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Author (up) Duan, H. file  url
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  Title Emissions and temperature benefits: The role of wind power in China Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Environmental Research Abbreviated Journal Environ Res  
  Volume 152 Issue Pages 342-350  
  Keywords Air Pollution/*prevention & control; China; *Climate Change; Coal/analysis; Global Warming/prevention & control; Greenhouse Effect/*prevention & control; Models, Economic; Models, Theoretical; Power Plants; Renewable Energy; *Wind; *Climate integrated model; *Fossil fuel substitution; *Temperature benefits; *Wind energy  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: As a non-fossil technology, wind power has an enormous advantage over coal because of its role in climate change mitigation. Therefore, it is important to investigate how substituting wind power for coal-fired electricity will affect emission reductions, changes in radiative forcing and rising temperatures, particularly in the context of emission limits. METHODS: We developed an integrated methodology that includes two parts: an energy-economy-environmental (3E) integrated model and an emission-temperature response model. The former is used to simulate the dynamic relationships between economic output, wind energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; the latter is used to evaluate changes in radiative forcing and warming. RESULTS: Under the present development projection, wind energy cannot serve as a major force in curbing emissions, even under the strictest space-restraining scenario. China's temperature contribution to global warming will be up to 21.76% if warming is limited to 2 degrees. With the wind-for-coal power substitution, the corresponding contribution to global radiative forcing increase and temperature rise will decrease by up to 10% and 6.57%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Substituting wind power for coal-fired electricity has positive effects on emission reductions and warming control. However, wind energy alone is insufficient for climate change mitigation. It forms an important component of the renewable energy portfolio used to combat global warming.  
  Call Number Serial 2104  
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Author (up) Gronewold, A.D.; Stow, C.A. file  url
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  Title Environment. Water loss from the Great Lakes Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Science (New York, N.Y.) Abbreviated Journal Science  
  Volume 343 Issue 6175 Pages 1084-1085  
  Keywords Canada; *Climate Change; *Environmental Monitoring; *Lakes; United States; *Water Resources  
  Abstract The literature on pesticide losses in runoff waters from agricultural fields is reviewed. For the majority of commercial pesticides, total losses are 0.5%0 or less of the amounts applied, unless severe rainfall conditions occur within 1–2 weeks after application. Exceptions are the organochlorine insecticides, which may lose about 1% regardless of weather pattern because of their long persistence; and soil surface-applied, wettable-powder formulations of herbicides, which may lose up to 5%, depending on weather and slope, because of the ease of washoff of the powder.

Pesticides with solubilities of 10 ppm or higher are lost mainly in the water phase of runoff, and erosion control practices will have little effect on such losses. Organochlorine pesticides, paraquat, and arsenical pesticides, however, are important cases of pesticides which are strongly adsorbed by sediments, and erosion control can be important in controlling losses of these compounds.

The behavior and fate of pesticides in streams receiving runoff is generally not known. Information on such factors as time and distance of impact of a given runoff event, ability of local ecosystems to recover from transient pesticide concentrations, and dissipation or concentration processes in aquatic ecosystems will have to be obtained before “edge-of-field” pesticide losses can be related to water quality in receiving waters.
 
  Call Number Serial 1549  
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Author (up) Sydeman, W.J.; Garcia-Reyes, M.; Schoeman, D.S.; Rykaczewski, R.R.; Thompson, S.A.; Black, B.A.; Bograd, S.J. file  url
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  Title Climate change. Climate change and wind intensification in coastal upwelling ecosystems Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Science (New York, N.Y.) Abbreviated Journal Science  
  Volume 345 Issue 6192 Pages 77-80  
  Keywords California; *Climate Change; *Ecosystem; Greenhouse Effect; *Wind  
  Abstract In 1990, Andrew Bakun proposed that increasing greenhouse gas concentrations would force intensification of upwelling-favorable winds in eastern boundary current systems that contribute substantial services to society. Because there is considerable disagreement about whether contemporary wind trends support Bakun's hypothesis, we performed a meta-analysis of the literature on upwelling-favorable wind intensification. The preponderance of published analyses suggests that winds have intensified in the California, Benguela, and Humboldt upwelling systems and weakened in the Iberian system over time scales ranging up to 60 years; wind change is equivocal in the Canary system. Stronger intensification signals are observed at higher latitudes, consistent with the warming pattern associated with climate change. Overall, reported changes in coastal winds, although subtle and spatially variable, support Bakun's hypothesis of upwelling intensification in eastern boundary current systems.  
  Call Number Serial 2039  
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