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Author Wecker, N.S.; Kramer, J.H.; Hallam, B.J.; Delis, D.C. file  url
openurl 
Title Mental flexibility: age effects on switching Type Journal Article
Year 2005 Publication Neuropsychology Abbreviated Journal Neuropsychology  
Volume 19 Issue 3 Pages 345-352  
Keywords Adult; Age Factors; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Aging/*physiology; Female; Humans; Male; Mental Processes/*physiology; Middle Aged; Neuropsychological Tests/statistics & numerical data; Predictive Value of Tests; Problem Solving/*physiology; Recognition (Psychology)/*physiology; Regression Analysis; Verbal Learning/physiology  
Abstract Mental flexibility is required to track and systematically alternate between 2 response sets. In this study, 719 individuals, 20 to 89 years old, engaged in 3 different tasks that required verbal and nonverbal cognitive switching. Of importance, each task allowed for independent measurement of component skills that are embedded in the higher level tasks. When gender, education, Full Scale IQ, and component skills were partialed out by multiple regression analyses, significant age effects were revealed for each task. This study provides evidence that executive functions--and verbal and nonverbal cognitive switching in particular--are affected by age independently from age-related changes in component skills. The results are discussed in terms of theories of executive control and neurologic correlates across the adult life span.  
Call Number Serial 2178  
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Author Salthouse, T.A. file  url
openurl 
Title The processing-speed theory of adult age differences in cognition Type Journal Article
Year 1996 Publication Psychological Review Abbreviated Journal Psychol Rev  
Volume 103 Issue 3 Pages 403-428  
Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Aging/*psychology; Attention; *Cognition; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; *Reaction Time  
Abstract A theory is proposed to account for some of the age-related differences reported in measures of Type A or fluid cognition. The central hypothesis in the theory is that increased age in adulthood is associated with a decrease in the speed with which many processing operations can be executed and that this reduction in speed leads to impairments in cognitive functioning because of what are termed the limited time mechanism and the simultaneity mechanism. That is, cognitive performance is degraded when processing is slow because relevant operations cannot be successfully executed (limited time) and because the products of early processing may no longer be available when later processing is complete (simultaneity). Several types of evidence, such as the discovery of considerable shared age-related variance across various measures of speed and large attenuation of the age-related influences on cognitive measures after statistical control of measures of speed, are consistent with this theory.  
Call Number Serial 2177  
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Author Salthouse, T.A. file  url
openurl 
Title Relations between cognitive abilities and measures of executive functioning Type Journal Article
Year 2005 Publication Neuropsychology Abbreviated Journal Neuropsychology  
Volume 19 Issue 4 Pages 532-545  
Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Aging/*physiology; Cognition/*physiology; Female; Humans; Intelligence; Male; Memory/physiology; Middle Aged; Models, Psychological; Neuropsychological Tests; Problem Solving/*physiology; Psychometrics; Reference Values; Space Perception/physiology; Verbal Behavior/physiology; Weights and Measures/*standards  
Abstract Although frequently mentioned in contemporary neuropsychology, the term executive functioning has been a source of considerable confusion. One way in which the meaning of a variable can be investigated involves examining its pattern of relations with established cognitive abilities. This method was applied to a variety of variables hypothesized to assess executive functioning in 2 data sets, 1 consisting of 328 adults between 18 and 93 years of age and a 2nd composite data set based on nearly 7,000 healthy adults between 18 and 95 years of age. Most of the hypothesized executive functioning variables were strongly related to reasoning and perceptual speed abilities, and very few had any unique relations with age after taking into consideration the relations of age through the cognitive abilities. These results raise questions about the extent to which neuropsychological tests of executive functioning measure a distinct dimension of variation in normal adults.  
Call Number Serial 2176  
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Author Schechter, D.S.; Coots, T.; Zeanah, C.H.; Davies, M.; Coates, S.W.; Trabka, K.A.; Marshall, R.D.; Liebowitz, M.R.; Myers, M.M. file  url
openurl 
Title Maternal mental representations of the child in an inner-city clinical sample: violence-related posttraumatic stress and reflective functioning Type Journal Article
Year 2005 Publication Attachment & Human Development Abbreviated Journal Attach Hum Dev  
Volume 7 Issue 3 Pages 313-331  
Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Analysis of Variance; Child Abuse/prevention & control/psychology; Child of Impaired Parents/psychology; Child, Preschool; Female; Humans; Infant; Logistic Models; *Mental Processes; Middle Aged; *Mother-Child Relations; Parenting/*psychology; Poverty Areas; Risk Factors; *Social Perception; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/*psychology; United States; Violence/*psychology  
Abstract Parental mental representations of the child have been described in the clinical literature as potentially useful risk-indicators for the intergenerational transmission of violent trauma. This study explored factors associated with the quality and content of maternal mental representations of her child and relationship with her child within an inner-city sample of referred, traumatized mothers. Specifically, it examined factors that have been hypothesized to support versus interfere with maternal self- and mutual-regulation of affect: posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and maternal reflective functioning (RF). More severe PTSD, irrespective of level of RF, was significantly associated with the distorted classification of non-balanced mental representations on the Working Model of the Child Interview (WMCI) within this traumatized sample. Higher Levels of RF, irrespective of PTSD severity, were significantly associated with the balanced classification of maternal mental representations on the WMCI. Level of maternal reflective functioning and severity of PTSD were not significantly correlated in this sample. Clinical implications are discussed.  
Call Number Serial 2171  
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Author Payton, A.R. file  url
openurl 
Title Mental health, mental illness, and psychological distress: same continuum or distinct phenomena? Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication Journal of Health and Social Behavior Abbreviated Journal J Health Soc Behav  
Volume 50 Issue 2 Pages 213-227  
Keywords Adult; Aged; Female; Humans; Interpersonal Relations; Male; Mental Disorders/*epidemiology; Mental Health/*statistics & numerical data; Middle Aged; Personal Autonomy; Self Efficacy; *Sociology, Medical; Stress, Psychological/*epidemiology  
Abstract In this article, I argue that the relationships among mental health, disorder and distress are a key source of conflict in the sociology of mental health and that the features of the conflict have the potential to call into question much of the accumulated scientific knowledge on mental health. To address this issue, I attempt to empirically assess three competing frameworks regarding these relationships: (1) the “modal perspective,” (2) the “Mirowsky and Ross perspective,” and (3) the “positive psychology perspective.” Results, however support a “discontinuous perspective: ”no underlying continuum among any of the three concepts. These results suggest that researchers need to avoid the common practice of “lumping together” distress, disorder, and mental health and study each in their own right. Subsequent tests attempt to further specify the relationships among these concepts. Results indicate a strong positive directional association from distress to disorder a strong negative directional association from distress to mental health, and no significant relationship between mental health and disorder. These results are used to generate a number of directions for future research.  
Call Number Serial 2158  
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