, and again 1 year later, the students completed a battery of standardized instruments tapping psychosocial development, school achievement, internalized distress, and behavior problems. Differences in adjustment associated with variations in parenting are either maintained or increase over time. However, whereas the benefits of authoritative parenting are largely in the maintenance of previous levels of high adjustment, the deleterious consequences of neglectful parenting continue to accumulate.  
  Call Number Serial 1195  
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