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Author (up) Amaku, M.; Coutinho, F.A.B.; Massad, E. file  url
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  Title Why dengue and yellow fever coexist in some areas of the world and not in others? Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Bio Systems Abbreviated Journal Biosystems  
  Volume 106 Issue 2-3 Pages 111-120  
  Keywords Adaptive Immunity/*immunology; Aedes/*virology; Africa/epidemiology; Animals; Asia/epidemiology; Computer Simulation; *Demography; Dengue/*epidemiology/immunology/transmission; Humans; Insect Vectors/*virology; *Models, Biological; South America/epidemiology; Species Specificity; Yellow Fever/*epidemiology/immunology/transmission  
  Abstract Urban yellow fever and dengue coexist in Africa but not in Asia and South America. In this paper, we examine four hypotheses (and various combinations thereof) to explain the absence of yellow fever in urban areas of Asia and South America. In addition, we examine an additional hypothesis that offers an explanation of the coexistence of the infections in Africa while at the same time explaining their lack of coexistence in Asia. The hypotheses we tested to explain the nonexistence of yellow fever in Asia are the following: (1) the Asian Aedes aegypti is relatively incompetent to transmit yellow fever; (2) there would exist a competition between dengue and yellow fever viruses within the mosquitoes, as suggested by in vitro studies in which the dengue virus always wins; (3) when an A. aegypti mosquito that is infected by or latent for yellow fever acquires dengue, it becomes latent for dengue due to internal competition within the mosquito between the two viruses; (4) there is an important cross-immunity between yellow fever and other flaviviruses, dengue in particular, such that a person recovered from a bout of dengue exhibits a diminished susceptibility to yellow fever. This latter hypothesis is referred to below as the “Asian hypothesis.” Finally, we hypothesize that: (5) the coexistence of the infections in Africa is due to the low prevalence of the mosquito Aedes albopictus in Africa, as it competes with A. aegypti. We will refer to this latter hypothesis as the “African hypothesis.” We construct a model of transmission that allows all of the above hypotheses to be tested. We conclude that the Asian and the African hypotheses can explain the observed phenomena, whereas other hypotheses fail to do so.  
  Call Number Serial 1532  
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Author (up) Leaf, P.J.; Bruce, M.L.; Tischler, G.L.; Holzer, C.E. 3rd file  url
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  Title The relationship between demographic factors and attitudes toward mental health services Type Journal Article
  Year 1987 Publication Journal of Community Psychology Abbreviated Journal J Community Psychol  
  Volume 15 Issue 2 Pages 275-284  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Catchment Area (Health); Connecticut; Data Collection; *Demography; Evaluation Studies as Topic; Female; Humans; Male; Mental Health Services/*utilization; Middle Aged; *Patient Acceptance of Health Care; Socioeconomic Factors; Statistics as Topic  
  Abstract Considerable effort has been exerted in recent years toward educating the public concerning mental illness and the efficacy of various treatment modalities. Most previous studies of attitudes have focused solely on attitudes toward the mentally ill. In this study we investigated attitudes toward mental health services and found that most people are positively disposed toward the use of these services. Attitudes toward the use of mental health services were affected by the age, sex, race, education, and income of the subjects. In general, differences of attitude lie in the direction that would tend to inhibit utilization among those most at risk.  
  Call Number Serial 973  
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