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Author (up) Williams, D.; Happe, F.; Jarrold, C. file  url
  Title Intact inner speech use in autism spectrum disorder: evidence from a short-term memory task Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines Abbreviated Journal J Child Psychol Psychiatry  
  Volume 49 Issue 1 Pages 51-58  
  Keywords Adolescent; Analysis of Variance; Autistic Disorder--psychology; Case-Control Studies; Child; Child, Preschool; Cognition; Female; Humans; Male; Memory, Short-Term; Psycholinguistics; Verbal Behavior  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Inner speech has been linked to higher-order cognitive processes including 'theory of mind', self-awareness and executive functioning, all of which are impaired in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Individuals with ASD, themselves, report a propensity for visual rather than verbal modes of thinking. This study explored the extent to which children with ASD used inner speech or visual imagery to support recall from short-term memory. METHOD: Twenty-five children with ASD and 20 comparison children with moderate learning disabilities completed an immediate serial recall task, in which stimuli consisted of items with either phonologically similar features, visuo-spatially similar features or control items which were neither visuo-spatially nor phonologically similar. RESULTS: ASD and comparison participants, with verbal mental ages above 7 years, recalled phonologically similar stimuli less well than control stimuli, indicating that both groups were using inner speech to recode visually presented information into a phonological code. In contrast, those participants with verbal mental ages below 7 years, whether with ASD or not, recalled visuo-spatially similar stimuli less well than control stimuli, indicating visual rather than phonological coding. This developmental pattern mirrors that found in typically developing children. CONCLUSIONS: Under experimental conditions, individuals with ASD use inner speech to the same extent as individuals without ASD of a comparable mental age.  
  Call Number Serial 63  
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Author (up) Williams, D.L.; Goldstein, G.; Minshew, N.J. file  url
  Title The profile of memory function in children with autism Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Neuropsychology Abbreviated Journal Neuropsychology  
  Volume 20 Issue 1 Pages 21-29  
  Keywords Adolescent; Aptitude; Attention; Autistic Disorder--diagnosis, psychology; Child; Female; Humans; Male; Memory Disorders--diagnosis, psychology; Memory, Short-Term; Mental Recall; Neuropsychological Tests--statistics & numerical data; Pattern Recognition, Visual; Principal Component Analysis; Psychometrics--statistics & numerical data; Reading; Reference Values; Reproducibility of Results; Retention (Psychology); Speech Perception; Wechsler Scales  
  Abstract A clinical memory test was administered to 38 high-functioning children with autism and 38 individually matched normal controls, 8-16 years of age. The resulting profile of memory abilities in the children with autism was characterized by relatively poor memory for complex visual and verbal information and spatial working memory with relatively intact associative learning ability, verbal working memory, and recognition memory. A stepwise discriminant function analysis of the subtests found that the Finger Windows subtest, a measure of spatial working memory, discriminated most accurately between the autism and normal control groups. A principal components analysis indicated that the factor structure of the subtests differed substantially between the children with autism and controls, suggesting differing organizations of memory ability.  
  Call Number Serial 64  
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Author (up) Williams, M.V.; Parker, R.M.; Baker, D.W.; Parikh, N.S.; Pitkin, K.; Coates, W.C.; Nurss, J.R. file  url
  Title Inadequate functional health literacy among patients at two public hospitals Type Journal Article
  Year 1995 Publication JAMA : the Journal of the American Medical Association Abbreviated Journal Jama  
  Volume 274 Issue 21 Pages 1677-1682  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; California; Cross-Sectional Studies; *Educational Status; Ethnic Groups; Female; Georgia; *Health Services Accessibility; Hospitals, Public; Hospitals, Urban; Humans; Male; Medical Indigency; Middle Aged; *Outpatients; Socioeconomic Factors  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: To determine the ability of patients to complete successfully basic reading and numeracy tasks required to function adequately in the health care setting. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Two urban, public hospitals. PATIENTS: A total of 2659 predominantly indigent and minority patients, 1892 English-speaking and 767 Spanish-speaking, presenting for acute care. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Functional health literacy as measured by the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA), an instrument that measures ability to read and understand medical instructions and health care information presented in prose passages and passages containing numerical information (eg, prescription bottle labels and appointment slips). RESULTS: A high proportion of patients were unable to read and understand written basic medical instructions. Of 2659 patients, 1106 (41.6%) were unable to comprehend directions for taking medication on an empty stomach, 691 (26%) were unable to understand information regarding when a next appointment is scheduled, and 1582 (59.5%) could not understand a standard informed consent document. A total of 665 (35.1%) of 1892 English-speaking patients and 473 (61.7%) of 767 Spanish-speaking patients had inadequate or marginal functional health literacy. The prevalence of inadequate or marginal functional health literacy among the elderly (age > or = 60 years) was 81.3% (187/230) for English-speaking patients and 82.6% (57/69) for Spanish-speaking patients, and was significantly higher (P < .001) than in younger patients. CONCLUSIONS: Many patients at our institutions cannot perform the basic reading tasks required to function in the health care environment. Inadequate health literacy may be an important barrier to patients' understanding of their diagnoses and treatments, and to receiving high-quality care.  
  Call Number Serial 295  
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Author (up) Zarate, C.A.J.; Quiroz, J.A.; Singh, J.B.; Denicoff, K.D.; De Jesus, G.; Luckenbaugh, D.A.; Charney, D.S.; Manji, H.K. file  url
  Title An open-label trial of the glutamate-modulating agent riluzole in combination with lithium for the treatment of bipolar depression Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Biological Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal Biol Psychiatry  
  Volume 57 Issue 4 Pages 430-432  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Bipolar Disorder/*drug therapy; Drug Therapy, Combination; Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists/*therapeutic use; Female; Humans; Lithium/*therapeutic use; Male; Middle Aged; Personality Inventory; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales; Riluzole/*therapeutic use; Time Factors; Treatment Outcome  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Preclinical and clinical evidence indicate that the glutamatergic system might play a role in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. This study was conducted to determine the efficacy and safety of riluzole, a glutamate-modulating agent, in bipolar depression. METHODS: This was an 8-week add-on study of riluzole in combination with lithium in acutely depressed bipolar patients aged 18 years and older. After open treatment with lithium for a minimum period of 4 weeks, subjects who continued to have a Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score of >/=20 received riluzole (50-200 mg/day) for 8 weeks. RESULTS: Fourteen bipolar depressed patients entered the study. The linear mixed models for total MADRS score showed a significant treatment effect. No switch into hypomania or mania was observed. Overall, riluzole was well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: Although preliminary, these results suggest that riluzole might indeed have antidepressant efficacy in subjects with bipolar depression.  
  Call Number Serial 1019  
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Author (up) Zellner, D.A.; Siemers, E.; Teran, V.; Conroy, R.; Lankford, M.; Agrafiotis, A.; Ambrose, L.; Locher, P. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Neatness counts. How plating affects liking for the taste of food Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 57 Issue 3 Pages 642-648  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Choice Behavior; Emotions; Female; *Food Habits; *Food Preferences; Humans; Male; Pilot Projects; *Taste; *Visual Perception; Young Adult  
  Abstract Two studies investigated the effect that the arrangement of food on a plate has on liking for the flavor of the food. Food presented in a neatly arranged presentation is liked more than the same food presented in a messy manner. A third study found that subjects expected to like the food in the neat presentations more than in the messy ones and would be willing to pay more for them. They also indicated that the food in the neat presentations came from a higher quality restaurant and that more care was taken with its preparation than the food in the messy presentations. Only the animal-based food was judged as being more contaminated when presented in a messy rather than a neat way. Neatness of the food presentation increases liking for the taste of the food by suggesting greater care on the part of the preparer. Two mechanisms by which greater care might increase liking are discussed.  
  Call Number Serial 153  
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