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  Title Symposium 1: The origines and consequences of congential amusia Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Brain and Cognition Abbreviated Journal Brain and Cognition  
  Volume 59 Issue 3 Pages 330-331  
  Keywords Congential Amusia  
  Abstract The study of musical abilities and activities in infancy has the potential to shed light on musical biases or dispositions that are rooted in nature rather than nurture. The available evidence indicates that infants are sensitive to a number of sound features that are fundamental to music across cultures. Their discrimination of pitch and timing differences and their perception of equivalence classes are similar, in many respects, to those of listeners who have had many years of exposure to music. Whether these perceptual skills are unique to human listeners is not known. What is unique is the intense human interest in music, which is evident from the early days of life. Also unique is the importance of music in social contexts. Current ideas about musical timing and interpersonal synchrony are considered here, along with proposals for future research.  
  Call Number Serial 727  
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Author (up) Au, T.K. file  url
openurl 
  Title Chinese and English counterfactuals: the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis revisited Type Journal Article
  Year 1983 Publication Cognition Abbreviated Journal Cognition  
  Volume 15 Issue 1-3 Pages 155-187  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Child; *Cognition; Female; Humans; *Language; Linguistics; Male; Thinking  
  Abstract Bloom (1981) found that Chinese speakers were less likely than English speakers to give counterfactual interpretations to a counterfactual story. These findings, together with the presence of a distinct counterfactual marker (the subjunctive) in English, but not in Chinese, were interpreted as evidence for the weak form of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. A series of five studies was designed to replicate these findings, using both Chinese and English versions of a new counterfactual story as well as the story used by Bloom. In these studies, bilingual Chinese showed little difficulty in understanding either story in either language, insofar as the English and Chinese were idiomatic. For one story, the Chinese bilinguals performed better in Chinese than American subjects did in English. Nearly monolingual Chinese who did not know the English subjunctive also gave mostly counterfactual responses. These findings suggest that the mastery of the English subjunctive is probably quite tangenital to counterfactual reasoning in Chinese. In short, the present research yielded no support for the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.  
  Call Number Serial 1719  
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Author (up) Bialystok, E.; Viswanathan, M. file  url
openurl 
  Title Components of executive control with advantages for bilingual children in two cultures Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Cognition Abbreviated Journal Cognition  
  Volume 112 Issue 3 Pages 494-500  
  Keywords Canada; Child; Child Development/*physiology; Cognition/*physiology; Cross-Cultural Comparison; Discrimination Learning; Female; Humans; India; Male; *Multilingualism; Neuropsychological Tests; Pattern Recognition, Visual; Reaction Time  
  Abstract The present study used a behavioral version of an anti-saccade task, called the 'faces task', developed by [Bialystok, E., Craik, F. I. M., & Ryan, J. (2006). Executive control in a modified anti-saccade task: Effects of aging and bilingualism. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 32, 1341-1354] to isolate the components of executive functioning responsible for previously reported differences between monolingual and bilingual children and to determine the generality of these differences by comparing bilinguals in two cultures. Three components of executive control were investigated: response suppression, inhibitory control, and cognitive flexibility. Ninety children, 8-years old, belonged to one of three groups: monolinguals in Canada, bilinguals in Canada, and bilinguals in India. The bilingual children in both settings were faster than monolinguals in conditions based on inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility but there was no significant difference between groups in response suppression or on a control condition that did not involve executive control. The children in the two bilingual groups performed equivalently to each other and differently from the monolinguals on all measures in which there were group differences, consistent with the interpretation that bilingualism is responsible for the enhanced executive control. These results contribute to understanding the mechanism responsible for the reported bilingual advantages by identifying the processes that are modified by bilingualism and establishing the generality of these findings across bilingual experiences. They also contribute to theoretical conceptions of the components of executive control and their development.  
  Call Number Serial 1179  
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Author (up) Chapados, C.; Levitin, D.J. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Cross-modal interactions in the experience of musical performances: physiological correlates Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Cognition Abbreviated Journal Cognition  
  Volume 108 Issue 3 Pages 639-651  
  Keywords Adult; Arousal/*physiology; Auditory Perception/*physiology; Emotions/*physiology; Female; Galvanic Skin Response/*physiology; Humans; Judgment; *Music; Psychophysiology; Visual Perception/*physiology  
  Abstract This experiment was conducted to investigate cross-modal interactions in the emotional experience of music listeners. Previous research showed that visual information present in a musical performance is rich in expressive content, and moderates the subjective emotional experience of a participant listening and/or observing musical stimuli [Vines, B. W., Krumhansl, C. L., Wanderley, M. M., & Levitin, D. J. (2006). Cross-modal interactions in the perception of musical performance. Cognition, 101, 80--113.]. The goal of this follow-up experiment was to replicate this cross-modal interaction by investigating the objective, physiological aspect of emotional response to music measuring electrodermal activity. The scaled average of electrodermal amplitude for visual-auditory presentation was found to be significantly higher than the sum of the reactions when the music was presented in visual only (VO) and auditory only (AO) conditions, suggesting the presence of an emergent property created by bimodal interaction. Functional data analysis revealed that electrodermal activity generally followed the same contour across modalities of presentation, except during rests (silent parts of the performance) when the visual information took on particular salience. Finally, electrodermal activity and subjective tension judgments were found to be most highly correlated in the audio-visual (AV) condition than in the unimodal conditions. The present study provides converging evidence for the importance of seeing musical performances, and preliminary evidence for the utility of electrodermal activity as an objective measure in studies of continuous music-elicited emotions.  
  Call Number Serial 381  
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Author (up) Chen, J.-Y. file  url
openurl 
  Title Do Chinese and English speakers think about time differently? Failure of replicating Boroditsky (2001) Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Cognition Abbreviated Journal Cognition  
  Volume 104 Issue 2 Pages 427-436  
  Keywords *Asian Continental Ancestry Group; *Cognition; *Culture; Humans; *Time Perception  
  Abstract English uses the horizontal spatial metaphors to express time (e.g., the good days ahead of us). Chinese also uses the vertical metaphors (e.g., 'the month above' to mean last month). Do Chinese speakers, then, think about time in a different way than English speakers? Boroditsky [Boroditsky, L. (2001). Does language shape thought? Mandarin and English speakers' conceptions of time. Cognitive Psychology, 43(1), 1-22] claimed that they do, and went on to conclude that 'language is a powerful tool in shaping habitual thought about abstract domains' (such as time). By estimating the frequency of usage, we found that Chinese speakers actually use the horizontal spatial metaphors more often than the vertical metaphors. This offered no logical ground for Boroditsky's claim. We were also unable to replicate her experiments in four different attempts. We conclude that Chinese speakers do not think about time in a different way than English speakers just because Chinese also uses the vertical spatial metaphors to express time.  
  Call Number Serial 1718  
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Author (up) Ellsworth, P.C.; Smith, C.A. file  url
openurl 
  Title Shades of Joy: Patterns of Appraisal Differentiating Pleasant Emotions Type Journal Article
  Year 1988 Publication Cognition & Emotion Abbreviated Journal Cognition & Emotion  
  Volume 2 Issue 4 Pages 301-331  
  Keywords Pleasant experience; Unpleasant experience  
  Abstract Pleasant experience appears to be less emotionally differentiated than unpleasant experience. For instance, theories of emotion typically posit the existence of six or seven unpleasant emotions but often posit only one or two pleasant emotions. The present study is an attempt to systematically examine the differentiation of pleasant emotional experience. Subjects were asked to recall pleasant experiences that were associated with particular situational appraisals—appraisals of effort, agency, and certainty were systematically manipulated—and to describe their appraisals and emotions during these experiences. The results indicated that positive emotions, and their associated appraisals, are somewhat less differentiated than negative emotions, but nonetheless provided evidence of considerable differentiation among six pleasantly toned emotions (interest, hope/confidence, challenge, tranquillity, playfulness, and love). Each of these latter emotions was experienced differentially across the appraisal conditions, and was characterised by a distinct pattern of appraisal.  
  Call Number Serial 2112  
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Author (up) Fausey, C.M.; Jayaraman, S.; Smith, L.B. file  url
openurl 
  Title From faces to hands: Changing visual input in the first two years Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Cognition Abbreviated Journal Cognition  
  Volume 152 Issue Pages 101-107  
  Keywords *Child Development; Child, Preschool; *Facial Recognition; Female; Hand; Humans; Infant; Infant, Newborn; Male; Pattern Recognition, Visual; Photic Stimulation; *Social Perception; Statistics as Topic; *Visual Perception; *Egocentric vision; *Faces; *Hands; *Head camera; *Infancy; *Scene statistics  
  Abstract Human development takes place in a social context. Two pervasive sources of social information are faces and hands. Here, we provide the first report of the visual frequency of faces and hands in the everyday scenes available to infants. These scenes were collected by having infants wear head cameras during unconstrained everyday activities. Our corpus of 143hours of infant-perspective scenes, collected from 34 infants aged 1month to 2years, was sampled for analysis at 1/5Hz. The major finding from this corpus is that the faces and hands of social partners are not equally available throughout the first two years of life. Instead, there is an earlier period of dense face input and a later period of dense hand input. At all ages, hands in these scenes were primarily in contact with objects and the spatio-temporal co-occurrence of hands and faces was greater than expected by chance. The orderliness of the shift from faces to hands suggests a principled transition in the contents of visual experiences and is discussed in terms of the role of developmental gates on the timing and statistics of visual experiences.  
  Call Number Serial 1801  
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Author (up) Fausey, C.M.; Jayaraman, S.; Smith, L.B. file  url
openurl 
  Title From faces to hands: Changing visual input in the first two years Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Cognition Abbreviated Journal Cognition  
  Volume 152 Issue Pages 101-107  
  Keywords *Child Development; Child, Preschool; *Facial Recognition; Female; Hand; Humans; Infant; Infant, Newborn; Male; Pattern Recognition, Visual; Photic Stimulation; *Social Perception; Statistics as Topic; *Visual Perception; *Egocentric vision; *Faces; *Hands; *Head camera; *Infancy; *Scene statistics  
  Abstract Human development takes place in a social context. Two pervasive sources of social information are faces and hands. Here, we provide the first report of the visual frequency of faces and hands in the everyday scenes available to infants. These scenes were collected by having infants wear head cameras during unconstrained everyday activities. Our corpus of 143hours of infant-perspective scenes, collected from 34 infants aged 1month to 2years, was sampled for analysis at 1/5Hz. The major finding from this corpus is that the faces and hands of social partners are not equally available throughout the first two years of life. Instead, there is an earlier period of dense face input and a later period of dense hand input. At all ages, hands in these scenes were primarily in contact with objects and the spatio-temporal co-occurrence of hands and faces was greater than expected by chance. The orderliness of the shift from faces to hands suggests a principled transition in the contents of visual experiences and is discussed in terms of the role of developmental gates on the timing and statistics of visual experiences.  
  Call Number Serial 1820  
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Author (up) Gaskell, M.G.; Dumay, N. file  url
openurl 
  Title Lexical competition and the acquisition of novel words Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Cognition Abbreviated Journal Cognition  
  Volume 89 Issue 2 Pages 105-132  
  Keywords Language acquisition; Spoken word recognition; Lexical competition; Lexical decision; Pause detection  
  Abstract Three experiments examined the involvement of newly learnt words in lexical competition. Adult participants were familiarized with novel nonsense sequences that overlapped strongly with existing words (e.g. cathedruke, derived from cathedral) through repeated presentation in a phoneme-monitoring task. Experiment 1 looked at the immediate effects of exposure to these sequences, with participants showing familiarity with the form of the novel sequences in a two-alternative forced choice task. The effect of this exposure on lexical competition was examined by presenting the existing words (e.g. cathedral) in a lexical decision task. The immediate effect of the exposure was facilitatory, suggesting that the novel words had activated the representation of the closest real word rather than developing their own lexical representations. In Experiment 2, inhibitory lexical competition effects emerged over the course of 5 days for offset-diverging (e.g. cathedruke–cathedral) but not onset-diverging (e.g. yothedral–cathedral) novel words. Experiment 3 disentangled the roles of time and level-of-exposure in the lexicalization process and assessed the generality of the observed lexical inhibition using pause detection. A single, concentrated exposure session was used, which resulted in good recognition performance soon after. Lexicalization effects were absent immediately after exposure but emerged 1 week later, despite no intervening exposure to the novel items. These results suggest that integrating a novel word into the mental lexicon can be an extended process: phonological information is learnt swiftly, but full integration with existing items develops at a slower rate.  
  Call Number Serial 1966  
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Author (up) Gerstadt, C.L.; Hong, Y.J.; Diamond, A. url  openurl
  Title The relationship between cognition and action: performance of children 3 1/2-7 years old on a Stroop-like day-night test Type Journal Article
  Year 1994 Publication Cognition Abbreviated Journal Cognition  
  Volume 53 Issue 2 Pages 129-153  
  Keywords Age Factors; Child; Child, Preschool; Cognition; Female; Humans; Language; Language Tests; Male; Task Performance and Analysis  
  Abstract One hundred and sixty children 3 1/2-7 years of age (10 M, 10 F at each 6-month interval) were tested on a task that requires inhibitory control of action plus learning and remembering two rules. They were asked to say “day” whenever a black card with the moon and stars appeared and to say “night” when shown a white card with a bright sun. Children < 5 years had great difficulty. They started out performing well, but could not sustain this over the course of the 16-trial session. Response latency decreased from 3 1/2 to 4 1/2 years. Children < 4 1/2 years performed well when they took very long to respond. To test whether the requirement to learn and remember two rules alone was sufficient to cause children difficulty, 80 children 3 1/2-5 years old were tested on a control version of the task (“say 'day' to one abstract design and 'night' to another”). Even the youngest children performed at a high level. We conclude that the requirement to learn and remember two rules is not in itself sufficient to account for the poor performance of the younger children in the experimental condition.  
  Call Number Serial 43  
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