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Author (up) Aarestrup, F.M.; Bager, F.; Jensen, N.E.; Madsen, M.; Meyling, A.; Wegener, H.C. file  url
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  Title Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from food animals to antimicrobial growth promoters and related therapeutic agents in Denmark Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication APMIS : Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica Abbreviated Journal Apmis  
  Volume 106 Issue 6 Pages 606-622  
  Keywords Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents/*pharmacology; Bacteria/*drug effects/*isolation & purification; Bacterial Infections/drug therapy/veterinary; Cattle; Cattle Diseases/drug therapy/microbiology; Cecum/microbiology; Chickens/growth & development; Drug Resistance, Microbial; Feces/microbiology; Meat/*microbiology; Microbial Sensitivity Tests/veterinary; Poultry Diseases/drug therapy/microbiology; Swine/growth & development; Swine Diseases/drug therapy/microbiology  
  Abstract This study was conducted to describe the occurrence of acquired resistance to antimicrobials used for growth promotion among bacteria isolated from swine, cattle and poultry in Denmark. Resistance to structurally related therapeutic agents was also examined. Three categories of bacteria were tested: 1) indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium), 2) zoonotic bacteria (Campylobacter, Salmonella, Yersinia enterocolitica), and 3) animal pathogens (E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), Staphylococcus hyicus, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae). All antimicrobials used as growth promoters in Denmark and some structurally related therapeutic agents (in brackets) were included: Avilamycin, avoparcin (vancomycin), bacitracin, carbadox, flavomycin, monensin, olaquindox, salinomycin, spiramycin (erythromycin, lincomycin), tylosin (erythromycin, lincomycin), and virginiamycin (pristinamycin). Bacterial species intrinsically resistant to an antimicrobial were not tested towards that antimicrobial. Breakpoints for growth promoters were established by population distribution of the bacteria tested. A total of 2,372 bacterial isolates collected during October 1995 to September 1996 were included in the study. Acquired resistance to all currently used growth promoting antimicrobials was found. A frequent occurrence of resistance were observed to avilamycin, avoparcin, bacitracin, flavomycin, spiramycin, tylosin and virginiamycin, whereas resistance to carbadox, monensin, olaquindox and salinomycin was less frequent. The occurrence of resistance varied by animal origin and bacterial species. The highest levels of resistance was observed among enterococci, whereas less resistance was observed among zoonotic bacteria and bacteria pathogenic to animals. The association between the occurrence of resistance and the consumption of the antimicrobial is discussed. The results show the present level of resistance to growth promoters in bacteria from food animals in Denmark. They will form the baseline for comparison with future prospective studies, thereby enabling the determination of trends over time.  
  Call Number Serial 1676  
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Author (up) Bandgar, B.P.; Gawande, S.S.; Bodade, R.G.; Gawande, N.M.; Khobragade, C.N. file  url
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  Title Synthesis and biological evaluation of a novel series of pyrazole chalcones as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antimicrobial agents Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Abbreviated Journal Bioorg Med Chem  
  Volume 17 Issue 24 Pages 8168-8173  
  Keywords Anti-Infective Agents/chemical synthesis/pharmacology; Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemical synthesis/pharmacology; Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/chemical synthesis/pharmacology; Antioxidants/chemical synthesis/pharmacology; Chalcones/*chemical synthesis/chemistry/*pharmacology; Flavonoids; Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors; Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors  
  Abstract A novel series of 1-(2,4-dimethoxy-phenyl)-3-(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-propenone (3) have been prepared by the Claisen-Schmidt condensation of 1-(2,4-dimethoxy-phenyl)-ethanone (1) and substituted 1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbaldehydes (2). Substituted 1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbaldehydes (2) were prepared by Vilsmeir-Haack reaction on acetophenonephenylhydrazones to offer the target compounds. The structures of the compounds were established by IR, (1)H NMR and mass spectral analysis. All the compounds were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory (TNF-alpha and IL-6 inhibitory assays), antioxidant (DPPH free radical scavenging assay) and antimicrobial activities (agar diffusion method) against some pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Of 10 compounds screened, compounds 3a, 3c and 3g exhibited promising IL-6 inhibitory (35-70% inhibition, 10 microM), free radical scavenging (25-35% DPPH activity) and antimicrobial activities (MIC 100 microg/mL and 250 microg/mL) at varied concentrations. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) and in silico drug relevant properties (HBD, HBA, PSA, cLogP, molecular weight, E(HOMO) and E(LUMO)) further confirmed that the compounds are potential lead compounds for future drug discovery study. Toxicity of the compounds was evaluated theoretically and experimentally and revealed to be nontoxic except 3d and 3j.  
  Call Number Serial 1466  
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Author (up) Brackett, R.E. file  url
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  Title Incidence, contributing factors, and control of bacterial pathogens in produce Type Journal Article
  Year 1999 Publication Postharvest Biology and Technology Abbreviated Journal Postharvest Biology and Technology  
  Volume 15 Issue 3 Pages 305-311. *Strategian Select*  
  Keywords Fresh produce; Food safety; Bacterial pathogens; Food poisoning  
  Abstract The importance of bacterial pathogens in the transmission of foodborne illness has become apparent in recent years. Several large, well-publicized outbreaks of foodborne illness have been linked to cantaloupe, tomatoes, lettuce, alfalfa sprouts, and both apple and orange juices. In addition, numerous other smaller scale outbreaks linked to these and other commodities have also been reported. Although contributing factors have not been determined in all cases, several notable causes have been proposed. In particular, cross contamination with fecal matter of both domestic as well as wild animals have been suggested. In addition, contact with contaminated water has also been identified as a source of contamination. However, the use of untreated manure or sewage, lack of field sanitation, poorly or unsanitized transportation vehicles, and contamination by handlers are also suggested as potential contributing factors. Control of foodborne pathogens in produce must begin before produce is even planted by avoiding fields which have been subjected to flooding, on which animals have been recently grazed, or have otherwise been contaminated with manure. After planting, only clean potable water should be used for irrigation and harvesting equipment should be thoroughly cleaned and sanitized. Both field workers and packinghouse and processing plant personnel should be instructed in proper personal hygiene and provided with adequate sanitary and handwashing facilities. Vehicles transporting finished products should be sanitized, properly loaded to provide adequate air circulation, and maintained at proper temperatures. Likewise, retail display cases must be kept clean and at proper refrigeration temperatures. Finally, consumers should be informed as to proper handling of produce, particularly in the case of new generation products such as modified atmosphere packaged produce.  
  Call Number Serial 1673  
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Author (up) Flores-Mireles, A.L.; Walker, J.N.; Caparon, M.; Hultgren, S.J. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Urinary tract infections: epidemiology, mechanisms of infection and treatment options Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Nature Reviews. Microbiology Abbreviated Journal Nat Rev Microbiol  
  Volume 13 Issue 5 Pages 269-284  
  Keywords Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use; Bacterial Infections/*drug therapy/economics/*epidemiology/microbiology; Humans; Risk Factors; Urinary Tract Infections/*drug therapy/economics/*epidemiology/microbiology  
  Abstract Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a severe public health problem and are caused by a range of pathogens, but most commonly by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. High recurrence rates and increasing antimicrobial resistance among uropathogens threaten to greatly increase the economic burden of these infections. In this Review, we discuss how basic science studies are elucidating the molecular details of the crosstalk that occurs at the host-pathogen interface, as well as the consequences of these interactions for the pathophysiology of UTIs. We also describe current efforts to translate this knowledge into new clinical treatments for UTIs.  
  Call Number Serial 1181  
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Author (up) Fugier, E.; Pappas, G.; Gorvel, J.-P. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Virulence factors in brucellosis: implications for aetiopathogenesis and treatment Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine Abbreviated Journal Expert Rev Mol Med  
  Volume 9 Issue 35 Pages 1-10  
  Keywords Animals; Brucella/metabolism/*pathogenicity; Brucellosis/*drug therapy/immunology/*microbiology; Humans; Lipopolysaccharides/metabolism; Phosphatidylcholines/metabolism; *Virulence  
  Abstract Brucella species are responsible for the global zoonotic disease brucellosis. These intracellular pathogens express a set of factors – including lipopolysaccharides, virulence regulator proteins and phosphatidylcholine – to ensure their full virulence. Some virulence factors are essential for invasion of the host cell, whereas others are crucial to avoid elimination by the host. They allow Brucella spp. to survive and proliferate within its replicative vacuole and enable the bacteria to escape detection by the host immune system. Several strategies have been used to develop animal vaccines against brucellosis, but no adequate vaccine yet exists to cure the disease in humans. This is probably due to the complicated pathophysiology of human Brucella spp. infection, which is different than in animal models. Here we review Brucella spp. virulence factors and how they control bacterial trafficking within the host cell.  
  Call Number Serial 390  
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