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Author (up) Killgore, W.D.S.; Kahn-Greene, E.T.; Lipizzi, E.L.; Newman, R.A.; Kamimori, G.H.; Balkin, T.J. file  url
  Title Sleep deprivation reduces perceived emotional intelligence and constructive thinking skills Type
  Year 2008 Publication Sleep Medicine Abbreviated Journal Sleep Med  
  Volume 9 Issue 5 Pages 517-526  
  Keywords *Adaptation, Psychological/drug effects; Adolescent; Adult; Assertiveness; *Awareness; Caffeine/administration & dosage; Culture; Defense Mechanisms; Double-Blind Method; *Emotions; Empathy; Female; Humans; Internal-External Control; Interpersonal Relations; Male; Personality Inventory; *Problem Solving/drug effects; Self Concept; Sleep Deprivation/drug therapy/*psychology; Superstitions/psychology; *Thinking; Young Adult  
  Abstract BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Insufficient sleep can adversely affect a variety of cognitive abilities, ranging from simple alertness to higher-order executive functions. Although the effects of sleep loss on mood and cognition are well documented, there have been no controlled studies examining its effects on perceived emotional intelligence (EQ) and constructive thinking, abilities that require the integration of affect and cognition and are central to adaptive functioning. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-six healthy volunteers completed the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQi) and the Constructive Thinking Inventory (CTI) at rested baseline and again after 55.5 and 58 h of continuous wakefulness, respectively. RESULTS: Relative to baseline, sleep deprivation was associated with lower scores on Total EQ (decreased global emotional intelligence), Intrapersonal functioning (reduced self-regard, assertiveness, sense of independence, and self-actualization), Interpersonal functioning (reduced empathy toward others and quality of interpersonal relationships), Stress Management skills (reduced impulse control and difficulty with delay of gratification), and Behavioral Coping (reduced positive thinking and action orientation). Esoteric Thinking (greater reliance on formal superstitions and magical thinking processes) was increased. CONCLUSIONS: These findings are consistent with the neurobehavioral model suggesting that sleep loss produces temporary changes in cerebral metabolism, cognition, emotion, and behavior consistent with mild prefrontal lobe dysfunction.  
  Call Number Serial 264  
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Author (up) Kim, E.J.; Namkoong, K.; Ku, T.; Kim, S.J. file  url
  Title The relationship between online game addiction and aggression, self-control and narcissistic personality traits Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication European Psychiatry : the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists Abbreviated Journal Eur Psychiatry  
  Volume 23 Issue 3 Pages 212-218  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Aggression/*psychology; Behavior, Addictive/*diagnosis/epidemiology/psychology; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Health Surveys; Humans; *Internal-External Control; *Internet; Korea; Male; Personality Disorders/*diagnosis/epidemiology/psychology; Surveys and Questionnaires; *Video Games  
  Abstract OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore the relationship between online game addiction and aggression, self-control, and narcissistic personality traits, which are known as the psychological characteristics linked to “at-risk” populations for online game addiction. METHOD: A total of 1471 online game users (males 82.7%, females 17.3%, mean age 21.30+/-4.96) participated in this study and were asked to complete several self-report measures using an online response method. Questionnaires included demographic information and game use-related characteristics of the samples, the online game addiction scale (modified from Young's Internet addiction scale), the Buss-Perry aggression questionnaire, a self-control scale, and the narcissistic personality disorder scale. RESULTS: Our results indicated that aggression and narcissistic personality traits are positively correlated with online game addiction, whereas self-control is negatively correlated with online game addiction (p<0.001). In addition, a multiple regression analysis revealed that the extent of online game addiction could be predicted based on the person's narcissistic personality traits, aggression, self-control, interpersonal relationship, and occupation. However, only 20% of the variance in behavioral consequences was explained with the model. CONCLUSION: An interesting profile has emerged from the results of this study, suggesting that certain psychological characteristics such as aggression, self-control, and narcissistic personality traits may predispose some individuals to become addicted to online games. This result will deepen our understanding of the “at-risk” population for online game addiction and provide basic information that can contribute to developing a prevention program for people who are addicted to online games.  
  Call Number Serial 1491  
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Author (up) Kim, H.; Ha, J.-S.; Park, J. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title High temperature, heat index, and mortality in 6 major cities in South Korea Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health Abbreviated Journal Arch Environ Occup Health  
  Volume 61 Issue 6 Pages 265-270  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Age Factors; Aged; Child; Child, Preschool; *Climate; Hot Temperature/*adverse effects; Humans; Infant; Korea/epidemiology; Middle Aged; Mortality/*trends; Time Factors; Urban Health/*trends  
  Abstract The authors conducted a time-series analysis to estimate the acute effects of high temperature in 6 cities in Korea and to compare thresholds of temperature on daily mortality among the cities. They examined the association between total mortality and the daily mean temperature and heat index during the summers in Korea from 1994 to 2003. The threshold temperature was estimated to be between 27.0 degrees C and 29.7 degrees C for 4 cities. For a daily mean temperature increase of 1 degrees C above the thresholds in Seoul, Daegu, Incheon, and Gwangju, estimated percentage increases in daily mortality were 16.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 14.2-18.4), 9.10 (CI = 5.12-13.2), 7.01 (CI = 4.42-9.66), and 6.73 (CI = 2.47-11.2), respectively. These city-specific threshold temperatures and the magnitude of the effects of hot temperature indicate that any analysis of the impact of climate change should take into account regional differences.  
  Call Number Serial 487  
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Author (up) Kohler, P.K.; Manhart, L.E.; Lafferty, W.E. file  url
  Title Abstinence-only and comprehensive sex education and the initiation of sexual activity and teen pregnancy Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication The Journal of Adolescent Health : Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine Abbreviated Journal J Adolesc Health  
  Volume 42 Issue 4 Pages 344-351  
  Keywords Adolescent; Female; Health Surveys; Humans; Pregnancy; Pregnancy in Adolescence/*prevention & control/statistics & numerical data; Program Evaluation; Risk Reduction Behavior; Sex Education/*methods; *Sexual Abstinence; *Sexual Behavior/statistics & numerical data; Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology/prevention & control; United States/epidemiology  
  Abstract PURPOSE: The role that sex education plays in the initiation of sexual activity and risk of teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease (STD) is controversial in the United States. Despite several systematic reviews, few epidemiologic evaluations of the effectiveness of these programs on a population level have been conducted. METHODS: Among never-married heterosexual adolescents, aged 15-19 years, who participated in Cycle 6 (2002) of the National Survey of Family Growth and reported on formal sex education received before their first sexual intercourse (n = 1719), we compared the sexual health risks of adolescents who received abstinence-only and comprehensive sex education to those of adolescents who received no formal sex education. Weighted multivariate logistic regression generated population-based estimates. RESULTS: Adolescents who received comprehensive sex education were significantly less likely to report teen pregnancy (OR(adj) = .4, 95% CI = .22- .69, p = .001) than those who received no formal sex education, whereas there was no significant effect of abstinence-only education (OR(adj) = .7, 95% CI = .38-1.45, p = .38). Abstinence-only education did not reduce the likelihood of engaging in vaginal intercourse (OR(adj) = .8, 95% CI = .51-1.31, p = .40), but comprehensive sex education was marginally associated with a lower likelihood of reporting having engaged in vaginal intercourse (OR(adj) = .7, 95% CI = .49-1.02, p = .06). Neither abstinence-only nor comprehensive sex education significantly reduced the likelihood of reported STD diagnoses (OR(adj) = 1.7, 95% CI = .57-34.76, p = .36 and OR(adj) = 1.8, 95% CI = .67-5.00, p = .24 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Teaching about contraception was not associated with increased risk of adolescent sexual activity or STD. Adolescents who received comprehensive sex education had a lower risk of pregnancy than adolescents who received abstinence-only or no sex education.  
  Call Number Serial 1685  
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Author (up) Laan, D.J.; Leidy, H.J.; Lim, E.; Campbell, W.W. url  doi
  Title Effects and reproducibility of aerobic and resistance exercise on appetite and energy intake in young, physically active adults Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism = Physiologie Appliquee, Nutrition et Metabolisme Abbreviated Journal Appl Physiol Nutr Metab  
  Volume 35 Issue 6 Pages 842-847  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Appetite Regulation--physiology; Body Mass Index; Cross-Over Studies; Energy Intake--physiology; Exercise--physiology; Female; Humans; Hunger; Male; Oxygen Consumption--physiology; Physical Fitness; Reproducibility of Results; Resistance Training; Young Adult  
  Abstract Appetite and meal energy intake (MEI) following aerobic (AEx) and resistance (REx) exercises were evaluated in 19 young, active adults. The participants completed duplicate 35-min sessions of AEx, REx, and sedentary control, and consumed an ad libitum pasta meal 30 min postsession. Hunger transiently decreased after AEx but was not influenced by REx. MEI was 14% to 18% higher after AEx and REx than control. These findings are consistent with exercise-stimulated ingestive behavior, not anorexia of exercise.  
  Call Number Serial 35  
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Author (up) Lamm, C.; Batson, C.D.; Decety, J. file  url
  Title The neural substrate of human empathy: effects of perspective-taking and cognitive appraisal Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal J Cogn Neurosci  
  Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages 42-58  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; *Brain Mapping; Cerebral Cortex/blood supply/*physiology; Cognition/*physiology; *Emotions; *Empathy; Facial Expression; Female; Functional Laterality; Humans; Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods; Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods; Male; Oxygen/blood; Photic Stimulation/methods; Questionnaires; Reference Values; Social Perception; Statistics as Topic  
  Abstract Whether observation of distress in others leads to empathic concern and altruistic motivation, or to personal distress and egoistic motivation, seems to depend upon the capacity for self-other differentiation and cognitive appraisal. In this experiment, behavioral measures and event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging were used to investigate the effects of perspective-taking and cognitive appraisal while participants observed the facial expression of pain resulting from medical treatment. Video clips showing the faces of patients were presented either with the instruction to imagine the feelings of the patient (“imagine other”) or to imagine oneself to be in the patient's situation (“imagine self”). Cognitive appraisal was manipulated by providing information that the medical treatment had or had not been successful. Behavioral measures demonstrated that perspective-taking and treatment effectiveness instructions affected participants' affective responses to the observed pain. Hemodynamic changes were detected in the insular cortices, anterior medial cingulate cortex (aMCC), amygdala, and in visual areas including the fusiform gyrus. Graded responses related to the perspective-taking instructions were observed in middle insula, aMCC, medial and lateral premotor areas, and selectively in left and right parietal cortices. Treatment effectiveness resulted in signal changes in the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex, in the ventromedial orbito-frontal cortex, in the right lateral middle frontal gyrus, and in the cerebellum. These findings support the view that humans' responses to the pain of others can be modulated by cognitive and motivational processes, which influence whether observing a conspecific in need of help will result in empathic concern, an important instigator for helping behavior.  
  Call Number Serial 245  
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Author (up) Launiala, A.; Kulmala, T. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title The importance of understanding the local context: women's perceptions and knowledge concerning malaria in pregnancy in rural Malawi Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Acta Tropica Abbreviated Journal Acta Trop  
  Volume 98 Issue 2 Pages 111-117  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Female; *Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Humans; Interviews as Topic; Malaria/*ethnology/parasitology/*prevention & control; Malawi; Pregnancy; Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic/*ethnology/parasitology/*prevention & control; Questionnaires; Rural Population  
  Abstract A current problem of malaria prevention programmes is that not enough attention is paid to understanding the local socio-cultural context prior to programme implementation. The aim of this study is to discover how Yao women in rural Malawi understand and explain malaria in pregnancy, how they perceive it and what type of knowledge they have on it. Women's knowledge of the adverse effects of malaria in pregnancy is also investigated. At first phase a total of 34 in-depth interviews were conducted. At second phase a KAP survey (n=248) was conducted for cross-validation of the qualitative information. The findings showed that there is neither a vernacular word for malaria nor malaria in pregnancy. Women used a local word, malungo, to refer to malaria. Malungo is an ambiguous disease term because of its multiple meanings which are used interchangeably to refer to many types of feverish illnesses of various causes, not only malaria. Most women did not perceive malungo during pregnancy as a serious illness. There were several other diseases from anaemia, STDs to cholera etc. that were perceived to be more dangerous than malungo. The local meaning of malungo also entailed an assumption that it is a common but fairly harmless illness. Women had limited knowledge of the adverse effects of malaria in pregnancy, the best-known adverse effect being miscarriage (28%, 52/189). A socio-cultural understanding of the implementation context is prerequisite for planning meaningful programmes for the pregnant women in rural Africa.  
  Call Number Serial 164  
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Author (up) Leaf, P.J.; Bruce, M.L.; Tischler, G.L.; Holzer, C.E. 3rd file  url
  Title The relationship between demographic factors and attitudes toward mental health services Type Journal Article
  Year 1987 Publication Journal of Community Psychology Abbreviated Journal J Community Psychol  
  Volume 15 Issue 2 Pages 275-284  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Catchment Area (Health); Connecticut; Data Collection; *Demography; Evaluation Studies as Topic; Female; Humans; Male; Mental Health Services/*utilization; Middle Aged; *Patient Acceptance of Health Care; Socioeconomic Factors; Statistics as Topic  
  Abstract Considerable effort has been exerted in recent years toward educating the public concerning mental illness and the efficacy of various treatment modalities. Most previous studies of attitudes have focused solely on attitudes toward the mentally ill. In this study we investigated attitudes toward mental health services and found that most people are positively disposed toward the use of these services. Attitudes toward the use of mental health services were affected by the age, sex, race, education, and income of the subjects. In general, differences of attitude lie in the direction that would tend to inhibit utilization among those most at risk.  
  Call Number Serial 973  
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Author (up) Lewinsohn, P.M.; Striegel-Moore, R.H.; Seeley, J.R. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Epidemiology and natural course of eating disorders in young women from adolescence to young adulthood Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry  
  Volume 39 Issue 10 Pages 1284-1292  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Anorexia Nervosa/diagnosis/*epidemiology/psychology; Bulimia/diagnosis/*epidemiology/psychology; Comorbidity; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Oregon/epidemiology; Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data; Psychopathology; Sampling Studies  
  Abstract OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiology of eating disorders (ED) in a community sample of adolescent girls; to compare the clinical characteristics of full-syndrome (FS) and partial-syndrome (PS) ED cases; and to provide information about the continuity between adolescent ED and young adult psychopathology. METHOD: A randomly selected sample of high school girls were assessed during adolescence (n = 891) and a year later (n = 810), and a stratified subset (n = 538) was assessed during their 24th year. The assessments included the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children, the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation, level of functioning, mental health treatment utilization, history of suicide attempt, and physical symptoms. RESULTS: The incidence of ED was less than 2.8% by age 18, and 1.3% for ages 19 through 23. Comorbidity with other psychopathology (89.5%), but especially depression, was very high. FS- and PS-ED groups differed significantly from a no-disorder comparison group on most outcome measures, and more than 70% of the adolescent FS- and PS-ED cases met criteria for an Axis I disorder in young adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: FS- and PS-ED are associated with substantial comorbidity, treatment seeking, impaired functioning, and risk for psychopathology in young adulthood.  
  Call Number Serial 94  
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Author (up) Loeber, R.; Burke, J.D.; Lahey, B.B.; Winters, A.; Zera, M. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Oppositional defiant and conduct disorder: a review of the past 10 years, part I Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry  
  Volume 39 Issue 12 Pages 1468-1484  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Age of Onset; *Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders/diagnosis/epidemiology/psychology; Child; Comorbidity; *Conduct Disorder/diagnosis/epidemiology/psychology; Diagnosis, Differential; Female; Humans; Male; Prevalence; Prognosis; Sex Factors  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: To review empirical findings on oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD). METHOD: Selected summaries of the literature over the past decade are presented. RESULTS: Evidence supports a distinction between the symptoms of ODD and many symptoms of CD, but there is controversy about whether aggressive symptoms should be considered to be part of ODD or CD. CD is clearly heterogenous, but further research is needed regarding the most useful subtypes. Some progress has been made in documenting sex differences. Symptoms that are more serious, more atypical for the child's sex, or more age-atypical appear to be prognostic of serious dysfunction. Progress has been made in the methods for assessment of ODD and CD, but some critical issues, such as combined information from different informants, remains to be addressed. A proportion of children with ODD later develop CD, and a proportion of those with CD later meet criteria for antisocial personality disorder. ODD and CD frequently co-occur with other psychiatric conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Although major advances in the study of the prevalence and course of ODD and CD have occurred in the past decade, some key issues remain unanswered.  
  Call Number Serial 101  
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