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Author (up) Conrad, K.L.; Louderback, K.M.; Gessner, C.P.; Winder, D.G. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Stress-induced alterations in anxiety-like behavior and adaptations in plasticity in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Physiology & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Physiol Behav  
  Volume 104 Issue 2 Pages 248-256  
  Keywords Adaptation, Physiological/drug effects/*physiology; Analysis of Variance; Animals; Anxiety/*etiology/*pathology; Behavior, Animal/drug effects; Biophysics; Corticosterone/adverse effects; Disease Models, Animal; Electric Stimulation; Exploratory Behavior/drug effects/physiology; Long-Term Potentiation/drug effects/*physiology; Male; Maze Learning/drug effects; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Patch-Clamp Techniques/methods; Septal Nuclei/drug effects/*physiopathology; Social Isolation/psychology; Time Factors  
  Abstract In vulnerable individuals, exposure to stressors can result in chronic disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The extended amygdala is critically implicated in mediating acute and chronic stress responsivity and anxiety-like behaviors. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a subregion of the extended amygdala, serves as a relay of corticolimbic information to the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) to directly influence the stress response. To investigate the influence of the corticosteroid milieu and housing conditions on BNST function, adult C57Bl/6J were either acutely or chronically administered corticosterone (CORT, 25mg/kg in sesame oil) or vehicle (sesame oil) or were group housed or socially isolated for 1 day (acute) or 6-8 weeks (chronic). To ascertain whether these stressors could influence anxiety-like behavior, studies were performed using the novel open-field (NOF) and the elevated zero maze (EZM) tests. To investigate potential associated changes in plasticity, alterations in BNST function were assessed using ex vivo extracellular field potential recordings in the (dorsal-lateral) dlBNST and a high frequency stimulus protocol to induce long-term potentiation (LTP). Our results suggest that chronic CORT injections and chronic social isolation housing conditions lead to an increase in anxiety-like behavior on the EZM and NOF. Chronically stressed mice also displayed a parallel blunting of LTP in the dlBNST. Conversely, acute social isolation housing had no effect on anxiety-like behavior but still resulted in a blunting of LTP in the dlBNST. Collectively, our results suggest acute and chronic stressors can have a distinct profile on plasticity in the BNST that is not uniformly associated with an increase in anxiety-like behavior.  
  Call Number Serial 85  
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Author (up) Cummings, D.E. file  url
openurl 
  Title Ghrelin and the short- and long-term regulation of appetite and body weight Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Physiology & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Physiol Behav  
  Volume 89 Issue 1 Pages 71-84  
  Keywords Animals; Appetite/*physiology; Body Weight/*physiology; Energy Metabolism; Ghrelin; Humans; Obesity; Peptide Hormones/*metabolism; Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/physiology; Receptors, Ghrelin; Time Factors  
  Abstract Ghrelin, an acylated upper gastrointestinal peptide, is the only known orexigenic hormone. Considerable evidence implicates ghrelin in mealtime hunger and meal initiation. Circulating levels decrease with feeding and increase before meals, achieving concentrations sufficient to stimulate hunger and food intake. Preprandial ghrelin surges occur before every meal on various fixed feeding schedules and also among individuals initiating meals voluntarily without time- or food-related cues. Ghrelin injections stimulate food intake rapidly and transiently, primarily by increasing appetitive feeding behaviors and the number of meals. Preprandial ghrelin surges are probably triggered by sympathetic nervous output. Postprandial suppression is not mediated by nutrients in the stomach or duodenum, where most ghrelin is produced. Rather, it results from post-ingestive increases in lower intestinal osmolarity (information probably relayed to the foregut via enteric nervous signaling), as well as from insulin surges. Consequently, ingested lipids suppress ghrelin poorly compared with other macronutrients. Beyond a probable role in meal initiation, ghrelin also fulfills established criteria for an adiposity-related hormone involved in long-term body-weight regulation. Ghrelin levels circulate in relation to energy stores and manifest compensatory changes in response to body-weight alterations. Ghrelin crosses the blood-brain barrier and stimulates food intake by acting on several classical body-weight regulatory centers, including the hypothalamus, hindbrain, and mesolimbic reward system. Chronic ghrelin administration increases body weight via diverse, concerted actions on food intake, energy expenditure, and fuel utilization. Congenital ablation of the ghrelin or ghrelin-receptor gene causes resistance to diet-induced obesity, and pharmacologic ghrelin blockade reduces food intake and body weight. Ghrelin levels are high in Prader-Willi syndrome and low after gastric bypass surgery, possibly contributing to body-weight alterations in these settings. Extant evidence favors roles for ghrelin in both short-term meal initiation and long-term energy homeostasis, making it an attractive target for drugs to treat obesity and/or wasting disorders.  
  Call Number Serial 1442  
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Author (up) Delwiche, J.F. file  url
openurl 
  Title You eat with your eyes first Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Physiology & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Physiol Behav  
  Volume 107 Issue 4 Pages 502-504  
  Keywords  
  Abstract While the senses of taste, smell, and vision are distinct, visual stimuli have been shown to alter the perception of taste, smell, and flavor. Color may be the most obvious visual cue, but expectations through learned associations are set by other visual cues as well, including gloss, evenness, and shape. These expectations exert cognitive top-down influences that can and sometimes do alter assessments of taste and flavor.

Subject Headings: *Association Learning; *Color; Cues; Humans; Smell; *Taste; *Visual Perception

Keywords: You eat with your eyes first
 
  Call Number Serial 2761  
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Author (up) Eckel, L.A. file  url
openurl 
  Title The ovarian hormone estradiol plays a crucial role in the control of food intake in females Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Physiology & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Physiol Behav  
  Volume 104 Issue 4 Pages 517-524  
  Keywords Animals; Brain--physiology; Eating--physiology; Estradiol--physiology; Estrogen Receptor alpha--physiology; Estrogen Receptor beta--physiology; Female; Humans  
  Abstract Despite a strong male bias in both basic and clinical research, it is becoming increasingly accepted that the ovarian hormone estradiol plays an important role in the control of food intake in females. Estradiol's feeding inhibitory effect occurs in a variety of species, including women, but the underlying mechanism has been studied most extensively in rats and mice. Accordingly, much of the data reviewed here is derived from the rodent literature. Adult female rats display a robust decrease in food intake during estrus and ovariectomy promotes hyperphagia and weight gain, both of which can be prevented by a physiological regimen of estradiol treatment. Behavioral analyses have demonstrated that the feeding inhibitory effect of estradiol is mediated entirely by a decrease in meal size. In rats, estradiol appears to exert this action indirectly via interactions with peptide and neurotransmitter systems implicated in the direct control of meal size. Here, I summarize research examining the neurobiological mechanism underlying estradiol's anorexigenic effect. Central estrogen receptors (ERs) have been implicated and activation of one ER subtype in particular, ERalpha, appears both sufficient and necessary for the estrogenic control of food intake. Future studies are necessary to identify the critical brain areas and intracellular signaling pathways responsible for estradiol's anorexigenic effect. A clearer understanding of the estrogenic control of food intake is prerequisite to elucidating the biological factors that contribute to obesity and eating disorders, both of which are more prevalent in women, compared to men.  
  Call Number Serial 22  
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Author (up) Gamer, M.; Verschuere, B.; Crombez, G.; Vossel, G. file  url
openurl 
  Title Combining physiological measures in the detection of concealed information Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Physiology & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Physiol Behav  
  Volume 95 Issue 3 Pages 333-340  
  Keywords Adult; Galvanic Skin Response/*physiology; Guilt; Heart Rate/*physiology; Humans; Lie Detection/*psychology; Male; Meta-Analysis as Topic; Regression Analysis; Respiratory Mechanics/*physiology; Young Adult  
  Abstract Meta-analytic research has confirmed that skin conductance response (SCR) measures have high validity for the detection of concealed information. Furthermore, cumulating research has provided evidence for the validity of two other autonomic measures: Heart rate (HR) and Respiration Line Length (RLL). In the present report, we compared SCR detection efficiency with HR and RLL, and investigated whether HR and RLL provide incremental validity to electrodermal responses. Analyses were based on data from 7 different samples covering 275 guilty and 53 innocent examinees. Results revealed that the area under the ROC curve was significantly higher for SCR than for HR and RLL. A weighted combination of these measures using a logistic regression model yielded slightly larger validity coefficients than the best single measure. These results proved to be stable across different protocols and various samples.  
  Call Number Serial 1444  
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Author (up) Goldfield, G.S.; Adamo, K.B.; Rutherford, J.; Legg, C. file  url
openurl 
  Title Stress and the relative reinforcing value of food in female binge eaters Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Physiology & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Physiol Behav  
  Volume 93 Issue 3 Pages 579-587  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Analysis of Variance; Body Mass Index; Body Weight; Bulimia/*physiopathology/*psychology; Computer Simulation; Feeding Behavior/physiology; Female; Food Preferences/physiology; Functional Laterality; Humans; Psychological Theory; *Reinforcement (Psychology); Stress, Psychological/*physiopathology  
  Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the independent and interactive effects of stress reactivity and binge eating (BE) status on changes in the relative reinforcing value of snack foods. The relative reinforcing value of snack foods was assessed in binge eaters and non-binge eaters across a stress-induction session (after 3-minutes of anticipation of giving a speech) or a control day (after 3-minutes of reading magazines), with order of conditions counterbalanced. Subjects were divided into four groups based on scores on the Binge Eating Scale (BES) and changes in perceived stress: Binge eaters/low stress reactivity (n=12), binge eaters/high stress reactivity (n=10), non-binge eaters/low stress reactivity (n=6), non-binge eaters/high stress reactivity (n=9). Dietary restraint, hunger, disinhibition, and hedonics were measured by self-report. Body composition was estimated by body mass index (BMI=weight in kilograms divided by height in metres squared). The relative reinforcing value of snack food was influenced differently by binge status and stress reactivity in the stress and control conditions (p<0.05). Binge eaters who reacted to stress earned more snack food points (p<0.001) in stress condition, but non-binge eaters who showed high stress reactivity earned less points for snack food in stress condition (p<0.05). This same pattern of results remained after statistically controlling for body mass index (BMI) and dietary restraint. Findings suggest that reactivity to interpersonal or ego-related stress increases the relative reinforcing value of food in binge eaters but decreases the relative reinforcing value of snack food in non-binge eaters, and these findings appear to be independent of dietary restraint and BMI.  
  Call Number Serial 1827  
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Author (up) Hetherington, M.M.; Anderson, A.S.; Norton, G.N.M.; Newson, L. file  url
openurl 
  Title Situational effects on meal intake: A comparison of eating alone and eating with others Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Physiology & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Physiol Behav  
  Volume 88 Issue 4-5 Pages 498-505  
  Keywords Adult; Affect/physiology; Appetite; Dietary Fats; Eating/physiology/*psychology; Energy Intake/physiology; Female; Food; Humans; Hunger/physiology; Male; Memory/physiology; *Social Environment; Social Facilitation; Surveys and Questionnaires; Television  
  Abstract Eating in competition with other tasks has been shown to increase food intake, particularly when tasks are cognitively demanding. To test the hypothesis that social facilitation of eating occurs, in part, as a function of distraction which impairs the ability to self-monitor, eating with others was compared with eating alone or in front of the television. Using a repeated measure within-subjects design, thirty-seven participants (21 males) visited the laboratory 4 times to eat a buffet-style lunch ad libitum. All eating episodes were filmed. Energy intake (EI) was measured when participants ate alone (A), ate alone while watching TV (B), ate with two same sex strangers (C), and ate with two same sex friends (D) in a counterbalanced order. EI was significantly enhanced by presence of familiar others (D: 4565+/-272 kJ, p < 0.001) and watching TV (B: 4350+/-252 kJ, p < 0.05) compared to baseline (A: 3861+/-200 kJ). Length of eating episode correlated significantly (p < 0.05) with EI, however, amount of time spent eating and looking at food differed by condition with a greater percentage of time focussed on food during baseline (p < 0.001). Eating with friends increased EI by 18% and eating in front of the TV increased EI by 14% relative to baseline. Engaging in conversation or watching TV draws attention away from the eaten food and can stimulate food intake. However, since eating with strangers also drew attention away from food but did not result in increased intake, social facilitation effects are not simply due to distraction. Thus food intake can be enhanced when attention to food and self-monitoring are impaired during distraction, however, this effect is moderated when eating with strangers.  
  Call Number Serial 1645  
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Author (up) Kaye, W.H.; Bailer, U.F.; Frank, G.K.; Wagner, A.; Henry, S.E. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Brain imaging of serotonin after recovery from anorexia and bulimia nervosa Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Physiology & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Physiol Behav  
  Volume 86 Issue 1-2 Pages 15-17  
  Keywords Animals; Anorexia/pathology/*physiopathology; *Brain/metabolism/pathology/physiopathology; Bulimia Nervosa/pathology/*physiopathology; Diagnostic Imaging; Humans; Recovery of Function/*physiology; Serotonin/*metabolism  
  Abstract Anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are related disorders with relatively homogenous presentations such as age of onset and gender distribution. In addition, they share symptoms, such as extremes of food consumption, body image distortion, anxiety and obsessions, and ego-syntonic neglect. Taken together, these observations raise the possibility that these symptoms reflect disturbed brain function, which contributes to the pathophysiology of these illnesses. Several lines of evidence suggest that disturbances of serotonin (5-HT) pathways play a role. First, 5-HT pathways contribute to the modulation of feeding, mood, and impulse control. Second, medications that act on 5-HT pathways have some degree of efficacy in individuals with AN and BN. Third, such disturbances are present when subjects are ill and persist after recovery, suggesting that 5-HT alterations may be traits that are independent of the state of the illness. Positron emission tomography (PET) with radioligands offers an opportunity to directly characterize brain 5-HT pathways and their relationship with behavior. For example, reduced 5-HT(2A) receptor function occurs in AN whereas increased 5-HT(1A) receptor function occurs in BN. Moreover, imaging studies correlate altered 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptor function with traits often found in individuals with AN and BN, such as harm avoidance. Finally, alteration of these receptors tends to implicate pathways involving frontal, cingulate, temporal, and parietal regions. Alterations of these circuits may affect mood and impulse control as well as the motivating and hedonic aspects of feeding behavior. Such imaging studies may offer insights into new pharmacology and psychotherapy approaches.  
  Call Number Serial 1116  
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Author (up) Kaye, W.H.; Frank, G.K.; Bailer, U.F.; Henry, S.E.; Meltzer, C.C.; Price, J.C.; Mathis, C.A.; Wagner, A. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Serotonin alterations in anorexia and bulimia nervosa: new insights from imaging studies Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Physiology & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Physiol Behav  
  Volume 85 Issue 1 Pages 73-81  
  Keywords Animals; Anorexia/*metabolism/pathology; *Brain Mapping; Bulimia/*metabolism/pathology; Diagnostic Imaging/methods; Humans; Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism; Membrane Transport Proteins/metabolism; Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism; Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT1A/metabolism; Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2A/metabolism; Serotonin/*metabolism; Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins  
  Abstract Anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are related disorders with relatively homogenous presentations such as age of onset and gender distribution. In addition, they share symptoms, such as extremes of food consumption, body image distortion, anxiety and obsessions, and ego-syntonic neglect, raises the possibility that these symptoms reflect disturbed brain function that contributes to the pathophysiology of this illness. Recent brain imaging studies have identified altered activity in frontal, cingulate, temporal, and parietal cortical regions in AN and BN. Importantly, such disturbances are present when subjects are ill and persist after recovery, suggesting that these may be traits that are independent of the state of the illness. Emerging data point to a dysregulation of serotonin pathways in cortical and limbic structures that may be related to anxiety, behavioral inhibition, and body image distortions. In specific, recent studies using PET with serotonin specific radioligands implicate alterations of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors and the 5-HT transporter. Alterations of these circuits may affect mood and impulse control as well as the motivating and hedonic aspects of feeding behavior. Such imaging studies may offer insights into new pharmacology and psychotherapy approaches.  
  Call Number Serial 92  
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Author (up) Lungwitz, E.A.; Molosh, A.; Johnson, P.L.; Harvey, B.P.; Dirks, R.C.; Dietrich, A.; Minick, P.; Shekhar, A.; Truitt, W.A. file  url
openurl 
  Title Orexin-A induces anxiety-like behavior through interactions with glutamatergic receptors in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis of rats Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Physiology & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Physiol Behav  
  Volume 107 Issue 5 Pages 726-732  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The hypothalamic neuropeptide orexin (ORX) has been implicated in anxiety, and anxiety-like behaviors. The purpose of these studies was to determine the role of ORX, specifically orexin-A (ORX-A) in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) on anxiety-like behaviors in rats. Rats injected with ORX-A into the BNST displayed greater anxiety-like measures in the social interaction and elevated plus maze tests compared to vehicle treated controls. Such anxiety-like behaviors were not observed when the ORX-A injections were adjacent to the BNST, in the medial septum. The anxiety-inducing effects of direct infusions of ORX-A into the BNST may be a consequence of increased activation of BNST neurons. In BNST slice preparations using patch-clamp techniques, ORX-A induced membrane depolarization and generation of action potentials in a subset of BNST neurons. The anxiety-inducing effects of ORX-A in the BNST also appear to be dependent on NMDA-type glutamate receptor activity, as pre-injecting the NMDA antagonist AP5 into the BNST blocked anxiogenic effects of local ORX-A injections. Injections of AMPA-type receptor antagonists into the BNST prior to ORX-A resulted in only a partial attenuation of anxiety-like behaviors.

Subject headings: Animals; Anxiety/*chemically induced/physiopathology; Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/*pharmacology; Male; Maze Learning/drug effects; Neuropeptides/*pharmacology; Neurotransmitter Agents/*pharmacology; Orexins; Rats; Rats, Sprague-Dawley; Receptors, Glutamate/*drug effects/physiology; Septal Nuclei/*drug effects/physiology; Social Behavior

Keywords: Orexin-A induces anxiety-like behavior through interactions with glutamatergic receptors in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis of rats
 
  Call Number Serial 2888  
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