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Author (up) Aro, H.M.; Palosaari, U.K. file  url
  Title Parental divorce, adolescence, and transition to young adulthood: a follow-up study Type Journal Article
  Year 1992 Publication The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry Abbreviated Journal Am J Orthopsychiatry  
  Volume 62 Issue 3 Pages 421-429  
  Keywords Achievement; Adaptation, Psychological; Adolescent; *Adolescent Psychology; Adult; Cohort Studies; Depression/psychology; Divorce/*psychology; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Interpersonal Relations; Male; *Personality Development; Self Concept; Social Adjustment; Somatoform Disorders/psychology  
  Abstract In a long-term study of the effects of divorce, children in a Finnish town who had completed questionnaires in school at age 16 were followed up with postal questionnaires at age 22. Depression in young adulthood was found to be slightly more common among children from divorced families. In addition, the life trajectories of children in divorced families revealed more stressful paths and more distress in both adolescence and young adulthood.  
  Call Number Serial 279  
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Author (up) Bruckmuller, S.; Branscombe, N.R. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title The glass cliff: when and why women are selected as leaders in crisis contexts Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication The British Journal of Social Psychology / the British Psychological Society Abbreviated Journal Br J Soc Psychol  
  Volume 49 Issue Pt 3 Pages 433-451  
  Keywords Achievement; *Career Mobility; Choice Behavior; Efficiency, Organizational/*economics; Employee Performance Appraisal; Female; *Gender Identity; Humans; Judgment; *Leadership; Male; Organizational Innovation/*economics; Power (Psychology); Prejudice; Stereotyping; Women, Working/*psychology  
  Abstract The glass cliff refers to women being more likely to rise to positions of organizational leadership in times of crisis than in times of success, and men being more likely to achieve those positions in prosperous times. We examine the role that (a) a gendered history of leadership and (b) stereotypes about gender and leadership play in creating the glass cliff. In Expt 1, participants who read about a company with a male history of leadership selected a male future leader for a successful organization, but chose a female future leader in times of crisis. This interaction--between company performance and gender of the preferred future leader--was eliminated for a counter-stereotypic history of female leadership. In Expt 2, stereotypically male attributes were most predictive of leader selection in a successful organization, while stereotypically female attributes were most predictive in times of crisis. Differences in the endorsement of these stereotypes, in particular with regard to the ascription of lower stereotypically female attributes to the male candidate mediated the glass cliff effect. Overall, results suggest that stereotypes about male leadership may be more important for the glass cliff effect than stereotypes about women and leadership.  
  Call Number Serial 269  
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Author (up) Capp, S.J.; Williams, M.G. file  url
  Title Promoting student success and well-being: a stress management course Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Holistic Nursing Practice Abbreviated Journal Holist Nurs Pract  
  Volume 26 Issue 5 Pages 272-276  
  Keywords Achievement; Adaptation, Psychological; Education, Nursing; Health; Humans; Problem-Based Learning; Stress, Psychological; Students, Nursing  
  Abstract Nursing students need to be prepared for a highly complex and challenging profession. This article describes an experiential course where students learn stress management skills and develop a stress management plan. These skills can be used during their nursing education and then transferred to clinical practice.  
  Call Number Serial 461  
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Author (up) Conley, D.; Pfeiffer, K.M.; Velez, M. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Explaining sibling differences in achievement and behavioral outcomes: The importance of within- and between-family factors Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Social Science Research Abbreviated Journal Social Science Research  
  Volume 36 Issue 3 Pages 1087-1104  
  Keywords Child development; Family; Stratification; Fixed effects models; Intra-class correlations; Sibling differences; Cognitive achievement; Behavioral problems  
  Abstract Most research on child behavioral and cognitive outcomes focuses on the impact of variables measured across families—holding a number of other characteristics constant. However, this research is limited in that it does not capture variation in child developmental outcomes that occurs within families. To address these limitations, we examine correlations of child outcomes between siblings from the same family. We conduct this analysis for several demographic subgroups. Furthermore, to better understand how these inequalities are generated within families, we also examine the impact of individual level characteristics within families using fixed effects models. Results from our between-family analyses indicate that siblings with fewer family resources are more similar on behavioral outcomes compared to siblings in more privileged families. However, children in two-parent households perform more similarly on age-adjusted achievement tests than do children in single parent households. Results from our within-family sibling comparisons reveal that first born children generally outperform their younger siblings on age-adjusted achievement tests.  
  Call Number Serial 742  
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Author (up) Forehand, R.; Biggar, H.; Kotchick, B.A. file  url
  Title Cumulative risk across family stressors: short- and long-term effects for adolescents Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology Abbreviated Journal J Abnorm Child Psychol  
  Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 119-128  
  Keywords Achievement; Adaptation, Psychological; Adjustment Disorders/diagnosis/*epidemiology; Adolescent; *Adolescent Psychology; Adult; Affective Symptoms/diagnosis/epidemiology; Analysis of Variance; Child; Conduct Disorder/diagnosis/epidemiology; Depressive Disorder/diagnosis/epidemiology; Educational Measurement; Educational Status; *Family Relations; Female; Humans; Juvenile Delinquency/statistics & numerical data; Male; Parent-Child Relations; Personality Inventory/statistics & numerical data; Risk Factors; Social Adjustment  
  Abstract This study examined the relationship between number of family risk factors during adolescence and three areas of psychosocial adjustment (internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and academic achievement) in adolescence and 6 years later in young adulthood. Risk factors examined included parental divorce, interparental conflict, maternal physical health problems, maternal depressive mood, and mother-adolescent relationship difficulties. The findings indicated both concurrent and long-term associations between number of family risk factors and psychosocial adjustment; however, the results differed based on area of adjustment examined and whether concurrent or longitudinal data were considered. Furthermore, a steep increase in adjustment difficulties occurred when number of risk factors increased from three to four. The results are discussed in the framework of four hypotheses which were tested, and clinical implications are delineated.  
  Call Number Serial 289  
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Author (up) Friedrich, A.; Flunger, B.; Nagengast, B.; Jonkmann, K.; Trautwein, U. file  url
  Title Pygmalion effects in the classroom: Teacher expectancy effects on students' math achievement Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Contemporary Educational Psychology Abbreviated Journal Contemporary Educational Psychology  
  Volume 41 Issue Pages 1-12  
  Keywords Teachers' expectancies; Pygmalion effect; Students' self-concept; Multilevel modeling; Math achievement  
  Abstract According to the Pygmalion effect, teachers' expectancies affect students' academic progress. Many empirical studies have supported the predictions of the Pygmalion effect, but the effect sizes have tended to be small to moderate. Furthermore, almost all existing studies have examined teacher expectancy effects on students' achievement at the student level only (does a specific student improve?) rather than at the classroom level (do classes improve when teachers have generally high expectations of their students?). The present study scrutinized the Pygmalion effect in a longitudinal study by using a large sample in regular classrooms and by differentiating between two achievement outcomes (grades and an achievement test) and two levels of analyses (the individual and classroom levels). Furthermore, students' self-concept was studied as a possible mediator of the teacher expectancy effect on achievement. Data come from a study with 73 teachers and their 1289 fifth-grade students. Multilevel regression analyses yielded three main results. First, Pygmalion effects were found at the individual level for both achievement outcomes. Second, multilevel mediation analyses showed that teacher expectancy effects were partly mediated by students' self-concept. Third, teachers' average expectancy effects at the class level were found to be nonsignificant when students' prior achievement was controlled.  
  Call Number Serial 1953  
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Author (up) Guay, F.; Ratelle, C.F.; Roy, A.; Litalien, D. file  url
  Title Academic self-concept, autonomous academic motivation, and academic achievement: Mediating and additive effects Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Learning and Individual Differences Abbreviated Journal Learning and Individual Differences  
  Volume 20 Issue 6 Pages 644-653  
  Keywords Academic self-concept; Autonomous academic motivation; Academic achievement; Structural equation modeling  
  Abstract Three conceptual models were tested to examine the relationships among academic self-concept, autonomous academic motivation, and academic achievement. This allowed us to determine whether 1) autonomous academic motivation mediates the relation between academic self-concept and achievement, 2) academic self-concept mediates the relation between autonomous academic motivation and achievement, or 3) both motivational constructs have an additive effect on academic achievement. A total of 925 high school students (404 boys and 521 girls) were asked to complete a questionnaire on two occasions separated by a year interval. Results from SEM analyses provided good support for the hypothesized model positing that autonomous academic motivation mediates the academic self-concept–academic achievement relation. Results are discussed in light of self-determination theory and self-concept theory.  
  Call Number Serial 1952  
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Author (up) Johnson, C.S.; Stapel, D.A. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title No pain, no gain: the conditions under which upward comparisons lead to better performance Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Abbreviated Journal J Pers Soc Psychol  
  Volume 92 Issue 6 Pages 1051-1067  
  Keywords *Achievement; Adult; *Attitude; *Competitive Behavior; Female; Humans; Male; *Motivation; Questionnaires; *Self Concept; *Social Desirability  
  Abstract In 3 studies, the authors explored the relation between threatening upward social comparisons and performance. In an initial study, participants were exposed to comparison targets who either threatened or boosted self-evaluations and then completed a performance task. Participants exposed to the threatening target performed better than those in a control group, whereas those exposed to the nonthreatening target performed worse. In Study 2, self-affirmation prior to comparison with threatening targets eliminated performance improvements. In Study 3, performance improvements were found only when the performance domain was different from the domain of success of the comparison target. These boundary conditions suggest that increases in performance following social comparison arise from individuals' motivations to maintain and repair self-evaluations. Implications for the study of the behavioral consequences of social comparison are discussed.  
  Call Number Serial 514  
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Author (up) Long, N.; Forehand, R.; Fauber, R.; Brody, G.H. file  url
  Title Self-perceived and independently observed competence of young adolescents as a function of parental marital conflict and recent divorce Type Journal Article
  Year 1987 Publication Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology Abbreviated Journal J Abnorm Child Psychol  
  Volume 15 Issue 1 Pages 15-27  
  Keywords *Achievement; Adolescent; Adolescent Psychology; Child; Cognition; *Divorce; Female; Humans; *Interpersonal Relations; Male; *Marriage; Mother-Child Relations; Peer Group; Self Concept; Social Desirability  
  Abstract The self-perceived and independently observed cognitive and social competence of young adolescents as a function of parental conflict and recent divorce was investigated. Subjects were 40 young adolescents between the ages of 11 years 1 month and 15 years 1 month. A 2 X 2 factorial design was used, with the independent variables being parental marital status (married vs. recently divorced) and parental conflict (high vs. low). Dependent variables included the following measures of adolescent competence: adolescent-completed measures of self-perceived competence, teacher-completed measures, behavioral observations, and school grades. The results indicated that the level of parental conflict, rather than parental marital status, appears to be the critical variable associated with adolescents' independently observed levels of cognitive and social competence. In regard to adolescents' self-perceived levels of cognitive and social competence, parental marital status was found to be the critical variable. The implications of these findings are discussed.  
  Call Number Serial 286  
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Author (up) Moneta, G.B. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Need for achievement, burnout, and intention to leave: Testing an occupational model in educational settings Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Personality and Individual Differences Abbreviated Journal Personality and Individual Differences  
  Volume 50 Issue 2 Pages 274-278  
  Keywords Burnout; College students; Coping; Intention to leave; Need for achievement; Stress  
  Abstract This study investigated the links between need for achievement, burnout, and intention to leave one’s study program in undergraduate university students in order to assess the applicability of the occupational model of burnout to an educational context. A sample of 226 university students completed the personality research form need for achievement scale, the Maslach burnout inventory – student survey, and Weisberg’s intention to leave scale. Structural equation modeling indicated that need for achievement directly prevented each component of burnout (emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and reduced efficacy). Moreover, emotional exhaustion directly promoted cynicism, which in turn directly promoted reduced efficacy. Finally, cynicism and reduced efficacy directly promoted intention to leave. The findings suggest that the characteristics, antecedents, and consequences of study-related burnout are similar to those of work-related burnout.  
  Call Number Serial 677  
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