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Author (up) Arrant, A.E.; Schramm-Sapyta, N.L.; Kuhn, C.M. file  url
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  Title Use of the light/dark test for anxiety in adult and adolescent male rats Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Behavioural Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Behav Brain Res  
  Volume 256 Issue Pages 119-127  
  Keywords Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology; Age Factors; Animals; Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology; Anxiety/*diagnosis/drug therapy; Carbolines/pharmacology; Exploratory Behavior/drug effects; Factor Analysis, Statistical; *Light; Male; Motor Activity/drug effects; *Neuropsychological Tests; Rats, Sprague-Dawley; Regression Analysis; Risk-Taking; Time Factors; Yohimbine/pharmacology; Adolescence; Anxiety; Fg-7142; Factor analysis; Light/dark test; Yohimbine  
  Abstract The light/dark (LD) test is a commonly used rodent test of unconditioned anxiety-like behavior that is based on an approach/avoidance conflict between the drive to explore novel areas and an aversion to brightly lit, open spaces. We used the LD test to investigate developmental differences in behavior between adolescent (postnatal day (PN) 28-34) and adult (PN67-74) male rats. We investigated whether LD behavioral measures reflect anxiety-like behavior similarly in each age group using factor analysis and multiple regression. These analyses showed that time in the light compartment, percent distance in the light, rearing, and latency to emerge into the light compartment were measures of anxiety-like behavior in each age group, while total distance traveled and distance in the dark compartment provided indices of locomotor activity. We then used these measures to assess developmental differences in baseline LD behavior and the response to anxiogenic drugs. Adolescent rats emerged into the light compartment more quickly than adults and made fewer pokes into the light compartment. These age differences could reflect greater risk taking and less risk assessment in adolescent rats than adults. Adolescent rats were less sensitive than adults to the anxiogenic effects of the benzodiazepine inverse agonist N-methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxamide (FG-7142) and the alpha(2) adrenergic antagonist yohimbine on anxiety-like behaviors validated by factor analysis, but locomotor variables were similarly affected. These data support the results of the factor analysis and indicate that GABAergic and noradrenergic modulation of LD anxiety-like behavior may be immature during adolescence.  
  Call Number Serial 1614  
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Author (up) Burgos, A.; Szymanski, J.; Seiwert, B.; Degenkolbe, T.; Hannah, M.A.; Giavalisco, P.; Willmitzer, L. file  url
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  Title Analysis of short-term changes in the Arabidopsis thaliana glycerolipidome in response to temperature and light Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication The Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology Abbreviated Journal Plant J  
  Volume 66 Issue 4 Pages 656-668  
  Keywords Arabidopsis/*metabolism; Biosynthetic Pathways; Fatty Acids/metabolism; Galactolipids/analysis/metabolism; *Light; *Lipid Metabolism; Phosphatidylcholines/analysis/metabolism; Phosphatidylethanolamines/analysis/metabolism; Phosphatidylinositols/analysis/metabolism; Plant Leaves/*metabolism; *Temperature  
  Abstract Although the influence of temperature, particularly cold, on lipid metabolism is well established, previous studies have focused on long-term responses and have largely ignored the influence of other interacting environmental factors. Here, we present a time-resolved analysis of the early responses of the glycerolipidome of Arabidopsis thaliana plants exposed to various temperatures (4, 21 and 32 degrees C) and light intensities (darkness, 75, 150 and 400 mumol m(-2) s(-1)), including selected combinations. Using a UPLC/MS-based lipidomic platform, we reproducibly measured most glycerolipid species reported for Arabidopsis leaves, including the classes phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylinositol (PI) phosphatidylglycerol (PG), monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG). In addition to known lipids, we have identified previously unobserved compounds, such as 36-C PGs and eukaryotic phospholipids containing 16:3 acyl chains. Occurrence of these lipid species implies the action of new biochemical mechanisms. Exposition of Arabidopsis plants to various light and temperature regimes results in two major effects. The first is the dependence of the saturation level of PC and MGDG pools on light intensity, likely arising from light regulation of de novo fatty acid synthesis. The second concerns an immediate decrease in unsaturated species of PG at high-temperature conditions (32 degrees C), which could mark the first stages of adaptation to heat-stress conditions. Observed changes are discussed in the context of current knowledge, and new hypotheses have been formulated concerning the early stages of the plant response to changing light and temperature conditions.  
  Call Number Serial 302  
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Author (up) Kim, D.S.; Cho, D.S.; Park, W.-M.; Na, H.J.; Nam, H.G. file  url
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  Title Proteomic pattern-based analyses of light responses in Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type and photoreceptor mutants Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Proteomics Abbreviated Journal Proteomics  
  Volume 6 Issue 10 Pages 3040-3049  
  Keywords Arabidopsis/metabolism/*radiation effects; Arabidopsis Proteins/*biosynthesis; Cluster Analysis; Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional; *Light; Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins/*genetics/physiology; Phytochrome/genetics/physiology; Proteome/*biosynthesis; Signal Transduction  
  Abstract Light critically affects the physiology of plants. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we used a proteomics approach to analyze the responses of Arabidopsis thaliana to red (660 nm), far-red (730 nm) and blue (450 nm) light, which are utilized by type II and type I phytochromes, and blue light receptors, respectively. Under specific light treatments, the proteomic profiles of 49 protein spots exhibited over 1.8-fold difference in protein abundance, significant at p <0.05. Most of these proteins were metabolic enzymes, indicating metabolic changes induced by light of specific wavelengths. The differentially-expressed proteins formed seven clusters, reflecting co-regulation. We used the 49 differentially-regulated proteins as molecular markers for plant responses to light, and by developing a procedure that calculates the Pearson correlation distance of cluster-to-cluster similarity in expression changes, we assessed the proteome-based relatedness of light responses for wild-type and phytochrome mutant plants. Overall, this assessment was consistent with the known physiological responses of plants to light. However, we also observed a number of novel responses at the proteomic level, which were not predicted from known physiological changes.  
  Call Number Serial 275  
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Author (up) Schmucker, C.; Seeliger, M.; Humphries, P.; Biel, M.; Schaeffel, F. file  url
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  Title Grating acuity at different luminances in wild-type mice and in mice lacking rod or cone function Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science Abbreviated Journal Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci  
  Volume 46 Issue 1 Pages 398-407  
  Keywords Animals; Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Cation Channels; Female; Gene Deletion; Ion Channels/genetics; *Lighting; Male; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice, Knockout; Mice, Transgenic; Motor Activity/physiology; Photoreceptor Cells, Vertebrate/*physiology; Rhodopsin/genetics; Rod Opsins/genetics; Space Perception/*physiology; Visual Acuity/*physiology  
  Abstract PURPOSE: The mouse eye has become an important model in vision research. However, it is not known how visual acuity changes with luminance. Therefore, grating acuity of mice was measured at different luminances in an automated optomotor paradigm. Furthermore, mutant mice lacking either rods (RHO-/- and CNGB1-/-) or cones (CNGA3-/-), or both, were studied to determine the rod and cone contribution to visual acuity. METHODS: Freely ranging individual mice were automatically tracked at a 25-Hz sampling rate with a self-programmed video system in a large rotating optomotor drum. The drum had a square-wave grating inside with adjustable spatial frequency. The angular speed of the mice with respect to the center of the drum and the angular orientation of the snout-tail body axis were analyzed. In addition, the motor activity of the wild-type mice was recorded at different luminances. RESULTS: The optomotor drum provided reliable data on visual input to the mouse's behavior and was convenient to use, since the experimenter's had only to place the mice individually in a Perspex cylinder. Optomotor grating acuity of the wild-type mice was limited to 0.3 to 0.4 cyc/deg. Maximum optomotor responses were obtained at 0.1 to 0.2 cyc/deg. The importance of visual input declined monotonically with decreasing luminance (30 cd/m2, 100%; 0.1 cd/m2, 76.4%; 0.005 cd/m2, 45.9%; and darkness, -9%). Mice lacking functional rods were able to resolve gratings up to 0.1 cyc/deg at 30 cd/m2. Surprisingly, mice lacking functional cones had an optomotor acuity that was similar to the wild-type. Double-knockout mice without rods and cones had no detectable grating acuity. CONCLUSIONS: Because the visual system of the mouse is more responsive at bright luminances, experiments in which visual input is important should be performed in photopic conditions (30 cd/m2 or even more). Apparently, spatial vision is governed by the rod system, which is not saturated in the mesopic or low photopic range. Mice lacking both rods and cones have no detectable grating acuity, indicating that the retinal melanopsin system does not contribute to spatial vision.  
  Call Number Serial 2066  
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