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Author (up) Borre, Y.E.; Moloney, R.D.; Clarke, G.; Dinan, T.G.; Cryan, J.F. file  url
openurl 
  Title The impact of microbiota on brain and behavior: mechanisms & therapeutic potential Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology Abbreviated Journal Adv Exp Med Biol  
  Volume 817 Issue Pages 373-403  
  Keywords Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology; *Behavior; Brain/*physiology; Brain Diseases/therapy; Cognition; Humans; Intestines/microbiology; Microbiome; Microbiota/*physiology; Probiotics/pharmacology; Signal Transduction; Tryptophan/metabolism  
  Abstract There is increasing evidence that host-microbe interactions play a key role in maintaining homeostasis. Alterations in gut microbial composition is associated with marked changes in behaviors relevant to mood, pain and cognition, establishing the critical importance of the bi-directional pathway of communication between the microbiota and the brain in health and disease. Dysfunction of the microbiome-brain-gut axis has been implicated in stress-related disorders such as depression, anxiety and irritable bowel syndrome and neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism. Bacterial colonization of the gut is central to postnatal development and maturation of key systems that have the capacity to influence central nervous system (CNS) programming and signaling, including the immune and endocrine systems. Moreover, there is now expanding evidence for the view that enteric microbiota plays a role in early programming and later response to acute and chronic stress. This view is supported by studies in germ-free mice and in animals exposed to pathogenic bacterial infections, probiotic agents or antibiotics. Although communication between gut microbiota and the CNS are not fully elucidated, neural, hormonal, immune and metabolic pathways have been suggested. Thus, the concept of a microbiome-brain-gut axis is emerging, suggesting microbiota-modulating strategies may be a tractable therapeutic approach for developing novel treatments for CNS disorders.  
  Call Number Serial 2003  
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Author (up) Materi, W.; Pilgrim, D. file  url
openurl 
  Title Novel Caenorhabditis elegans unc-119 axon outgrowth defects correlate with behavioral phenotypes that are partially rescued by nonneural unc-119 Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Genesis (New York, N.Y. : 2000) Abbreviated Journal Genesis  
  Volume 42 Issue 2 Pages 104-116  
  Keywords Animals; Axons/*ultrastructure; *Behavior, Animal; Caenorhabditis elegans/genetics/*growth & development; Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/genetics/*physiology; Exons; Gene Transfer Techniques; Green Fluorescent Proteins/analysis/genetics; Introns; Muscles/innervation; Mutation; Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics/*physiology; Neurons, Afferent/*cytology; Phenotype  
  Abstract UNC-119 function is necessary for the correct development of the Caenorhabditis elegans nervous system. Worms mutant for unc-119 exhibit nervous system structural defects, including supernumerary axon branches, defasciculated nerve fibers, and choice point errors. Axons of both mechanosensory (ALM) and chemo- sensory (ASI) neurons have elongation defects within the nerve ring. Expressing unc-119 cDNA in mechanosensory neurons rescues the elongation defect of ALM axons, but expression in ASI neurons does not rescue ASI axon elongation defects. Neither gross movement nor dauer larva formation defects are rescued in either case. However, expressing a construct including introns under the control of the same promoters results in substantial rescue of phenotypic defects. In these cases reporter expression expands to tissues outside those specified by the promoter, notably into head muscles. Surprisingly, expressing an unc-119 cDNA construct under the control of a muscle-specific promoter fully rescues the dauer formation defect and substantially rescues movement. Thus, although UNC-119 normally acts in a cell-autonomous fashion, the cell-nonautonomous rescue of neural function suggests that it either acts at the cell surface or that it can be transported into the cell from the extracellular environment and play its normal role.  
  Call Number Serial 1004  
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Author (up) McDowell, J.J. file  url
openurl 
  Title The importance of Herrnstein's mathematical statement of the law of effect for behavior therapy Type Journal Article
  Year 1982 Publication The American Psychologist Abbreviated Journal Am Psychol  
  Volume 37 Issue 7 Pages 771-779  
  Keywords Adult; *Behavior Therapy; Female; Humans; Male; *Mathematics; Mental Disorders/therapy; Reinforcement (Psychology); Reinforcement Schedule  
  Abstract Suggests that R. Herrnstein's (1970) mathematical statement of the law of effect improves on Skinner's view of reinforcement by asserting (a) that response rate varies hyperbolically with reinforcement rate and (b) that responding is governed not only by reinforcement obtained for responding but also by reinforcement obtained from all other concurrent sources. Data from pigeons and rats and from normal and mentally retarded humans in laboratory and clinical situations support this new view of reinforcement. Clinically, Herrnstein's equation requires a broader environmental approach to conceptualizing cases and to applying reinforcement principles in therapy. The equation can help clinicians design treatment regimens more efficiently, and it suggests 4 new intervention strategies that may be especially useful in difficult cases (e.g., when standard procedures are contraindicated or in environments that already supply large amounts of reinforcement). (31 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)  
  Call Number Serial 296  
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Author (up) Stanford, S.C. file  url
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  Title The Open Field Test: reinventing the wheel Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Journal of Psychopharmacology (Oxford, England) Abbreviated Journal J Psychopharmacol  
  Volume 21 Issue 2 Pages 134-135  
  Keywords Animals; *Behavior, Animal; Clinical Laboratory Techniques/standards; Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/*methods/standards; Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions; Mice; *Models, Animal; Motor Activity/*drug effects; Pharmacology/methods; Reproducibility of Results; Research Design/standards  
  Abstract Comments on an article by D. A. Blizard et al. (see record 2005-04842-010). A molecular geneticist advised me recently that no study of a new strain of mutant mice would survive peer review unless the Open Field Test has been used to profile their locomotor activity. This would certainly help to explain why the number of publications extracted by keywords 'open field' with 'locomotor activity' has increased fourfold in the last 10 years, but it's worrying. Although it is not at all certain what the Open Field Test actually measures, it is absolutely clear that it does not give a simple index of the status of motor output. It is easy to see why the Open Field Test is so alluring. The modest approach is to score the number of times the rodent crosses a matrix of lines that has been painted on the floor of the arena. Higher-tech labs have the option of using activity meters, which record the number of times the animal intercepts parallel beams of light that span the arena. When two adjacent infrared beams are intercepted, the animal is deemed to have engaged in locomotor activity rather than vegetative motor activities, which are scored as single beam breaks. The procedure is apparently so straightforward that neither the rodents nor the humans require specialist training. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)  
  Call Number Serial 355  
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