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Author (up) Eagly, A.H.; Karau, S.J.; Makhijani, M.G. file  url
  Title Gender and the effectiveness of leaders: a meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 1995 Publication Psychological Bulletin Abbreviated Journal Psychol Bull  
  Volume 117 Issue 1 Pages 125-145  
  Keywords Female; *Gender Identity; Humans; *Leadership; Male; Organizational Culture; *Social Behavior; Social Environment  
  Abstract This article presents a synthesis of research on the relative effectiveness of women and men who occupy leadership and managerial roles. Aggregated over the organizational and laboratory experimental studies in the sample, male and female leaders were equally effective. However, consistent with the assumption that the congruence of leadership roles with leaders' gender enhances effectiveness, men were more effective than women in roles that were defined in more masculine terms, and women were more effective than men in roles that were defined in less masculine terms. Also, men were more effective than women to the extent that leader and subordinate roles were male-dominated numerically. These and other findings are discussed from the perspective of social-role theory of sex differences in social behavior as well as from alternative perspectives.  
  Call Number Serial 272  
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Author (up) File, S.E.; Seth, P. file  url
  Title A review of 25 years of the social interaction test Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication European Journal of Pharmacology Abbreviated Journal Eur J Pharmacol  
  Volume 463 Issue 1-3 Pages 35-53  
  Keywords Animals; Anti-Anxiety Agents/pharmacology; Anxiety/chemically induced/metabolism/*psychology; Behavior, Animal/drug effects; Brain/physiopathology; *Disease Models, Animal; Environment; Neuropeptides/metabolism/pharmacology; Neurotransmitter Agents/*metabolism/pharmacology; *Social Behavior; Substance Withdrawal Syndrome/etiology/psychology  
  Abstract The social interaction test of anxiety was developed 25 years ago to provide an ethologically based test that was sensitive to both anxiolytic and anxiogenic effects. It is sensitive to a number of environmental and physiological factors that can affect anxiety. It has detected anxiogenic effects of peptides such as corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and anxiolytic effects of neuropeptide Y and substance P receptor antagonists. It has successfully identified neuropharmacological sites of action of anxiogenic compounds and drug withdrawal. Effects of compounds acting on the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) systems have been extensively investigated after both systemic administration and microinjection into specific brain regions. The use of this test has, thus, played a crucial role in unravelling the neural basis of anxiety. It is hoped that in the next 25 years, the test will play a crucial role in determining the genetic basis of anxiety disorders.  
  Call Number Serial 1187  
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Author (up) Holloway, W.R.J.; Thor, D.H. file  url
  Title Caffeine and social investigation in the adult male rat Type Journal Article
  Year 1983 Publication Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology Abbreviated Journal Neurobehav Toxicol Teratol  
  Volume 5 Issue 1 Pages 119-125  
  Keywords Analysis of Variance; Animals; Body Weight/drug effects; Caffeine/*toxicity; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Drinking/drug effects; Male; Motor Activity/drug effects; Rats; *Social Behavior  
  Abstract In three experiments with adult rats, caffeine (0, 10, 20, 40 mg/kg) was found to increase the social investigation of a novel juvenile conspecific. Activity was elevated only after caffeine injections, whereas the duration of social investigation was raised after both the injection of caffeine and the administration of caffeine via the drinking water, suggesting the mechanisms of action of caffeine on these two behaviors may be independent. Duration and frequency of investigation were each increased following caffeine exposure, but the amount of investigation/episode was not influenced by this substance. Finally, the acute response to caffeine was not altered by prior exposure to the methylxanthine in the subject's drinking water.  
  Call Number Serial 1188  
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Author (up) Mundy, P.; Jarrold, W. file  url
  Title Infant joint attention, neural networks and social cognition Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Neural Networks : the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society Abbreviated Journal Neural Netw  
  Volume 23 Issue 8-9 Pages 985-997  
  Keywords Attention/*physiology; Brain Mapping; Cognition/*physiology; Emotions/physiology; Fixation, Ocular; Humans; Infant; Learning/physiology; Nerve Net/*physiology; *Neural Networks (Computer); *Social Behavior  
  Abstract Neural network models of attention can provide a unifying approach to the study of human cognitive and emotional development (Posner & Rothbart, 2007). In this paper we argue that a neural network approach to the infant development of joint attention can inform our understanding of the nature of human social learning, symbolic thought process and social cognition. At its most basic, joint attention involves the capacity to coordinate one's own visual attention with that of another person. We propose that joint attention development involves increments in the capacity to engage in simultaneous or parallel processing of information about one's own attention and the attention of other people. Infant practice with joint attention is both a consequence and an organizer of the development of a distributed and integrated brain network involving frontal and parietal cortical systems. This executive distributed network first serves to regulate the capacity of infants to respond to and direct the overt behavior of other people in order to share experience with others through the social coordination of visual attention. In this paper we describe this parallel and distributed neural network model of joint attention development and discuss two hypotheses that stem from this model. One is that activation of this distributed network during coordinated attention enhances the depth of information processing and encoding beginning in the first year of life. We also propose that with development, joint attention becomes internalized as the capacity to socially coordinate mental attention to internal representations. As this occurs the executive joint attention network makes vital contributions to the development of human symbolic thinking and social cognition.  
  Call Number Serial 1908  
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Author (up) Schiavenato, M.; Craig, K.D. file  url
  Title Pain assessment as a social transaction: beyond the “gold standard” Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication The Clinical Journal of Pain Abbreviated Journal Clin J Pain  
  Volume 26 Issue 8 Pages 667-676  
  Keywords Humans; Models, Theoretical; *Pain/diagnosis/physiopathology/psychology; Pain Measurement/*methods/*standards; *Self Report/standards; *Social Behavior  
  Abstract Pain assessment conventionally has been viewed hierarchically with self-report as its “gold-standard.” Recent attempts to improve pain management have focused on the importance of assessment, for example, the initiative to include pain as the “fifth vital sign.” We question the focus in the conceptualization of pain assessment upon a “vital sign,” not in terms of the importance of assessment, but in terms of the application of self-report as a mechanistic index akin to a biologic measure such as heart rate and blood pressure. We synthesize current inclusive models of pain and pain assessment and propose a more comprehensive conceptualization of pain assessment as a transaction based on an organismic interplay between the patient and clinician.  
  Call Number Serial 1930  
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Author (up) Shapiro, J.R.; Neuberg, S.L. file  url
  Title From stereotype threat to stereotype threats: implications of a multi-threat framework for causes, moderators, mediators, consequences, and interventions Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Personality and Social Psychology Review : an Official Journal of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc Abbreviated Journal Pers Soc Psychol Rev  
  Volume 11 Issue 2 Pages 107-130  
  Keywords *Affect; *Attitude; Humans; *Negotiating; *Social Behavior; *Stereotyping  
  Abstract More than 100 articles have examined the construct of stereotype threat and its implications. However, stereotype threat seems to mean different things to different researchers and has been employed to describe and explain processes and phenomena that appear to be fundamentally distinct. Complementing existing models, the authors posit a Multi-Threat Framework in which six qualitatively distinct stereotype threats arise from the intersection of two dimensions--the target of the threat (the self/one's group) and the source of the threat (the self/outgroup others/ingroup others). The authors propose that these threats constitute the core of the broader stereotype threat construct and provide the foundation for understanding additional, as of yet uncharacterized, stereotype threats. The proposed threats likely differentially peril those with different stigmatizable characteristics, have different eliciting conditions and moderators, are mediated by somewhat different processes, are coped with and compensated for in different ways, and require different interventions to overcome.  
  Call Number Serial 1311  
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Author (up) Thor, D.H.; Holloway, W.R.J. file  url
  Title Caffeine and copulatory experience: interactive effects on social investigatory behavior Type Journal Article
  Year 1986 Publication Physiology & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Physiol Behav  
  Volume 36 Issue 4 Pages 707-711  
  Keywords Animals; Caffeine/*pharmacology; *Copulation; *Exploratory Behavior/drug effects; Female; Male; Rats; Sexual Behavior, Animal; *Social Behavior  
  Abstract Three experiments test the interaction of prior copulatory experience with acute caffeine exposure on social investigatory behavior of the male Norway rat. At a dosage of 20 mg/kg or greater, caffeine counteracts a decrease in social investigation attributed to copulatory experience. At a 10 mg/kg dosage, caffeine increases social investigatory behavior prior to sexual exposure but has no comparable effect after sexual exposure. The results are interpreted as confirming a long-term effect of copulatory exposure on social investigatory behavior and as describing a dose-related interaction of caffeine exposure with prior copulatory experience. Social investigation is viewed as a preliminary component of sexual behavior and the decrease in social investigation following copulatory experience as a gain in efficiency of social discrimination. Acute caffeine exposure apparently interferes with access or retrieval of reference information in long-term memory.  
  Call Number Serial 1574  
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Author (up) Waldzus, S.; Mummendey, A.; Wenzel, M.; Boettcher, F. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Of bikers, teachers and Germans: groups' diverging views about their prototypicality Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication The British Journal of Social Psychology / the British Psychological Society Abbreviated Journal Br J Soc Psychol  
  Volume 43 Issue Pt 3 Pages 385-400  
  Keywords Adult; *Bicycling; *Culture; *Faculty; Female; Germany; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Questionnaires; *Social Behavior  
  Abstract The in-group projection model hypothesizes that members of social groups generalize attributes of their in-group to a superordinate category that provides dimensions for comparisons between in-group and out-group (in-group projection). As a result, both groups in an intergroup situation should disagree about their relative prototypicality for the superordinate category. Three studies confirmed this prediction. In Study 1 (N = 54), it was found that different groups of motor bikers (chopper-bikers vs. sport-bikers) perceived their own subgroup to be the more typical biker group than the respective out-group. Study 2 (N = 60) showed the same divergence of perspectives in the context of more formal subgroups of teachers (primary-school teachers vs. high-school teachers). In a third study (N = 157), the relative character of in-group projection was demonstrated in an intergroup context with strong reality constraints due to differences in group size, status and power. Although there was consensus between both groups that the majority (West Germans) was more prototypical of the superordinate group (Germans) than the minority (East Germans), majority members perceived the groups' difference in prototypicality to be greater than minority members did.  
  Call Number Serial 95  
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