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Author (up) Domingue, B.W.; Fletcher, J.; Conley, D.; Boardman, J.D. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Genetic and educational assortative mating among US adults Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  
  Volume 111 Issue 22 Pages 7996-8000  
  Keywords Continental Population Groups/genetics; Databases, Genetic; Educational Status; Ethnic Groups/genetics; Female; Genome-Wide Association Study; Genotype; Humans; Male; *Marriage; Metagenomics/*methods; Phenotype; *Sexual Behavior; *Spouses; United States; genetic homogamy; homophily; random mating  
  Abstract Understanding the social and biological mechanisms that lead to homogamy (similar individuals marrying one another) has been a long-standing issue across many fields of scientific inquiry. Using a nationally representative sample of non-Hispanic white US adults from the Health and Retirement Study and information from 1.7 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms, we compare genetic similarity among married couples to noncoupled pairs in the population. We provide evidence for genetic assortative mating in this population but the strength of this association is substantially smaller than the strength of educational assortative mating in the same sample. Furthermore, genetic similarity explains at most 10% of the assortative mating by education levels. Results are replicated using comparable data from the Framingham Heart Study.  
  Call Number Serial 1127  
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Author (up) Kohler, P.K.; Manhart, L.E.; Lafferty, W.E. file  url
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  Title Abstinence-only and comprehensive sex education and the initiation of sexual activity and teen pregnancy Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication The Journal of Adolescent Health : Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine Abbreviated Journal J Adolesc Health  
  Volume 42 Issue 4 Pages 344-351  
  Keywords Adolescent; Female; Health Surveys; Humans; Pregnancy; Pregnancy in Adolescence/*prevention & control/statistics & numerical data; Program Evaluation; Risk Reduction Behavior; Sex Education/*methods; *Sexual Abstinence; *Sexual Behavior/statistics & numerical data; Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology/prevention & control; United States/epidemiology  
  Abstract PURPOSE: The role that sex education plays in the initiation of sexual activity and risk of teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease (STD) is controversial in the United States. Despite several systematic reviews, few epidemiologic evaluations of the effectiveness of these programs on a population level have been conducted. METHODS: Among never-married heterosexual adolescents, aged 15-19 years, who participated in Cycle 6 (2002) of the National Survey of Family Growth and reported on formal sex education received before their first sexual intercourse (n = 1719), we compared the sexual health risks of adolescents who received abstinence-only and comprehensive sex education to those of adolescents who received no formal sex education. Weighted multivariate logistic regression generated population-based estimates. RESULTS: Adolescents who received comprehensive sex education were significantly less likely to report teen pregnancy (OR(adj) = .4, 95% CI = .22- .69, p = .001) than those who received no formal sex education, whereas there was no significant effect of abstinence-only education (OR(adj) = .7, 95% CI = .38-1.45, p = .38). Abstinence-only education did not reduce the likelihood of engaging in vaginal intercourse (OR(adj) = .8, 95% CI = .51-1.31, p = .40), but comprehensive sex education was marginally associated with a lower likelihood of reporting having engaged in vaginal intercourse (OR(adj) = .7, 95% CI = .49-1.02, p = .06). Neither abstinence-only nor comprehensive sex education significantly reduced the likelihood of reported STD diagnoses (OR(adj) = 1.7, 95% CI = .57-34.76, p = .36 and OR(adj) = 1.8, 95% CI = .67-5.00, p = .24 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Teaching about contraception was not associated with increased risk of adolescent sexual activity or STD. Adolescents who received comprehensive sex education had a lower risk of pregnancy than adolescents who received abstinence-only or no sex education.  
  Call Number Serial 1685  
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Author (up) Swami, V.; Furnham, A. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Unattractive, promiscuous and heavy drinkers: perceptions of women with tattoos Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Body Image Abbreviated Journal Body Image  
  Volume 4 Issue 4 Pages 343-352  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Alcohol Drinking/*psychology; *Attitude; *Beauty; Female; *Gender Identity; Hair Color; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; *Sexual Behavior; Social Conformity; Social Desirability; *Social Perception; *Stereotyping; Tattooing/*psychology  
  Abstract This study examined social and physical perceptions of blonde and brunette women with different degrees of tattooing. Eighty-four female and 76 male undergraduates rated a series of 16 female line drawings that varied in 2 levels of hair colour and 8 levels of tattooing. Ratings were made for physical attractiveness and sexual promiscuity, as well as estimates of the number of alcohol units consumed on a typical night out. Results showed that tattooed women were rated as less physically attractive, more sexually promiscuous and heavier drinkers than untattooed women, with more negative ratings with increasing number of tattoos. There were also weak interactions between body art and hair colour, with blonde women in general rated more negatively than brunettes. Results are discussed in terms of stereotypes about women who have tattoos and the effects of such stereotypes on well-being.  
  Call Number Serial 1040  
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