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Author (up) Gohir, W.; Ratcliffe, E.M.; Sloboda, D.M. file  url
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  Title Of the bugs that shape us: maternal obesity, the gut microbiome, and long-term disease risk Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Pediatric Research Abbreviated Journal Pediatr Res  
  Volume 77 Issue 1-2 Pages 196-204  
  Keywords Female; Gastrointestinal Tract/growth & development/*microbiology; Humans; *Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena; *Maternal-Fetal Exchange; *Microbiota; Obesity/*complications/microbiology; Pregnancy; Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/immunology/*microbiology; Microbiome  
  Abstract Chronic disease risk is inextricably linked to our early-life environment, where maternal, fetal, and childhood factors predict disease risk later in life. Currently, maternal obesity is a key predictor of childhood obesity and metabolic complications in adulthood. Although the mechanisms are unclear, new and emerging evidence points to our microbiome, where the bacterial composition of the gut modulates the weight gain and altered metabolism that drives obesity. Over the course of pregnancy, maternal bacterial load increases, and gut bacterial diversity changes and is influenced by pre-pregnancy- and pregnancy-related obesity. Alterations in the bacterial composition of the mother have been shown to affect the development and function of the gastrointestinal tract of her offspring. How these microbial shifts influence the maternal-fetal-infant relationship is a topic of hot debate. This paper will review the evidence linking nutrition, maternal obesity, the maternal gut microbiome, and fetal gut development, bringing together clinical observations in humans and experimental data from targeted animal models.  
  Call Number Serial 2080  
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Author (up) Romano-Keeler, J.; Weitkamp, J.-H. file  url
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  Title Maternal influences on fetal microbial colonization and immune development Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Pediatric Research Abbreviated Journal Pediatr Res  
  Volume 77 Issue 1-2 Pages 189-195  
  Keywords Female; Fetus/*immunology/*microbiology; Humans; Immune System/*embryology/growth & development; Maternal-Fetal Exchange/*immunology; Microbiota/*immunology; *Models, Immunological; Placenta/*microbiology; Pregnancy; Microbiome  
  Abstract While critical for normal development, the exact timing of establishment of the intestinal microbiome is unknown. For example, although preterm labor and birth have been associated with bacterial colonization of the amniotic cavity and fetal membranes for many years, the prevailing dogma of a sterile intrauterine environment during normal term pregnancies has been challenged more recently. While found to be a key contributor of evolution in the animal kingdom, maternal transmission of commensal bacteria may also constitute a critical process during healthy pregnancies in humans with yet unclear developmental importance. Metagenomic sequencing has elucidated a rich placental microbiome in normal term pregnancies likely providing important metabolic and immune contributions to the growing fetus. Conversely, an altered microbial composition during pregnancy may produce aberrant metabolites impairing fetal brain development and life-long neurological outcomes. Here we review the current understanding of microbial colonization at the feto-maternal interface and explain how normal gut colonization drives a balanced neonatal mucosal immune system, while dysbiosis contributes to aberrant immune function early in life and beyond. We discuss how maternal genetics, diet, medications, and probiotics inform the fetal microbiome in preparation for perinatal and postnatal bacterial colonization.  
  Call Number Serial 2078  
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