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Author Kondolf, G.M.; Schmitt, R.J.P.; Carling, P.; Darby, S.; Arias, M.; Bizzi, S.; Castelletti, A.; Cochrane, T.A.; Gibson, S.; Kummu, M.; Oeurng, C.; Rubin, Z.; Wild, T. file  url
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  Title Changing sediment budget of the Mekong: Cumulative threats and management strategies for a large river basin Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2018 Publication The Science of the Total Environment Abbreviated Journal Sci Total Environ  
  Volume 625 Issue Pages 114-134  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Two decades after the construction of the first major dam, the Mekong basin and its six riparian countries have seen rapid economic growth and development of the river system. Hydropower dams, aggregate mines, flood-control dykes, and groundwater-irrigated agriculture have all provided short-term economic benefits throughout the basin. However, it is becoming evident that anthropic changes are significantly affecting the natural functioning of the river and its floodplains. We now ask if these changes are risking major adverse impacts for the 70 million people living in the Mekong Basin. Many livelihoods in the basin depend on ecosystem services that will be strongly impacted by alterations of the sediment transport processes that drive river and delta morpho-dynamics, which underpin a sustainable future for the Mekong basin and Delta. Drawing upon ongoing and recently published research, we provide an overview of key drivers of change (hydropower development, sand mining, dyking and water infrastructures, climate change, and accelerated subsidence from pumping) for the Mekong's sediment budget, and their likely individual and cumulative impacts on the river system. Our results quantify the degree to which the Mekong delta, which receives the impacts from the entire connected river basin, is increasingly vulnerable in the face of declining sediment loads, rising seas and subsiding land. Without concerted action, it is likely that nearly half of the Delta's land surface will be below sea level by 2100, with the remaining areas impacted by salinization and frequent flooding. The threat to the Delta can be understood only in the context of processes in the entire river basin. The Mekong River case can serve to raise awareness of how the connected functions of river systems in general depend on undisturbed sediment transport, thereby informing planning for other large river basins currently embarking on rapid economic development.

Subject Headings: Mekong Delta; Mekong River; River Basin management; Sediment budget; Sediment management

Keywords: Changing sediment budget of the Mekong: Cumulative threats and management strategies for a large river basin
 
  Call Number Serial 2383  
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Author Hung, K.-L.J.; Kingston, J.M.; Albrecht, M.; Holway, D.A.; Kohn, J.R. file  url
openurl 
  Title The worldwide importance of honey bees as pollinators in natural habitats Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2018 Publication Proceedings. Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Proc Biol Sci  
  Volume 285 Issue 1870 Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The western honey bee (Apis mellifera) is the most frequent floral visitor of crops worldwide, but quantitative knowledge of its role as a pollinator outside of managed habitats is largely lacking. Here we use a global dataset of 80 published plant-pollinator interaction networks as well as pollinator effectiveness measures from 34 plant species to assess the importance of A. mellifera in natural habitats. Apis mellifera is the most frequent floral visitor in natural habitats worldwide, averaging 13% of floral visits across all networks (range 0-85%), with 5% of plant species recorded as being exclusively visited by A. mellifera For 33% of the networks and 49% of plant species, however, A. mellifera visitation was never observed, illustrating that many flowering plant taxa and assemblages remain dependent on non-A. mellifera visitors for pollination. Apis mellifera visitation was higher in warmer, less variable climates and on mainland rather than island sites, but did not differ between its native and introduced ranges. With respect to single-visit pollination effectiveness, A. mellifera did not differ from the average non-A. mellifera floral visitor, though it was generally less effective than the most effective non-A. mellifera visitor. Our results argue for a deeper understanding of how A. mellifera, and potential future changes in its range and abundance, shape the ecology, evolution, and conservation of plants, pollinators, and their interactions in natural habitats.

Subject Headings: *Apis mellifera; *floral visitation; *meta-analysis; *plant-pollinator network; *pollination; *pollination effectiveness

Keywords: The worldwide importance of honey bees as pollinators in natural habitats
 
  Call Number Serial 2404  
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Author Hausfather, Z.; Cowtan, K.; Clarke, D.C.; Jacobs, P.; Richardson, M.; Rohde, R. url  openurl
  Title Assessing recent warming using instrumentally homogeneous sea surface temperature records Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2017 Publication Science Advances Abbreviated Journal Sci Adv  
  Volume 3 Issue 1 Pages e1601207  
  Keywords Climate change; homogeneity; sea surface temperature  
  Abstract Sea surface temperature (SST) records are subject to potential biases due to changing instrumentation and measurement practices. Significant differences exist between commonly used composite SST reconstructions from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Extended Reconstruction Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST), the Hadley Centre SST data set (HadSST3), and the Japanese Meteorological Agency's Centennial Observation-Based Estimates of SSTs (COBE-SST) from 2003 to the present. The update from ERSST version 3b to version 4 resulted in an increase in the operational SST trend estimate during the last 19 years from 0.07 degrees to 0.12 degrees C per decade, indicating a higher rate of warming in recent years. We show that ERSST version 4 trends generally agree with largely independent, near-global, and instrumentally homogeneous SST measurements from floating buoys, Argo floats, and radiometer-based satellite measurements that have been developed and deployed during the past two decades. We find a large cooling bias in ERSST version 3b and smaller but significant cooling biases in HadSST3 and COBE-SST from 2003 to the present, with respect to most series examined. These results suggest that reported rates of SST warming in recent years have been underestimated in these three data sets.  
  Call Number Serial 1667  
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Author Duan, H. file  url
openurl 
  Title Emissions and temperature benefits: The role of wind power in China Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2017 Publication Environmental Research Abbreviated Journal Environ Res  
  Volume 152 Issue Pages 342-350  
  Keywords Air Pollution/*prevention & control; China; *Climate Change; Coal/analysis; Global Warming/prevention & control; Greenhouse Effect/*prevention & control; Models, Economic; Models, Theoretical; Power Plants; Renewable Energy; *Wind; *Climate integrated model; *Fossil fuel substitution; *Temperature benefits; *Wind energy  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: As a non-fossil technology, wind power has an enormous advantage over coal because of its role in climate change mitigation. Therefore, it is important to investigate how substituting wind power for coal-fired electricity will affect emission reductions, changes in radiative forcing and rising temperatures, particularly in the context of emission limits. METHODS: We developed an integrated methodology that includes two parts: an energy-economy-environmental (3E) integrated model and an emission-temperature response model. The former is used to simulate the dynamic relationships between economic output, wind energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; the latter is used to evaluate changes in radiative forcing and warming. RESULTS: Under the present development projection, wind energy cannot serve as a major force in curbing emissions, even under the strictest space-restraining scenario. China's temperature contribution to global warming will be up to 21.76% if warming is limited to 2 degrees. With the wind-for-coal power substitution, the corresponding contribution to global radiative forcing increase and temperature rise will decrease by up to 10% and 6.57%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Substituting wind power for coal-fired electricity has positive effects on emission reductions and warming control. However, wind energy alone is insufficient for climate change mitigation. It forms an important component of the renewable energy portfolio used to combat global warming.  
  Call Number Serial 2104  
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Author file  url
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  Title Projected Economic Effect of Climate Change on Counties in the United States Type Miscellaneous
  Year (down) 2017 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Climate change; Economic damage; Economic effect; United States; Counties  
  Abstract This graphic represents the projected economic effects of climate change on counties in the United States by 2080-2099. Areas in shades of red are counties that will lose a percentage of their Gross Domestic Product (GDP), while areas in shades of green are counties that may actually increase their GDP.  
  Call Number Serial 1865  
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