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Author Alapin, I.; Fichten, C.S.; Libman, E.; Creti, L.; Bailes, S.; Wright, J. file  url
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  Title How is good and poor sleep in older adults and college students related to daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and ability to concentrate? Type (up) Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Journal of Psychosomatic Research Abbreviated Journal J Psychosom Res  
  Volume 49 Issue 5 Pages 381-390  
  Keywords Adaptation, Psychological; Adult; Aged; Attention; Circadian Rhythm--physiology; Cognition Disorders--diagnosis, etiology; Disorders of Excessive Somnolence--diagnosis, etiology; Fatigue--diagnosis, etiology; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Severity of Illness Index; Sleep--physiology; Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders--complications, diagnosis; Students; Universities; Wakefulness--physiology  
  Abstract We compared good sleepers with minimally and highly distressed poor sleepers on three measures of daytime functioning: self-reported fatigue, sleepiness, and cognitive inefficiency. In two samples (194 older adults, 136 college students), we tested the hypotheses that (1) poor sleepers experience more problems with daytime functioning than good sleepers, (2) highly distressed poor sleepers report greater impairment in functioning during the day than either good sleepers or minimally distressed poor sleepers, (3) daytime symptoms are more closely related to psychological adjustment and to psychologically laden sleep variables than to quantitative sleep parameters, and (4) daytime symptoms are more closely related to longer nocturnal wake times than to shorter sleep times. Results in both samples indicated that poor sleepers reported more daytime difficulties than good sleepers. While low- and high-distress poor sleepers did not differ on sleep parameters, highly distressed poor sleepers reported consistently more difficulty in functioning during the day and experienced greater tension and depression than minimally distressed poor sleepers. Severity of all three daytime problems was generally significantly and positively related to poor psychological adjustment, psychologically laden sleep variables, and, with the exception of sleepiness, to quantitative sleep parameters. Results are used to discuss discrepancies between experiential and quantitative measures of daytime functioning.  
  Call Number Serial 216  
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Author Amato, P.R.; Keith, B. file  url
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  Title Parental divorce and the well-being of children: a meta-analysis Type (up) Journal Article
  Year 1991 Publication Psychological Bulletin Abbreviated Journal Psychol Bull  
  Volume 110 Issue 1 Pages 26-46  
  Keywords Adaptation, Psychological; Adolescent; Child; Child, Preschool; Divorce--psychology; Female; Humans; Male; Meta-Analysis as Topic; Parent-Child Relations; Personality Development  
  Abstract This meta-analysis involved 92 studies that compared children living in divorced single-parent families with children living in continuously intact families on measures of well-being. Children of divorce scored lower than children in intact families across a variety of outcomes, with the median effect size being .14 of a standard deviation. For some outcomes, methodologically sophisticated studies yielded weaker effect sizes than did other studies. In addition, for some outcomes, more recent studies yielded weaker effect sizes than did studies carried out during earlier decades. Some support was found for theoretical perspectives emphasizing parental absence and economic disadvantage, but the most consistent support was found for a family conflict perspective.  
  Call Number Serial 277  
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Author Angarne-Lindberg, T.; Wadsby, M. file  url
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  Title Fifteen years after parental divorce: mental health and experienced life-events Type (up) Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Nordic Journal of Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal Nord J Psychiatry  
  Volume 63 Issue 1 Pages 32-43  
  Keywords *Adaptation, Psychological; Adjustment Disorders/*diagnosis/epidemiology/psychology; Adolescent; Adult; Adult Children/*psychology; Age Factors; Child; Child, Preschool; Cross-Sectional Studies; Divorce/*psychology; Female; Humans; Infant; *Life Change Events; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Middle Aged; Risk Factors; Sweden; Young Adult  
  Abstract The children who experienced their parents' divorce when the divorce rate in Sweden had begun to grow to higher levels than in preceding decades are today adults. The aim of this study was to investigate if adults who had experienced parental divorce 15 years before the time of our study, differed in mental health from those with continuously married parents, taking into account life events other than the divorce. Instruments used were the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) measuring mental health and the Life Event questionnaire capturing the number and experience of occurred events. Forty-eight persons, who were 7-18 years old when their parents divorced, constituted the divorce group, and 48 persons matched on age, sex and growth environment formed the study groups. The SCL-90 showed a limited difference between the groups, but not concerning total mental health. A main finding was a difference with regard to sex and age; women aged 22-27 in the divorce group displayed poorer mental health than other participants in both groups. The results from the Life Event questionnaire showed that the divorce group had experienced a significantly larger number of events, and more life events were described as negative with difficult adjustment. A regression analysis showed a significant relation between the SCL-90, Global Severity Index and life events experienced as negative with difficult adjustment, divorce events excluded, but not with the divorce itself. It seems highly desirable to pay more attention than has thus far been paid to girls with experience of childhood divorce at age 7-12.  
  Call Number Serial 278  
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Author Aro, H.M.; Palosaari, U.K. file  url
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  Title Parental divorce, adolescence, and transition to young adulthood: a follow-up study Type (up) Journal Article
  Year 1992 Publication The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry Abbreviated Journal Am J Orthopsychiatry  
  Volume 62 Issue 3 Pages 421-429  
  Keywords Achievement; Adaptation, Psychological; Adolescent; *Adolescent Psychology; Adult; Cohort Studies; Depression/psychology; Divorce/*psychology; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Interpersonal Relations; Male; *Personality Development; Self Concept; Social Adjustment; Somatoform Disorders/psychology  
  Abstract In a long-term study of the effects of divorce, children in a Finnish town who had completed questionnaires in school at age 16 were followed up with postal questionnaires at age 22. Depression in young adulthood was found to be slightly more common among children from divorced families. In addition, the life trajectories of children in divorced families revealed more stressful paths and more distress in both adolescence and young adulthood.  
  Call Number Serial 279  
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Author Buchanan, C.M.; Maccoby, E.E.; Dornbusch, S.M. file  url
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  Title Caught between parents: adolescents' experience in divorced homes Type (up) Journal Article
  Year 1991 Publication Child Development Abbreviated Journal Child Dev  
  Volume 62 Issue 5 Pages 1008-1029  
  Keywords Adaptation, Psychological; Adolescent; *Adolescent Psychology; Antisocial Personality Disorder/psychology; Anxiety/psychology; Depression/psychology; Divorce/*psychology; Female; Humans; Male; *Parent-Child Relations; Parenting/psychology; *Personality Development; Social Environment  
  Abstract This study examined adolescents' feelings of being caught between parents to see whether this construct helps to explain (1) variability in their postdivorce adjustment and (2) associations between family/child characteristics and adolescent adjustment. Adolescents 10 to 18 years old (N = 522) were interviewed by telephone 4 1/2 years after their parents' separation. Feeling caught between parents was related to high parental conflict and hostility and low parental cooperation. Being close to both parents was associated with low feelings of being caught. The relation between time spent with each parent and feeling caught depended on the coparenting relationship. Adolescents in dual residence were especially likely to feel caught when parents were in high conflict, and especially unlikely to feel caught when parents cooperated. Feeling caught was related to poor adjustment outcomes. Parental conflict was only related to adjustment outcomes indirectly, through adolescents' feelings of being caught.  
  Call Number Serial 281  
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Author Chase-Lansdale, P.L.; Cherlin, A.J.; Kiernan, K.E. file  url
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  Title The long-term effects of parental divorce on the mental health of young adults: a developmental perspective Type (up) Journal Article
  Year 1995 Publication Child Development Abbreviated Journal Child Dev  
  Volume 66 Issue 6 Pages 1614-1634  
  Keywords Adaptation, Psychological; Adolescent; Adult; Affective Symptoms/diagnosis/psychology; Child; Divorce/*psychology; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Individuality; Learning Disorders/diagnosis/psychology; Male; *Personality Development; Personality Inventory; Risk Factors  
  Abstract The effects of parental divorce during childhood and adolescence on the mental health of young adults (age 23) were examined, using the National Child Development Study (NCDS), a longitudinal, multimethod, nationally representative survey of all children born in Great Britain during 1 week in 1958 (N = 17,414). Children were assessed at birth and subsequently followed up at ages 7, 11, 16, and 23 by means of maternal and child interviews, and by psychological, school, and medical assessments. Parental divorce had a moderate, long-term negative impact on adult mental health, as measured by the Malaise Inventory total score, and controlling for economic status, children's emotional problems, and school performance preceding marital dissolution. The likelihood of scoring above the clinical cutoff of the Malaise Inventory rose from 8% to 11% due to parental divorce. This indicated that the relative risk of serious emotional disorders increased in the aftermath of divorce, but that the large majority of individuals did not exhibit such risks. Path analyses revealed that the negative effects of divorce on adult mental health operated indirectly through higher emotional problems and lower levels of school achievement and family economic status at age 16. Results related to timing of divorce, remarriage, and interactions between age 7 emotional problems and divorce, and between age 7 emotional problems and child gender, are also discussed.  
  Call Number Serial 282  
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Author Hetherington, E.M.; Stanley-Hagan, M.; Anderson, E.R. file  url
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  Title Marital transitions. A child's perspective Type (up) Journal Article
  Year 1989 Publication The American Psychologist Abbreviated Journal Am Psychol  
  Volume 44 Issue 2 Pages 303-312  
  Keywords Adaptation, Psychological; Child; *Child Development; *Divorce; Humans; Life Change Events; *Parent-Child Relations; Personality Development; *Social Environment  
  Abstract Despite a recent leveling off of the divorce rate, almost half of the children born in the last decade will experience the divorce of their parents, and most of these children will also experience the remarriage of their parents. Most children initially experience their parents' marital rearrangements as stressful; however, children's responses to their parents marital transitions are diverse. Whereas some exhibit remarkable resiliency and in the long term may actually be enhanced by coping with these transitions, others suffer sustained developmental delays or disruptions. Others appear to adapt well in the early stages of family reorganizations but show delayed effects that emerge at a later time, especially in adolescence. The long-term effects are related more to the child's developmental status, sex, and temperament; the qualities of the home and parenting environments; and to the resources and support systems available to the parents and child than they are to divorce or remarriage per se. In recent years, researchers have begun to move away from the view that single-parent and remarried families are atypical or pathogenic families and are focusing on the diversity of children's responses and to the factors that facilitate or disrupt the development and adjustment of children experiencing their parents' marital transitions.  
  Call Number Serial 283  
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Author Forehand, R.; Biggar, H.; Kotchick, B.A. file  url
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  Title Cumulative risk across family stressors: short- and long-term effects for adolescents Type (up) Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology Abbreviated Journal J Abnorm Child Psychol  
  Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 119-128  
  Keywords Achievement; Adaptation, Psychological; Adjustment Disorders/diagnosis/*epidemiology; Adolescent; *Adolescent Psychology; Adult; Affective Symptoms/diagnosis/epidemiology; Analysis of Variance; Child; Conduct Disorder/diagnosis/epidemiology; Depressive Disorder/diagnosis/epidemiology; Educational Measurement; Educational Status; *Family Relations; Female; Humans; Juvenile Delinquency/statistics & numerical data; Male; Parent-Child Relations; Personality Inventory/statistics & numerical data; Risk Factors; Social Adjustment  
  Abstract This study examined the relationship between number of family risk factors during adolescence and three areas of psychosocial adjustment (internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and academic achievement) in adolescence and 6 years later in young adulthood. Risk factors examined included parental divorce, interparental conflict, maternal physical health problems, maternal depressive mood, and mother-adolescent relationship difficulties. The findings indicated both concurrent and long-term associations between number of family risk factors and psychosocial adjustment; however, the results differed based on area of adjustment examined and whether concurrent or longitudinal data were considered. Furthermore, a steep increase in adjustment difficulties occurred when number of risk factors increased from three to four. The results are discussed in the framework of four hypotheses which were tested, and clinical implications are delineated.  
  Call Number Serial 289  
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Author Gallant, M.P. file  url
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  Title The influence of social support on chronic illness self-management: a review and directions for research Type (up) Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Health Education & Behavior : the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education Abbreviated Journal Health Educ Behav  
  Volume 30 Issue 2 Pages 170-195  
  Keywords Adaptation, Psychological; Chronic Disease/*psychology/rehabilitation; Humans; Patient Compliance/psychology; Self Care/*psychology; Sick Role; *Social Support  
  Abstract A review of the empirical literature examining the relationship between social support and chronic illness self-management identified 29 articles, of which 22 were quantitative and 7 were qualitative. The majority of research in this area concerns diabetes self-management, with a few studies examining asthma, heart disease, and epilepsy management. Taken together, these studies provide evidence for a modest positive relationship between social support and chronic illness self-management, especially for diabetes. Dietary behavior appears to be particularly susceptible to social influences. In addition, social network members have potentially important negative influences on self-management There is a need to elucidate the underlying mechanisms by which support influences self-management and to examine whether this relationship varies by illness, type of support, and behavior. There is also a need to understand how the social environment may influence self-management in ways other than the provision of social support  
  Call Number Serial 361  
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Author Binder, E.; Droste, S.K.; Ohl, F.; Reul, J.M.H.M. file  url
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  Title Regular voluntary exercise reduces anxiety-related behaviour and impulsiveness in mice Type (up) Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Behavioural Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Behav Brain Res  
  Volume 155 Issue 2 Pages 197-206  
  Keywords Adaptation, Psychological; Animals; Anxiety/*psychology; *Choice Behavior; *Exploratory Behavior; Impulsive Behavior/*psychology; Male; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Physical Conditioning, Animal/*psychology  
  Abstract We embarked on a study to delineate the behavioural changes in mice after 4 weeks of voluntary exercise. As an initial behavioural characterization, we exposed the control and exercising mice to a modified hole board and an open field test. As compared to control mice, exercising animals showed clear signs of increased behavioural inhibition (e.g. a longer latency to enter unprotected areas), suggesting increased anxiety in these animals. In addition, the exercising mice were reluctant to spend time in the open field's centre during the beginning of the 30-min open field test, but compensated for this at later times. Paradoxically, the exercising animals showed more rearings on the board of the modified hole board, indicating decreased anxiety. Thus, the behavioural inhibition seen in exercising mice is likely to represent decreased stress responsiveness at the behavioural level which can also be interpreted as reduced impulsiveness. To clarify whether voluntary exercise evolves in more or less anxiety-related behaviour, we exposed animals to the elevated plus-maze and the dark-light box, two selective tests for unconditioned anxiety. Clearly, compared to the control animals, exercising mice spent significantly more time on the open arm of the plus-maze and spent double the amount of time in the light compartment of the dark-light box. Taken together, we conclude that long-term voluntary exercise appears to result in decreased anxiety-related behaviour and impulsiveness. Thus, our observations fit into the concept that regular exercise strengthens endogenous stress coping mechanisms, thereby protecting the organism against the deleterious effects of stress.  
  Call Number Serial 396  
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