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Author Salthouse, T.A. file  url
Title The processing-speed theory of adult age differences in cognition Type Journal Article
Year 1996 Publication Psychological Review Abbreviated Journal Psychol Rev  
Volume 103 Issue 3 Pages 403-428  
Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Aging/*psychology; Attention; *Cognition; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; *Reaction Time  
Abstract A theory is proposed to account for some of the age-related differences reported in measures of Type A or fluid cognition. The central hypothesis in the theory is that increased age in adulthood is associated with a decrease in the speed with which many processing operations can be executed and that this reduction in speed leads to impairments in cognitive functioning because of what are termed the limited time mechanism and the simultaneity mechanism. That is, cognitive performance is degraded when processing is slow because relevant operations cannot be successfully executed (limited time) and because the products of early processing may no longer be available when later processing is complete (simultaneity). Several types of evidence, such as the discovery of considerable shared age-related variance across various measures of speed and large attenuation of the age-related influences on cognitive measures after statistical control of measures of speed, are consistent with this theory.  
Call Number Serial 2177  
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Author Salthouse, T.A. file  url
Title Relations between cognitive abilities and measures of executive functioning Type Journal Article
Year 2005 Publication Neuropsychology Abbreviated Journal Neuropsychology  
Volume 19 Issue 4 Pages 532-545  
Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Aging/*physiology; Cognition/*physiology; Female; Humans; Intelligence; Male; Memory/physiology; Middle Aged; Models, Psychological; Neuropsychological Tests; Problem Solving/*physiology; Psychometrics; Reference Values; Space Perception/physiology; Verbal Behavior/physiology; Weights and Measures/*standards  
Abstract Although frequently mentioned in contemporary neuropsychology, the term executive functioning has been a source of considerable confusion. One way in which the meaning of a variable can be investigated involves examining its pattern of relations with established cognitive abilities. This method was applied to a variety of variables hypothesized to assess executive functioning in 2 data sets, 1 consisting of 328 adults between 18 and 93 years of age and a 2nd composite data set based on nearly 7,000 healthy adults between 18 and 95 years of age. Most of the hypothesized executive functioning variables were strongly related to reasoning and perceptual speed abilities, and very few had any unique relations with age after taking into consideration the relations of age through the cognitive abilities. These results raise questions about the extent to which neuropsychological tests of executive functioning measure a distinct dimension of variation in normal adults.  
Call Number Serial 2176  
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Author Schechter, D.S.; Coots, T.; Zeanah, C.H.; Davies, M.; Coates, S.W.; Trabka, K.A.; Marshall, R.D.; Liebowitz, M.R.; Myers, M.M. file  url
Title Maternal mental representations of the child in an inner-city clinical sample: violence-related posttraumatic stress and reflective functioning Type Journal Article
Year 2005 Publication Attachment & Human Development Abbreviated Journal Attach Hum Dev  
Volume 7 Issue 3 Pages 313-331  
Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Analysis of Variance; Child Abuse/prevention & control/psychology; Child of Impaired Parents/psychology; Child, Preschool; Female; Humans; Infant; Logistic Models; *Mental Processes; Middle Aged; *Mother-Child Relations; Parenting/*psychology; Poverty Areas; Risk Factors; *Social Perception; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/*psychology; United States; Violence/*psychology  
Abstract Parental mental representations of the child have been described in the clinical literature as potentially useful risk-indicators for the intergenerational transmission of violent trauma. This study explored factors associated with the quality and content of maternal mental representations of her child and relationship with her child within an inner-city sample of referred, traumatized mothers. Specifically, it examined factors that have been hypothesized to support versus interfere with maternal self- and mutual-regulation of affect: posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and maternal reflective functioning (RF). More severe PTSD, irrespective of level of RF, was significantly associated with the distorted classification of non-balanced mental representations on the Working Model of the Child Interview (WMCI) within this traumatized sample. Higher Levels of RF, irrespective of PTSD severity, were significantly associated with the balanced classification of maternal mental representations on the WMCI. Level of maternal reflective functioning and severity of PTSD were not significantly correlated in this sample. Clinical implications are discussed.  
Call Number Serial 2171  
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Author Wilens, T.E.; Biederman, J.; Kwon, A.; Ditterline, J.; Forkner, P.; Moore, H.; Swezey, A.; Snyder, L.; Henin, A.; Wozniak, J.; Faraone, S.V. file  url
Title Risk of substance use disorders in adolescents with bipolar disorder Type Journal Article
Year 2004 Publication Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry  
Volume 43 Issue 11 Pages 1380-1386  
Keywords Adolescent; Adolescent Behavior; Bipolar Disorder/*complications/*psychology; Case-Control Studies; Child; Female; Humans; Male; Risk Factors; Substance-Related Disorders/*etiology/*psychology  
Abstract OBJECTIVE: Previous work in adults and youths has suggested that juvenile onset bipolar disorder (BPD) is associated with an elevated risk of substance use disorders (SUD). Considering the public health importance of this issue, the authors now report on a controlled study of adolescents with and without BPD to evaluate the risk of SUD. METHOD: Probands with DSM-IV BPD (n=57, mean age +/- SD=13.3 +/- 2.4 years) and without DSM-IV BPD (n=46, 13.6 +/- 2.2 years) were studied. Structured psychiatric interviews and multiple measures of SUD were collected. RESULTS: Bipolar disorder was associated with a highly significant risk factor for SUD (32% versus 7%, Z=2.9, p=.004) that was not accounted for by conduct disorder (adjusted odds ratio=5.4, p=.018). Adolescent-onset BPD (> or =13 years) was associated with a higher risk of SUD compared with those with child-onset BPD (chi1=9.3, p=.002). CONCLUSIONS: These findings strongly indicate that BPD, especially adolescent onset, is a significant risk factor for SUD independently of conduct disorder.  
Call Number Serial 2170  
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Author Joshi, S.V.; Hartley, S.N.; Kessler, M.; Barstead, M. file  url
Title School-based suicide prevention: content, process, and the role of trusted adults and peers Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America Abbreviated Journal Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am  
Volume 24 Issue 2 Pages 353-370  
Keywords Adolescent; Adolescent Behavior; Humans; Mental Disorders/*psychology; Peer Group; Preventive Health Services/*methods; Risk-Taking; *School Health Services; Students/*psychology; Suicide/*prevention & control; Child/adolescent; High-risk behaviors; School mental health; School-based suicide prevention; Suicide prevention; Suicide/self-harm; Supporting alliance  
Abstract Suicide is a leading cause of preventable death in youth, and numerous curricula and other prevention and intervention programs have been developed in the last 15 years. Comprehensive suicide prevention planning should include the 4 components of health promotion, prevention/education, intervention, and postvention. School-based suicide prevention and mental health education programs have become more common as an efficient and cost-effective way to reach youth. Process considerations that are based on the principles of therapeutic engagement with patients and families can provide mental health professionals with strategies that can assist education professionals, students, and the larger school community simultaneously.  
Call Number Serial 2169  
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