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Author (up) Amato, P.R.; Keith, B. file  url
openurl 
  Title Parental divorce and the well-being of children: a meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 1991 Publication Psychological Bulletin Abbreviated Journal Psychol Bull  
  Volume 110 Issue 1 Pages 26-46  
  Keywords Adaptation, Psychological; Adolescent; Child; Child, Preschool; Divorce--psychology; Female; Humans; Male; Meta-Analysis as Topic; Parent-Child Relations; Personality Development  
  Abstract This meta-analysis involved 92 studies that compared children living in divorced single-parent families with children living in continuously intact families on measures of well-being. Children of divorce scored lower than children in intact families across a variety of outcomes, with the median effect size being .14 of a standard deviation. For some outcomes, methodologically sophisticated studies yielded weaker effect sizes than did other studies. In addition, for some outcomes, more recent studies yielded weaker effect sizes than did studies carried out during earlier decades. Some support was found for theoretical perspectives emphasizing parental absence and economic disadvantage, but the most consistent support was found for a family conflict perspective.  
  Call Number Serial 277  
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Author (up) Ceci, S.J.; Williams, W.M.; Barnett, S.M. file  url
openurl 
  Title Women's underrepresentation in science: sociocultural and biological considerations Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Psychological Bulletin Abbreviated Journal Psychol Bull  
  Volume 135 Issue 2 Pages 218-261  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The underrepresentation of women at the top of math-intensive fields is controversial, with competing claims of biological and sociocultural causation. The authors develop a framework to delineate possible causal pathways and evaluate evidence for each. Biological evidence is contradictory and inconclusive. Although cross-cultural and cross-cohort differences suggest a powerful effect of sociocultural context, evidence for specific factors is inconsistent and contradictory. Factors unique to underrepresentation in math-intensive fields include the following: (a) Math-proficient women disproportionately prefer careers in non-math-intensive fields and are more likely to leave math-intensive careers as they advance; (b) more men than women score in the extreme math-proficient range on gatekeeper tests, such as the SAT Mathematics and the Graduate Record Examinations Quantitative Reasoning sections; (c) women with high math competence are disproportionately more likely to have high verbal competence, allowing greater choice of professions; and (d) in some math-intensive fields, women with children are penalized in promotion rates. The evidence indicates that women's preferences, potentially representing both free and constrained choices, constitute the most powerful explanatory factor; a secondary factor is performance on gatekeeper tests, most likely resulting from sociocultural rather than biological causes.

Subject Headings: Adult; Aptitude; Brain/physiology; *Career Choice; Child; Child Rearing/psychology; Engineering/education; Female; Humans; Life Style; *Mathematics; Prejudice; *Science/education; Sex Characteristics; Social Values; Technology/education; *Women/education/psychology; Workforce

Keywords: Women's underrepresentation in science: sociocultural and biological considerations
 
  Call Number Serial 2575  
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Author (up) Cheryan, S.; Ziegler, S.A.; Montoya, A.K.; Jiang, L. file  url
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  Title Why are some STEM fields more gender balanced than others? Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Psychological Bulletin Abbreviated Journal Psychol Bull  
  Volume 143 Issue 1 Pages 1-35  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Women obtain more than half of U.S. undergraduate degrees in biology, chemistry, and mathematics, yet they earn less than 20% of computer science, engineering, and physics undergraduate degrees (National Science Foundation, 2014a). Gender differences in interest in computer science, engineering, and physics appear even before college. Why are women represented in some science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields more than others? We conduct a critical review of the most commonly cited factors explaining gender disparities in STEM participation and investigate whether these factors explain differential gender participation across STEM fields. Math performance and discrimination influence who enters STEM, but there is little evidence to date that these factors explain why women's underrepresentation is relatively worse in some STEM fields. We introduce a model with three overarching factors to explain the larger gender gaps in participation in computer science, engineering, and physics than in biology, chemistry, and mathematics: (a) masculine cultures that signal a lower sense of belonging to women than men, (b) a lack of sufficient early experience with computer science, engineering, and physics, and (c) gender gaps in self-efficacy. Efforts to increase women's participation in computer science, engineering, and physics may benefit from changing masculine cultures and providing students with early experiences that signal equally to both girls and boys that they belong and can succeed in these fields. (PsycINFO Database Record

Subject Headings: *Engineering/statistics & numerical data; Female; Humans; Male; *Mathematics/statistics & numerical data; *Science/statistics & numerical data; *Technology/statistics & numerical data; *Women

Keywords: Why are some STEM fields more gender balanced than others?
 
  Call Number Serial 2576  
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Author (up) Eagly, A.H.; Karau, S.J.; Makhijani, M.G. file  url
openurl 
  Title Gender and the effectiveness of leaders: a meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 1995 Publication Psychological Bulletin Abbreviated Journal Psychol Bull  
  Volume 117 Issue 1 Pages 125-145  
  Keywords Female; *Gender Identity; Humans; *Leadership; Male; Organizational Culture; *Social Behavior; Social Environment  
  Abstract This article presents a synthesis of research on the relative effectiveness of women and men who occupy leadership and managerial roles. Aggregated over the organizational and laboratory experimental studies in the sample, male and female leaders were equally effective. However, consistent with the assumption that the congruence of leadership roles with leaders' gender enhances effectiveness, men were more effective than women in roles that were defined in more masculine terms, and women were more effective than men in roles that were defined in less masculine terms. Also, men were more effective than women to the extent that leader and subordinate roles were male-dominated numerically. These and other findings are discussed from the perspective of social-role theory of sex differences in social behavior as well as from alternative perspectives.  
  Call Number Serial 272  
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Author (up) Stewart-Williams, S.; Podd, J. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title The placebo effect: dissolving the expectancy versus conditioning debate Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Psychological Bulletin Abbreviated Journal Psychol Bull  
  Volume 130 Issue 2 Pages 324-340  
  Keywords Cognition; *Conditioning (Psychology); Humans; *Placebo Effect  
  Abstract The authors review the literature on the 2 main models of the placebo effect: expectancy theory and classical conditioning. A path is suggested to dissolving the theoretical impasse that has long plagued this issue. The key is to make a clear distinction between 2 questions: What factors shape placebo effects? and What learning mediates the placebo effect? The reviewed literature suggests that classical conditioning procedures are one shaping factor but that verbal information can also shape placebo effects. The literature also suggests that conditioning procedures and other sources of information sometimes shape conscious expectancies and that these expectancies mediate some placebo effects; however, in other cases conditioning procedures appear to shape placebo effects that are not mediated by conscious cognition.  
  Call Number Serial 243  
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Author (up) Walsh, R.N.; Cummins, R.A. file  url
openurl 
  Title The Open-Field Test: a critical review Type Journal Article
  Year 1976 Publication Psychological Bulletin Abbreviated Journal Psychol Bull  
  Volume 83 Issue 3 Pages 482-504  
  Keywords *Animal Experimentation; Animals; Behavior, Animal/*physiology; Emotions/physiology; Ethology/instrumentation/*methods/statistics & numerical data; Exploratory Behavior/*physiology; Housing, Animal; Locomotion/physiology; Motor Activity/*physiology; Rats; Rats, Wistar; Research Design  
  Abstract Examines the use in the literature of the open-field test, especially with regard to the development of a standard form. The various procedures and their shortcomings are discussed, with particular reference to the seemingly inconsequential details which have been shown to modulate open-field performance per se. Dependent parameters are considered both with regard to their reliability and their validity for the measurement of such underlying constructs as emotionality. (92 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)  
  Call Number Serial 354  
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