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Author (up) Altman, S.E.; Shankman, S.A. file  url
  Title What is the association between obsessive-compulsive disorder and eating disorders? Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Clinical Psychology Review Abbreviated Journal Clin Psychol Rev  
  Volume 29 Issue 7 Pages 638-646  
  Keywords Anorexia Nervosa/diagnosis/epidemiology/genetics/psychology; Bulimia Nervosa/diagnosis/epidemiology/genetics/psychology; Causality; Comorbidity; Cross-Sectional Studies; Diseases in Twins/genetics/psychology; Feeding and Eating Disorders/diagnosis/epidemiology/genetics/*psychology; Genotype; Humans; Longitudinal Studies; Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis/epidemiology/genetics/*psychology; Personality Disorders/diagnosis/epidemiology/genetics/psychology  
  Abstract Because eating disorders (EDs) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) co-occur at high rates and can have functionally similar clinical presentations, it has been suggested that both constructs might be part of a common spectrum of disorders. Identifying the relationship between EDs and OCD may lead to the discovery of important shared core disease processes and/or mechanisms for maintenance. The objective of this paper is to understand the relationship between EDs and OCD by systematically reviewing epidemiological, longitudinal and family studies guided by five models of comorbidity posited by Klein and Riso (1993) and others. Though this literature is relatively small, the preponderance of evidence from these studies largely suggests that OCD/ED co-occur because of a shared etiological relationship. Limitations to extant literature, and suggestions for future research are discussed.  
  Call Number Serial 1824  
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Author (up) Eagly, A.H.; Karau, S.J. file  url
  Title Role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Psychological Review Abbreviated Journal Psychol Rev  
  Volume 109 Issue 3 Pages 573-598  
  Keywords *Conflict (Psychology); Female; *Gender Identity; Humans; *Leadership; Personnel Management; *Prejudice; Psychological Theory; *Role  
  Abstract A role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders proposes that perceived incongruity between the female gender role and leadership roles leads to 2 forms of prejudice: (a) perceiving women less favorably than men as potential occupants of leadership roles and (b) evaluating behavior that fulfills the prescriptions of a leader role less favorably when it is enacted by a woman. One consequence is that attitudes are less positive toward female than male leaders and potential leaders. Other consequences are that it is more difficult for women to become leaders and to achieve success in leadership roles. Evidence from varied research paradigms substantiates that these consequences occur, especially in situations that heighten perceptions of incongruity between the female gender role and leadership roles.  
  Call Number Serial 271  
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Author (up) Lazarus, S.A.; Cheavens, J.S.; Festa, F.; Zachary Rosenthal, M. file  url
  Title Interpersonal functioning in borderline personality disorder: a systematic review of behavioral and laboratory-based assessments Type
  Year 2014 Publication Clinical Psychology Review Abbreviated Journal Clin Psychol Rev  
  Volume 34 Issue 3 Pages 193-205  
  Abstract It is widely accepted that interpersonal problems are a central area of difficulty for those with borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, empirical elucidation of the specific behaviors, or patterns of behaviors, characterizing interpersonal dysfunction or dissatisfaction with relationships in BPD is limited. In this paper, we review the literature on interpersonal functioning of individuals with BPD by focusing on studies that include some assessment of interpersonal functioning that is not solely self-report; that is, studies with either behavioral laboratory tasks or manipulation of interpersonal stimuli in a controlled laboratory setting were included. First, we review the literature relevant to social cognition, including perceptual biases, Theory of Mind/empathy, and social problem-solving. Second, we discuss research that assesses reactivity to interpersonal stressors and interpersonal aggression in BPD. Next, we review the literature on trust and cooperation among individuals with BPD and controls. Last, we discuss the behavior of mothers with BPD in interactions with their infants. In conclusion, we specify areas of difficulty that are consistently identified as characterizing the interpersonal behaviors of those with BPD and the relevant implications. We also discuss the difficulties in synthesizing this body of literature and suggest areas for future research.

Subject Headings: Aggression/psychology; Borderline Personality Disorder/*psychology; *Empathy; Humans; *Interpersonal Relations; *Social Behavior; *Social Perception; Theory of Mind; Borderline personality disorder; Interpersonal aggression; Interpersonal functioning; Parenting; Social cognition; Trust/cooperation

Keywords: Interpersonal functioning in borderline personality disorder: a systematic review of behavioral and laboratory-based assessments
  Call Number Serial 2772  
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Author (up) O'Donnell, M.L.; Bryant, R.A.; Creamer, M.; Carty, J. file  url
  Title Mental health following traumatic injury: toward a health system model of early psychological intervention Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Clinical Psychology Review Abbreviated Journal Clin Psychol Rev  
  Volume 28 Issue 3 Pages 387-406  
  Keywords Cognitive Therapy/methods; Delivery of Health Care/*methods; Disease Susceptibility/diagnosis/psychology; Follow-Up Studies; Hospitalization; Humans; Interviews as Topic; Life Change Events; *Models, Theoretical; Prevalence; Psychotherapy/*methods; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis/epidemiology/*therapy; Stress, Psychological/etiology/psychology/therapy; Survivors/psychology/statistics & numerical data; Trauma Severity Indices; United States/epidemiology; Wounds and Injuries/complications/*psychology  
  Abstract In 2005, over 2 million people in the United States of America were hospitalised following non-fatal injuries. The frequency with which severe injury occurs renders it a leading cause of posttraumatic stress disorder and other trauma-related psychopathology. In order to develop a health system model of early psychological intervention for this population, we review the literature that pertains to mental health early intervention. The relevant domains include prevalence of psychopathology following traumatic injury, the course of symptoms, screening, and early intervention strategies. On the basis of available evidence, we propose a health system model of early psychological intervention following traumatic injury. The model involves screening for vulnerability within the hospital setting, follow-up screening for persistent symptoms at one month posttrauma, and early psychological intervention for those who are experiencing clinical impairment. Recommendations are made to facilitate tailoring early intervention psychological therapies to the special needs of the injury population.  
  Call Number Serial 1163  
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Author (up) Pergamin-Hight, L.; Naim, R.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.; Bar-Haim, Y. file  url
  Title Content specificity of attention bias to threat in anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Clinical Psychology Review Abbreviated Journal Clin Psychol Rev  
  Volume 35 Issue Pages 10-18  
  Keywords Anxiety Disorders/*psychology; *Attention; Humans; Anxiety; Attention; Attention bias modification; Threat  
  Abstract Despite the established evidence for threat-related attention bias in anxiety, the mechanisms underlying this bias remain unclear. One important unresolved question is whether disorder-congruent threats capture attention to a greater extent than do more general or disorder-incongruent threat stimuli. Evidence for attention bias specificity in anxiety would implicate involvement of previous learning and memory processes in threat-related attention bias, whereas lack of content specificity would point to perturbations in more generic attention processes. Enhanced clarity of mechanism could have clinical implications for the stimuli types used in Attention Bias Modification Treatments (ABMT). Content specificity of threat-related attention bias in anxiety and potential moderators of this effect were investigated. A systematic search identified 37 samples from 29 articles (N=866). Relevant data were extracted based on specific coding rules, and Cohen's d effect size was used to estimate bias specificity effects. The results indicate greater attention bias toward disorder-congruent relative to disorder-incongruent threat stimuli (d=0.28, p<0.0001). This effect was not moderated by age, type of anxiety disorder, visual attention tasks, or type of disorder-incongruent stimuli. No evidence of publication bias was observed. Implications for threat bias in anxiety and ABMT are discussed.  
  Call Number Serial 1729  
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Author (up) Salthouse, T.A. file  url
  Title The processing-speed theory of adult age differences in cognition Type Journal Article
  Year 1996 Publication Psychological Review Abbreviated Journal Psychol Rev  
  Volume 103 Issue 3 Pages 403-428  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Aging/*psychology; Attention; *Cognition; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; *Reaction Time  
  Abstract A theory is proposed to account for some of the age-related differences reported in measures of Type A or fluid cognition. The central hypothesis in the theory is that increased age in adulthood is associated with a decrease in the speed with which many processing operations can be executed and that this reduction in speed leads to impairments in cognitive functioning because of what are termed the limited time mechanism and the simultaneity mechanism. That is, cognitive performance is degraded when processing is slow because relevant operations cannot be successfully executed (limited time) and because the products of early processing may no longer be available when later processing is complete (simultaneity). Several types of evidence, such as the discovery of considerable shared age-related variance across various measures of speed and large attenuation of the age-related influences on cognitive measures after statistical control of measures of speed, are consistent with this theory.  
  Call Number Serial 2177  
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Author (up) Shapiro, J.R.; Neuberg, S.L. file  url
  Title From stereotype threat to stereotype threats: implications of a multi-threat framework for causes, moderators, mediators, consequences, and interventions Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Personality and Social Psychology Review : an Official Journal of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc Abbreviated Journal Pers Soc Psychol Rev  
  Volume 11 Issue 2 Pages 107-130  
  Keywords *Affect; *Attitude; Humans; *Negotiating; *Social Behavior; *Stereotyping  
  Abstract More than 100 articles have examined the construct of stereotype threat and its implications. However, stereotype threat seems to mean different things to different researchers and has been employed to describe and explain processes and phenomena that appear to be fundamentally distinct. Complementing existing models, the authors posit a Multi-Threat Framework in which six qualitatively distinct stereotype threats arise from the intersection of two dimensions--the target of the threat (the self/one's group) and the source of the threat (the self/outgroup others/ingroup others). The authors propose that these threats constitute the core of the broader stereotype threat construct and provide the foundation for understanding additional, as of yet uncharacterized, stereotype threats. The proposed threats likely differentially peril those with different stigmatizable characteristics, have different eliciting conditions and moderators, are mediated by somewhat different processes, are coped with and compensated for in different ways, and require different interventions to overcome.  
  Call Number Serial 1311  
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Author (up) Stevenson, R.J.; Boakes, R.A. file  url
  Title A mnemonic theory of odor perception Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Psychological Review Abbreviated Journal Psychol Rev  
  Volume 110 Issue 2 Pages 340-364  
  Abstract The psychological basis of odor quality is poorly understood. For pragmatic reason, descriptions of odor quality generally rely on profiling odors in terms of what odorants they bring to mind. It is argued here that this reliance on profiling reflects a basic property of odor perception, namely that odor quality depends on the implicit memories that an odorant elicits. This is supported by evidence indicating that odor quality as well as one's ability to discriminate odors is affected by experience. Developmental studies and cross-cultural research also point to this conclusion. In this article, these findings are reviewed and a model that attempts to account for them is proposed. Finally, the model's consistency with both neurophysiological and neuropsychological data is examined.

Subject Headings: Humans; Memory/*physiology; *Psychological Theory; Smell/*physiology

Keywords: A mnemonic theory of odor perception
  Call Number Serial 2425  
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Author (up) Urbanoski, K.A.; Kelly, J.F. file  url
  Title Understanding genetic risk for substance use and addiction: a guide for non-geneticists Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Clinical Psychology Review Abbreviated Journal Clin Psychol Rev  
  Volume 32 Issue 1 Pages 60-70  
  Keywords Behavior, Addictive--genetics; Family; Genetic Predisposition to Disease; Humans; Research Design; Risk Factors; Substance-Related Disorders--genetics  
  Abstract There is considerable enthusiasm for the potential of genetics research for prevention and treatment of addiction and other mental disorders. As a result, clinicians are increasingly exposed to issues of genetics that are fairly complex, and for which they may not have been adequately prepared by their training. Studies suggest that the heritability of substance use disorders is approximately 0.5. Others report that family members of affected individuals experience a 4- to 8-fold increased risk of disorder themselves. Statements that addiction is “50% genetic” in origin may be taken by some to imply one's chances of developing the disorder, or that a lack of a positive family history confers immunity. In fact, such conclusions are inaccurate, their implications unwarranted given the true meaning of heritability. Through a review of basic concepts in genetic epidemiology, we attempt to demystify these estimates of risk and situate them within the broader context of addiction. Methods of inferring population genetic variance and individual familial risk are examined, with a focus on their practical application and limitations. An accurate conceptualization of addiction necessitates an approach that transcends specific disciplines, making a basic awareness of the perspectives of disparate specialties key to furthering progress in the field.  
  Call Number Serial 469  
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