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Author (up) Au, T.K. file  url
openurl 
  Title Chinese and English counterfactuals: the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis revisited Type Journal Article
  Year 1983 Publication Cognition Abbreviated Journal Cognition  
  Volume 15 Issue 1-3 Pages 155-187  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Child; *Cognition; Female; Humans; *Language; Linguistics; Male; Thinking  
  Abstract Bloom (1981) found that Chinese speakers were less likely than English speakers to give counterfactual interpretations to a counterfactual story. These findings, together with the presence of a distinct counterfactual marker (the subjunctive) in English, but not in Chinese, were interpreted as evidence for the weak form of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. A series of five studies was designed to replicate these findings, using both Chinese and English versions of a new counterfactual story as well as the story used by Bloom. In these studies, bilingual Chinese showed little difficulty in understanding either story in either language, insofar as the English and Chinese were idiomatic. For one story, the Chinese bilinguals performed better in Chinese than American subjects did in English. Nearly monolingual Chinese who did not know the English subjunctive also gave mostly counterfactual responses. These findings suggest that the mastery of the English subjunctive is probably quite tangenital to counterfactual reasoning in Chinese. In short, the present research yielded no support for the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.  
  Call Number Serial 1719  
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Author (up) Besson, M.; Schon, D. file  url
openurl 
  Title Comparison between language and music Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Abbreviated Journal Ann N Y Acad Sci  
  Volume 930 Issue Pages 232-258  
  Keywords Brain/*physiology; Humans; *Language; Mental Processes/*physiology; *Music  
  Abstract Similarities and differences between language and music processing are examined from an evolutionary and a cognitive perspective. Language and music cannot be considered single entities; they need to be decomposed into different component operations or levels of processing. The central question concerns one of the most important claims of the generative grammar theory, that is, the specificity of language processing: do the computations performed to process language rely on specific linguistic processes or do they rely on general cognitive principles? Evidence from brain imaging results is reviewed, noting that this field is currently in need of metanalysis of the available results to precisely evaluate this claim. A series of experiments, mainly using the event-related brain potentials method, were conducted to compare different levels of processing in language and music. Overall, results favor language specificity when certain aspects of semantic processing in language are compared with certain aspects of melodic and harmonic processing in music. By contrast, results support the view that general cognitive principles are involved when aspects of syntactic processing in language are compared with aspects of harmonic processing in music. Moreover, analysis of the temporal structure led to similar effects in language and music. These tentative conclusions must be supported by other brain imaging results to shed further light on the spatiotemporal dynamics of the brain structure-function relationship.  
  Call Number Serial 476  
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Author (up) Bialystok, E.; Feng, X. file  url
openurl 
  Title Language proficiency and executive control in proactive interference: evidence from monolingual and bilingual children and adults Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Brain and Language Abbreviated Journal Brain Lang  
  Volume 109 Issue 2-3 Pages 93-100  
  Keywords Adult; Brain/*physiology; Child; Female; Humans; *Language; Male; Mental Recall/*physiology; *Multilingualism; *Proactive Inhibition; Vocabulary  
  Abstract Two studies are reported in which monolingual and bilingual children (Study 1) and adults (Study 2) completed a memory task involving proactive interference. In both cases, the bilinguals attained lower scores on a vocabulary test than monolinguals but performed the same on the proactive interference task. For the children, bilinguals made fewer intrusions from previous lists even though they recalled the same number of words. For the adults, bilinguals recalled more words than monolinguals when the scores were corrected for differences in vocabulary. In addition, there was a strong effect of vocabulary in which higher vocabulary participants recalled more words irrespective of language group. These results point to the important role of vocabulary in verbal performance and memory. They also suggest that bilinguals may compensate for weaker language proficiency with their greater executive control to achieve the same or better levels of performance as monolinguals.  
  Call Number Serial 942  
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Author (up) Fabbro, F. file  url
openurl 
  Title The bilingual brain: cerebral representation of languages Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Brain and Language Abbreviated Journal Brain Lang  
  Volume 79 Issue 2 Pages 211-222  
  Keywords Brain/*anatomy & histology/*physiology; Functional Laterality/physiology; Humans; *Language; *Multilingualism  
  Abstract The present article deals with theoretical and experimental aspects of language representation in the multilingual brain. Two general approaches were adopted in the study of the bilingual brain. The study of bilingual aphasics allows us to describe dissociations and double dissociations between the different subcomponents of the various languages. Furthermore, symptoms peculiar to bilingual aphasia were reported (pathological mixing and switching and translations disorders) which allowed the correlation of some abilities specific to bilinguals with particular neurofunctional systems. Another approach to the study of the bilingual brain is of the experimental type, such as electrophysiological investigations (electrocorticostimulation during brain surgery and event-related potentials) and functional neuroanatomy studies (positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging). Functional neuroanatomy studies investigated the brain representation of languages when processing lexical and syntactic stimuli and short stories. Neurophysiologic and neuroimaging studies evidenced a similar cerebral representation of L1 and L2 lexicons both in early and late bilinguals. The representation of grammatical aspects of languages seems to be different between the two languages if L2 is acquired after the age of 7, with automatic processes and correctness being lower than those of the native language. These results are in line with a greater representation of the two lexicons in the declarative memory systems, whereas morphosyntactic aspects may be organized in different systems according to the acquisition vs learning modality.  
  Call Number Serial 541  
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Author (up) Fulop, S.A.; Ladefoged, P.; Liu, F.; Vossen, R. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Yeyi clicks: acoustic description and analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Phonetica Abbreviated Journal Phonetica  
  Volume 60 Issue 4 Pages 231-260  
  Keywords Botswana; Discriminant Analysis; Female; Humans; *Language; Male; Phonation/*physiology; *Phonetics; Sound Spectrography; *Speech Acoustics; Speech Production Measurement; Tape Recording; Verbal Behavior  
  Abstract Yeyi has the largest known inventory of click sounds in the Bantu language family. It is now entering a moribund state, and this paper documents a variety of acoustic and distributional details of the clicks found in the speech of 13 Yeyi speakers by presenting sound inventories, spectrograms, palatograms, and related acoustic data. The durations of the closure and release phases of the clicks were measured, and an analysis demonstrates that the two duration measures together are statistically able to distinguish the dental, alveolar, palatal, and lateral clicks from one another. A second quantitative study examines the discriminability of the four click places using solely the anterior burst power spectra, as parametrized using the first four spectral moments. The places of articulation are found to be moderately well classified by this means. The patterns of interspeaker variation affecting the clicks are also documented, and these are found to accord rather well with the classification errors made by the optimal classifier using the anterior burst spectra.  
  Call Number Serial 204  
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Author (up) Gray, R.D.; Atkinson, Q.D. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Language-tree divergence times support the Anatolian theory of Indo-European origin Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume 426 Issue 6965 Pages 435-439  
  Keywords Agriculture/history; Algorithms; Archaeology/methods; Bayes Theorem; *Emigration and Immigration; Europe/ethnology; History, Ancient; Humans; India/ethnology; *Language; Linguistics; Markov Chains; Middle East/ethnology; Models, Biological; Monte Carlo Method; *Phylogeny; Time Factors  
  Abstract Languages, like genes, provide vital clues about human history. The origin of the Indo-European language family is “the most intensively studied, yet still most recalcitrant, problem of historical linguistics”. Numerous genetic studies of Indo-European origins have also produced inconclusive results. Here we analyse linguistic data using computational methods derived from evolutionary biology. We test two theories of Indo-European origin: the 'Kurgan expansion' and the 'Anatolian farming' hypotheses. The Kurgan theory centres on possible archaeological evidence for an expansion into Europe and the Near East by Kurgan horsemen beginning in the sixth millennium BP. In contrast, the Anatolian theory claims that Indo-European languages expanded with the spread of agriculture from Anatolia around 8,000-9,500 years bp. In striking agreement with the Anatolian hypothesis, our analysis of a matrix of 87 languages with 2,449 lexical items produced an estimated age range for the initial Indo-European divergence of between 7,800 and 9,800 years bp. These results were robust to changes in coding procedures, calibration points, rooting of the trees and priors in the bayesian analysis.  
  Call Number Serial 500  
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Author (up) Grosjean, F. file  url
openurl 
  Title Neurolinguists, beware! The bilingual is not two monolinguals in one person Type Journal Article
  Year 1989 Publication Brain and Language Abbreviated Journal Brain Lang  
  Volume 36 Issue 1 Pages 3-15  
  Keywords Aphasia/*physiopathology; Brain/physiopathology; Brain Damage, Chronic/*physiopathology; Humans; *Language  
  Abstract Two views of bilingualism are presented--the monolingual or fractional view which holds that the bilingual is (or should be) two monolinguals in one person, and the bilingual or wholistic view which states that the coexistence of two languages in the bilingual has produced a unique and specific speaker-hearer. These views affect how we compare monolinguals and bilinguals, study language learning and language forgetting, and examine the speech modes--monolingual and bilingual--that characterize the bilingual's everyday interactions. The implications of the wholistic view on the neurolinguistics of bilingualism, and in particular bilingual aphasia, are discussed.  
  Call Number Serial 542  
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Author (up) January, D.; Kako, E. file  url
openurl 
  Title Re-evaluating evidence for linguistic relativity: reply to Boroditsky (2001) Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Cognition Abbreviated Journal Cognition  
  Volume 104 Issue 2 Pages 417-426  
  Keywords Cognition; Humans; *Language; *Linguistics; Thinking; *Time Perception  
  Abstract Six unsuccessful attempts at replicating a key finding in the linguistic relativity literature [Boroditsky, L. (2001). Does language shape thought?: Mandarin and English speakers' conceptions of time. Cognitive Psychology, 43, 1-22] are reported. In addition to these empirical issues in replicating the original finding, theoretical issues present in the original report are discussed. In sum, we conclude that Boroditsky (2001) provides no support for the Whorfian hypothesis.  
  Call Number Serial 1752  
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Author (up) January, D.; Kako, E. file  url
openurl 
  Title Re-evaluating evidence for linguistic relativity: reply to Boroditsky (2001) Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Cognition Abbreviated Journal Cognition  
  Volume 104 Issue 2 Pages 417-426  
  Keywords Cognition; Humans; *Language; *Linguistics; Thinking; *Time Perception  
  Abstract Six unsuccessful attempts at replicating a key finding in the linguistic relativity literature [Boroditsky, L. (2001). Does language shape thought?: Mandarin and English speakers' conceptions of time. Cognitive Psychology, 43, 1-22] are reported. In addition to these empirical issues in replicating the original finding, theoretical issues present in the original report are discussed. In sum, we conclude that Boroditsky (2001) provides no support for the Whorfian hypothesis.  
  Call Number Serial 1753  
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Author (up) Liu, C.; Tardif, T.; Mai, X.; Gehring, W.J.; Simms, N.; Luo, Y.-J. file  url
openurl 
  Title What's in a name? Brain activity reveals categorization processes differ across languages Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Human Brain Mapping Abbreviated Journal Hum Brain Mapp  
  Volume 31 Issue 11 Pages 1786-1801  
  Keywords Adult; Analysis of Variance; Brain Mapping; Cerebral Cortex/*physiology; Concept Formation/*physiology; Cross-Cultural Comparison; Electroencephalography; Evoked Potentials/*physiology; Female; Humans; *Language; Male; Photic Stimulation; Reaction Time/physiology; Surveys and Questionnaires  
  Abstract The linguistic relativity hypothesis proposes that speakers of different languages perceive and conceptualize the world differently, but do their brains reflect these differences? In English, most nouns do not provide linguistic clues to their categories, whereas most Mandarin Chinese nouns provide explicit category information, either morphologically (e.g., the morpheme “vehicle” che1 in the noun “train” huo3che1) or orthographically (e.g., the radical “bug” chong2 in the character for the noun “butterfly” hu2die2). When asked to judge the membership of atypical (e.g., train) vs. typical (e.g., car) pictorial exemplars of a category (e.g., vehicle), English speakers (N = 26) showed larger N300 and N400 event-related potential (ERP) component differences, whereas Mandarin speakers (N = 27) showed no such differences. Further investigation with Mandarin speakers only (N = 22) found that it was the morphologically transparent items that did not show a typicality effect, whereas orthographically transparent items elicited moderate N300 and N400 effects. In a follow-up study with English speakers only (N = 25), morphologically transparent items also showed different patterns of N300 and N400 activation than nontransparent items even for English speakers. Together, these results demonstrate that even for pictorial stimuli, how and whether category information is embedded in object names affects the extent to which typicality is used in category judgments, as shown in N300 and N400 responses.  
  Call Number Serial 1678  
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