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Author Hausfather, Z.; Cowtan, K.; Clarke, D.C.; Jacobs, P.; Richardson, M.; Rohde, R. url  openurl
  Title Assessing recent warming using instrumentally homogeneous sea surface temperature records Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2017 Publication Science Advances Abbreviated Journal Sci Adv  
  Volume 3 Issue 1 Pages e1601207  
  Keywords Climate change; homogeneity; sea surface temperature  
  Abstract Sea surface temperature (SST) records are subject to potential biases due to changing instrumentation and measurement practices. Significant differences exist between commonly used composite SST reconstructions from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Extended Reconstruction Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST), the Hadley Centre SST data set (HadSST3), and the Japanese Meteorological Agency's Centennial Observation-Based Estimates of SSTs (COBE-SST) from 2003 to the present. The update from ERSST version 3b to version 4 resulted in an increase in the operational SST trend estimate during the last 19 years from 0.07 degrees to 0.12 degrees C per decade, indicating a higher rate of warming in recent years. We show that ERSST version 4 trends generally agree with largely independent, near-global, and instrumentally homogeneous SST measurements from floating buoys, Argo floats, and radiometer-based satellite measurements that have been developed and deployed during the past two decades. We find a large cooling bias in ERSST version 3b and smaller but significant cooling biases in HadSST3 and COBE-SST from 2003 to the present, with respect to most series examined. These results suggest that reported rates of SST warming in recent years have been underestimated in these three data sets.  
  Call Number Serial 1667  
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Author file  url
openurl 
  Title Projected Economic Effect of Climate Change on Counties in the United States Type Miscellaneous
  Year (down) 2017 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Climate change; Economic damage; Economic effect; United States; Counties  
  Abstract This graphic represents the projected economic effects of climate change on counties in the United States by 2080-2099. Areas in shades of red are counties that will lose a percentage of their Gross Domestic Product (GDP), while areas in shades of green are counties that may actually increase their GDP.  
  Call Number Serial 1865  
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Author Lee, A.H.; Eme, J.; Mueller, C.A.; Manzon, R.G.; Somers, C.M.; Boreham, D.R.; Wilson, J.Y. file  url
openurl 
  Title The effects of increased constant incubation temperature and cumulative acute heat shock exposures on morphology and survival of Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) embryos Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2016 Publication Journal of Thermal Biology Abbreviated Journal J Therm Biol  
  Volume 57 Issue Pages 11-20  
  Keywords Climate change; Coregonus clupeaformis; Great Lakes; Heat shock; Morphology; Survival; Temperature; Thermal effluent  
  Abstract Increasing incubation temperatures, caused by global climate change or thermal effluent from industrial processes, may influence embryonic development of fish. This study investigates the cumulative effects of increased incubation temperature and repeated heat shocks on developing Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) embryos. We studied the effects of three constant incubation temperatures (2 degrees C, 5 degrees C or 8 degrees C water) and weekly, 1-h heat shocks (+3 degrees C) on hatching time, survival and morphology of embryos, as these endpoints may be particularly susceptible to temperature changes. The constant temperatures represent the predicted magnitude of elevated water temperatures from climate change and industrial thermal plumes. Time to the pre-hatch stage decreased as constant incubation temperature increased (148d at 2 degrees C, 92d at 5 degrees C, 50d at 8 degrees C), but weekly heat shocks did not affect time to hatch. Mean survival rates and embryo morphometrics were compared at specific developmental time-points (blastopore, eyed, fin flutter and pre-hatch) across all treatments. Constant incubation temperatures or +3 degrees C heat-shock exposures did not significantly alter cumulative survival percentage (~50% cumulative survival to pre-hatch stage). Constant warm incubation temperatures did result in differences in morphology in pre-hatch stage embryos. 8 degrees C and 5 degrees C embryos were significantly smaller and had larger yolks than 2 degrees C embryos, but heat-shocked embryos did not differ from their respective constant temperature treatment groups. Elevated incubation temperatures may adversely alter Lake Whitefish embryo size at hatch, but weekly 1-h heat shocks did not affect size or survival at hatch. These results suggest that intermittent bouts of warm water effluent (e.g., variable industrial emissions) are less likely to negatively affect Lake Whitefish embryonic development than warmer constant incubation temperatures that may occur due to climate change.  
  Call Number Serial 1227  
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Author Harada, N. file  url
openurl 
  Title Review: Potential catastrophic reduction of sea ice in the western Arctic Ocean: Its impact on biogeochemical cycles and marine ecosystems Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2016 Publication Global and Planetary Change Abbreviated Journal Global and Planetary Change  
  Volume 136 Issue Pages 1-17  
  Keywords Arctic Ocean; Productivity; Biological pump; Marine ecosystem; Eddy; Climate change  
  Abstract The reduction of sea ice in the Arctic Ocean, which has progressed more rapidly than previously predicted, has the potential to cause multiple environmental stresses, including warming, acidification, and strengthened stratification of the ocean. Observational studies have been undertaken to detect the impacts on biogeochemical cycles and marine ecosystems of these environmental stresses in the Arctic Ocean. Satellite analyses show that the reduction of sea ice has been especially great in the western Arctic Ocean. Observations and model simulations have both helped to clarify the impact of sea-ice reductions on the dynamics of ecosystem processes and biogeochemical cycles. In this review, I focus on the western Arctic Ocean, which has experienced the most rapid retreat of sea ice in the Arctic Ocean and, very importantly, has a higher rate of primary production than any other area of the Arctic Ocean owing to the supply of nutrient-rich Pacific water. I report the impact of the current reduction of sea ice on marine biogeochemical cycles in the western Arctic Ocean, including lower-trophic-level organisms, and identify the key mechanism of changes in the biogeochemical cycles, based on published observations and model simulations. The retreat of sea ice has enhanced primary production and has increased the frequency of appearance of mesoscale anticyclonic eddies. These eddies enhance the light environment and replenish nutrients, and they also represent a mechanism that can increase the rate of the biological pump in the Arctic Ocean. Various unresolved issues that require further investigation, such as biological responses to environmental stressors such as ocean acidification, are also discussed.  
  Call Number Serial 1677  
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Author Blanc-Betes, E.; Welker, J.M.; Sturchio, N.C.; Chanton, J.P.; Gonzalez-Meler, M.A. file  url
openurl 
  Title Winter precipitation and snow accumulation drive the methane sink or source strength of Arctic tussock tundra Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2016 Publication Global Change Biology Abbreviated Journal Glob Chang Biol  
  Volume 22 Issue 8 Pages 2818-2833  
  Keywords Arctic; isotope; methane; methanogenesis; methanotrophy; snow accumulation; temperature; tundra  
  Abstract Arctic winter precipitation is projected to increase with global warming, but some areas will experience decreases in snow accumulation. Although Arctic CH4 emissions may represent a significant climate forcing feedback, long-term impacts of changes in snow accumulation on CH4 fluxes remain uncertain. We measured ecosystem CH4 fluxes and soil CH4 and CO2 concentrations and (13) C composition to investigate the metabolic pathways and transport mechanisms driving moist acidic tundra CH4 flux over the growing season (Jun-Aug) after 18 years of experimental snow depth increases and decreases. Deeper snow increased soil wetness and warming, reducing soil %O2 levels and increasing thaw depth. Soil moisture, through changes in soil %O2 saturation, determined predominance of methanotrophy or methanogenesis, with soil temperature regulating the ecosystem CH4 sink or source strength. Reduced snow (RS) increased the fraction of oxidized CH4 (Fox) by 75-120% compared to Ambient, switching the system from a small source to a net CH4 sink (21 +/- 2 and -31 +/- 1 mg CH4 m(-2) season(-1) at Ambient and RS). Deeper snow reduced Fox by 35-40% and 90-100% in medium- (MS) and high- (HS) snow additions relative to Ambient, contributing to increasing the CH4 source strength of moist acidic tundra (464 +/- 15 and 3561 +/- 97 mg CH4 m(-2) season(-1) at MS and HS). Decreases in Fox with deeper snow were partly due to increases in plant-mediated CH4 transport associated with the expansion of tall graminoids. Deeper snow enhanced CH4 production within newly thawed soils, responding mainly to soil warming rather than to increases in acetate fermentation expected from thaw-induced increases in SOC availability. Our results suggest that increased winter precipitation will increase the CH4 source strength of Arctic tundra, but the resulting positive feedback on climate change will depend on the balance between areas with more or less snow accumulation than they are currently facing.  
  Call Number Serial 1927  
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