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Author (up) Amato, P.R. file  url
  Title Children of divorce in the 1990s: an update of the Amato and Keith (1991) meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Journal of Family Psychology : JFP : Journal of the Division of Family Psychology of the American Psychological Association (Division 43) Abbreviated Journal J Fam Psychol  
  Volume 15 Issue 3 Pages 355-370  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Age Factors; Child; Child Psychology; Child, Preschool; Divorce--psychology; Educational Status; Female; Humans; Male; Marriage--psychology; Mental Health; Research Design; Self Concept; Sex Factors; Social Adjustment; United States--epidemiology  
  Abstract The present study updates the P. R. Amato and B. Keith (1991) meta-analysis of children and divorce with a new analysis of 67 studies published in the 1990s. Compared with children with continuously married parents, children with divorced parents continued to score significantly lower on measures of academic achievement, conduct, psychological adjustment, self-concept, and social relations. After controlling for study characteristics, curvilinear trends with respect to decade of publication were present for academic achievement, psychological well-being, self-concept, and social relations. For these outcomes, the gap between children with divorced and married parents decreased during the 1980s and increased again during the 1990s.  
  Call Number Serial 276  
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Author (up) Angarne-Lindberg, T.; Wadsby, M. file  url
  Title Fifteen years after parental divorce: mental health and experienced life-events Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Nordic Journal of Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal Nord J Psychiatry  
  Volume 63 Issue 1 Pages 32-43  
  Keywords *Adaptation, Psychological; Adjustment Disorders/*diagnosis/epidemiology/psychology; Adolescent; Adult; Adult Children/*psychology; Age Factors; Child; Child, Preschool; Cross-Sectional Studies; Divorce/*psychology; Female; Humans; Infant; *Life Change Events; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Middle Aged; Risk Factors; Sweden; Young Adult  
  Abstract The children who experienced their parents' divorce when the divorce rate in Sweden had begun to grow to higher levels than in preceding decades are today adults. The aim of this study was to investigate if adults who had experienced parental divorce 15 years before the time of our study, differed in mental health from those with continuously married parents, taking into account life events other than the divorce. Instruments used were the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) measuring mental health and the Life Event questionnaire capturing the number and experience of occurred events. Forty-eight persons, who were 7-18 years old when their parents divorced, constituted the divorce group, and 48 persons matched on age, sex and growth environment formed the study groups. The SCL-90 showed a limited difference between the groups, but not concerning total mental health. A main finding was a difference with regard to sex and age; women aged 22-27 in the divorce group displayed poorer mental health than other participants in both groups. The results from the Life Event questionnaire showed that the divorce group had experienced a significantly larger number of events, and more life events were described as negative with difficult adjustment. A regression analysis showed a significant relation between the SCL-90, Global Severity Index and life events experienced as negative with difficult adjustment, divorce events excluded, but not with the divorce itself. It seems highly desirable to pay more attention than has thus far been paid to girls with experience of childhood divorce at age 7-12.  
  Call Number Serial 278  
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Author (up) Armstrong-Brown, J.; Eng, E.; Hammond, W.P.; Zimmer, C.; Bowling, J.M. file  url
  Title Redefining racial residential segregation and its association with physical activity among African Americans 50 years and older: a mixed methods approach Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Journal of Aging and Physical Activity Abbreviated Journal J Aging Phys Act  
  Volume 23 Issue 2 Pages 237-246  
  Keywords African Americans/*statistics & numerical data; Age Factors; Aged; Attitude to Health/*ethnology; Cross-Sectional Studies; Exercise/*physiology; Female; Geography; Humans; Interviews as Topic; Life Style; Male; Middle Aged; Motor Activity/*physiology; Multivariate Analysis; Racism/ethnology/*statistics & numerical data; Regression Analysis; Risk Assessment; Sex Factors; Time Factors; United States  
  Abstract Physical inactivity is one of the factors contributing to disproportionate disease rates among older African Americans. Previous literature indicates that older African Americans are more likely to live in racially segregated neighborhoods and that racial residential segregation is associated with limited opportunities for physical activity. A cross-sectional mixed methods study was conducted guided by the concept of therapeutic landscapes. Multilevel regression analyses demonstrated that racial residential segregation was associated with more minutes of physical activity and greater odds of meeting physical activity recommendations. Qualitative interviews revealed the following physical activity related themes: aging of the neighborhood, knowing your neighbors, feeling of safety, and neighborhood racial identity. Perceptions of social cohesion enhanced participants' physical activity, offering a plausible explanation to the higher rates of physical activity found in this population. Understanding how social cohesion operates within racially segregated neighborhoods can help to inform the design of effective interventions for this population.  
  Call Number Serial 1292  
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Author (up) Arrant, A.E.; Schramm-Sapyta, N.L.; Kuhn, C.M. file  url
  Title Use of the light/dark test for anxiety in adult and adolescent male rats Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Behavioural Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Behav Brain Res  
  Volume 256 Issue Pages 119-127  
  Keywords Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology; Age Factors; Animals; Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology; Anxiety/*diagnosis/drug therapy; Carbolines/pharmacology; Exploratory Behavior/drug effects; Factor Analysis, Statistical; *Light; Male; Motor Activity/drug effects; *Neuropsychological Tests; Rats, Sprague-Dawley; Regression Analysis; Risk-Taking; Time Factors; Yohimbine/pharmacology; Adolescence; Anxiety; Fg-7142; Factor analysis; Light/dark test; Yohimbine  
  Abstract The light/dark (LD) test is a commonly used rodent test of unconditioned anxiety-like behavior that is based on an approach/avoidance conflict between the drive to explore novel areas and an aversion to brightly lit, open spaces. We used the LD test to investigate developmental differences in behavior between adolescent (postnatal day (PN) 28-34) and adult (PN67-74) male rats. We investigated whether LD behavioral measures reflect anxiety-like behavior similarly in each age group using factor analysis and multiple regression. These analyses showed that time in the light compartment, percent distance in the light, rearing, and latency to emerge into the light compartment were measures of anxiety-like behavior in each age group, while total distance traveled and distance in the dark compartment provided indices of locomotor activity. We then used these measures to assess developmental differences in baseline LD behavior and the response to anxiogenic drugs. Adolescent rats emerged into the light compartment more quickly than adults and made fewer pokes into the light compartment. These age differences could reflect greater risk taking and less risk assessment in adolescent rats than adults. Adolescent rats were less sensitive than adults to the anxiogenic effects of the benzodiazepine inverse agonist N-methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxamide (FG-7142) and the alpha(2) adrenergic antagonist yohimbine on anxiety-like behaviors validated by factor analysis, but locomotor variables were similarly affected. These data support the results of the factor analysis and indicate that GABAergic and noradrenergic modulation of LD anxiety-like behavior may be immature during adolescence.  
  Call Number Serial 1614  
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Author (up) Birch, L.L.; Marlin, D.W. file  url
  Title I don't like it; I never tried it: effects of exposure on two-year-old children's food preferences Type Journal Article
  Year 1982 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 3 Issue 4 Pages 353-360  
  Keywords Age Factors; Child, Preschool; Feeding Behavior; *Food; *Food Preferences; Humans  
  Abstract The relationship between frequency of exposure to foods and preference for those foods was investigated in two experiments. Participants in both studies were two-year-old children. In Experiment 1, each of six children received 20, 15, 10, 5 or 2 exposures of five initially novel cheeses during a 26-day series of familiarization trials in which one pair of foods was presented per day. In Experiment 2, eight children received 20, 15, 10, 5 and 0 exposures to five initially novel fruits, following the same familiarization procedures, for 25 days. The particular food assigned to an exposure frequency was counterbalanced over subjects. Initial novelty was ascertained through food history information. Within ten days after the familiarization trials, children were given ten choice trials, comprising all possible pairs of the five foods. Thurstone scaling solutions were obtained for the series of choices: when the resulting scale values for the five stimuli were correlated with exposure frequency, values of r = 0·95, p < 0·02; r = 0·97, p < 0·01; and r = 0·94, p < 0·02 were obtained for the data of Experiments 1, 2, and the combined sample, respectively. A second analysis, employing subjects rather than stimuli as degrees of freedom, revealed that 13 of 14 subjects chose the more familiar stimulus in the sequence of ten choice trials at greater than the level expected by chance, providing evidence for effects within subjects as well as consistency across subjects. These results indicate that preference is an increasing function of exposure frequency. The data are consistent with the mere exposure hypothesis (Zajonc, 1968) as well as with the literature on the role of neophobia in food selection of animals other than man.

Subject Headings: Age Factors; Child, Preschool; Feeding Behavior; *Food; *Food Preferences; Humans

Keywords: I don't like it; I never tried it: effects of exposure on two-year-old children's food preferences
  Call Number Serial 2686  
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Author (up) Bornovalova, M.A.; Hicks, B.M.; Iacono, W.G.; McGue, M. file  url
  Title Familial transmission and heritability of childhood disruptive disorders Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication The American Journal of Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal Am J Psychiatry  
  Volume 167 Issue 9 Pages 1066-1074  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Age Factors; Antisocial Personality Disorder/diagnosis/epidemiology/genetics; Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders/diagnosis/*epidemiology/etiology/psychology; Child; Child of Impaired Parents/psychology/*statistics & numerical data; Conduct Disorder/diagnosis/epidemiology/genetics; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; Diseases in Twins/diagnosis/epidemiology/genetics; Family/psychology; Female; Genetic Predisposition to Disease; Humans; Male; Minnesota/epidemiology; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales; Risk Factors; Social Environment; Substance-Related Disorders/diagnosis/epidemiology/genetics  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: There is substantial evidence of a link between parental substance use disorders and antisocial behavior and childhood disruptive disorders in offspring, but it is unclear whether this transmission is specific to particular disorders or if a general liability accounts for familial resemblance. The authors examined whether the association between parental externalizing disorders and childhood disruptive disorders in preadolescent offspring is a result of the transmission of general or disorder-specific liabilities and estimated the genetic and environmental contributions to variation in these general and specific liability indicators. METHOD: Participants were 1,069 families consisting of 11-year-old twins and their biological mother and father. Structural equation modeling was used to simultaneously estimate the general and specific transmission effects of four parental externalizing disorders (conduct disorder, adult antisocial behavior, alcohol dependence, and drug dependence) on childhood disruptive disorders (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder). RESULTS: Parent-child resemblance was accounted for by the transmission of a general liability to externalizing disorders, and this general liability was highly heritable. Specific effects were also detected, but for sibling rather than parental transmission. Specific genetic and nonshared environmental effects were detected for each childhood disruptive disorder, but only conduct disorder exhibited a significant shared environmental effect. CONCLUSIONS: A highly heritable general liability accounts for the parent-child transmission of externalizing psychopathology from parents to their preadolescent offspring. This general liability should be a focus of research for both etiology and intervention.  
  Call Number Serial 97  
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Author (up) Cymerblit-Sabba, A.; Zubedat, S.; Aga-Mizrachi, S.; Biady, G.; Nakhash, B.; Ganel, S.R.; Shapira, B.; Grinstein, D.; Avital, A. file  url
  Title Mapping the developmental trajectory of stress effects: pubescence as the risk window Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Psychoneuroendocrinology Abbreviated Journal Psychoneuroendocrinology  
  Volume 52 Issue Pages 168-175  
  Keywords Age Factors; Animals; Anxiety/metabolism/*physiopathology; Behavior, Animal/*physiology; Corticosterone/*metabolism; Female; Male; Rats; Rats, Wistar; Sexual Maturation/*physiology; Stress, Psychological/metabolism/*physiopathology; Anxiety; Corticosterone; Developmental trajectory; Pubescence; Startle response; Stress  
  Abstract The exposure to stress at different developmental time points has long been postulated to have a crucial impact on various brain structures involved in mental disorders. The long-term specific effects seem to emerge as a function of timing and duration of the exposure to stress, as well as the characteristics of the stressor. Previous studies have addressed this issue with an effort to describe a single “hyper-sensitive” time point, and have led to disagreement on a particular sensitive period for stress exposure. The primary aim of our study was to investigate the hypothesis that indeed there is a developmental stress risk window in male Wistar rats. We conducted a systematic mapping of the long-term effects of an acute stress protocol, applied both prenatal (gestational days 14-16) and postnatal (days 9-151), overall at 11 different time-points during development. Stress protocol consists of 3 days of either maternal separation (for rats at postnatal days 9-19) or exposure to the stressors forced swim, elevated plus maze and restraint (for both dams and males at postnatal days 24-151). Consequences in adulthood were measured by investigating the animals' behavior in both the open field and startle box, together with the physiological measure of corticosterone. We found both behaviorally and physiologically that the pubescence time points are the most vulnerable to stress compared to all other tested time points along the developmental trajectory. Carefully considering the comparison between rat and human age, our findings may imply the importance of childhood-to-adulthood transition, as a sensitive time-point which may exacerbate a predisposition for the development of stress-induced psychopathologies.  
  Call Number Serial 1972  
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Author (up) de Waal, F.B. file  url
  Title The organization of agonistic relations within two captive groups of Java-monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) Type Journal Article
  Year 1977 Publication Zeitschrift fur Tierpsychologie Abbreviated Journal Z Tierpsychol  
  Volume 44 Issue 3 Pages 225-282  
  Keywords Age Factors; Aggression; Animals; Behavior, Animal/*physiology; Competitive Behavior/*physiology; Fear; Female; Haplorhini; Humans; Macaca/*physiology; Macaca fascicularis/*physiology; Male; Sex Factors; Social Behavior; Social Dominance  
  Abstract The paper offers a detailed quantitative descripition of the distribution of agonistic activities over the members of two groups of Java-monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). These groups lived in captivity and were well-established: i.e. they had an extensive network of genealogical relationships. The study pays special attention to agonistic interactions with three or more participants. Its main purpose is an analysis of the way dyadic agonistic relations (e.g. dominance relations) are affected by third group members and the relations among these. The paper presents data on the ontogeny of 'dependent dominance', the 'control role' of the alpha-male, and the functions of different types of alliances.  
  Call Number Serial 126  
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Author (up) Faseru, B.; Choi, W.S.; Krebill, R.; Mayo, M.S.; Nollen, N.L.; Okuyemi, K.S.; Ahluwalia, J.S.; Cox, L.S. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Factors associated with smoking menthol cigarettes among treatment-seeking African American light smokers Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Addictive Behaviors Abbreviated Journal Addict Behav  
  Volume 36 Issue 12 Pages 1321-1324  
  Keywords African Americans/*psychology; Age Factors; Carbon Monoxide/analysis; Depressive Disorder/ethnology; Female; Humans; Kansas/epidemiology; Male; *Menthol; Middle Aged; Risk Factors; Sex Factors; Smoking/*ethnology; Socioeconomic Factors; Substance Withdrawal Syndrome/ethnology; *Tobacco  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Smoking menthol cigarettes is more prevalent among African Americans (AA) compared to Whites. Menthol has been found to be inversely related to smoking cessation among AA, yet little is known about the factors associated with menthol smoking among AA light smokers. This study examines baseline demographic, psychological, and smoking factors associated with smoking menthol cigarettes among AA light smokers (</=10 cigarettes per day). METHODS: Participants (n=540) were enrolled in a double blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial of bupropion in combination with health education counseling for smoking cessation. Bivariate differences between menthol and non-menthol smokers were explored and baseline factors associated with smoking menthol cigarettes were identified. RESULTS: Participants averaged 46.5 years in age, predominantly female (66.1%), and smoked an average of 8.0 cpd (SD=2.5). The majority (83.7%) smoked menthol cigarettes. In bivariate analysis, menthol cigarette smokers were younger (mean age: 45 vs. 52 years p<0.0001), were more likely to be female (68% vs. 52% p=0.003) and had smoked for shorter duration (28 vs. 34 years p<0.0001) compared to non-menthol smokers. While depression and withdrawal scores were slightly higher and exhaled carbon monoxide values were lower among menthol smokers, the differences were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Among AA light smokers, younger individuals and females were more likely to smoke menthol cigarettes and may be more susceptible to the health effects of smoking. Appropriately targeted health education campaigns are needed to prevent smoking uptake in this high-risk population.  
  Call Number Serial 370  
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Author (up) Fergusson, D.M.; Boden, J.M.; Horwood, L.J. file  url
  Title The developmental antecedents of illicit drug use: evidence from a 25-year longitudinal study Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Drug and Alcohol Dependence Abbreviated Journal Drug Alcohol Depend  
  Volume 96 Issue 1-2 Pages 165-177  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Age Factors; Child; Child Abuse/psychology/statistics & numerical data; Cohort Studies; Conduct Disorder/epidemiology/psychology; Humans; Life Change Events; Longitudinal Studies; Models, Statistical; New Zealand/epidemiology; Parents/psychology; Peer Group; Prospective Studies; Psychology, Adolescent/statistics & numerical data; Psychology, Child; Regression Analysis; Risk Factors; *Social Adjustment; Street Drugs/*adverse effects; Substance-Related Disorders/*diagnosis/epidemiology/psychology  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: The present study examined the developmental antecedents of illicit drug use and abuse/dependence. METHODS: A 25-year prospective longitudinal study of the health, development, and adjustment of a birth cohort of 1265 New Zealand children. Measures included assessments of adolescent and young adult illicit drug use and abuse/dependence; cannabis use to age 25; measures of parental adjustment; measures of exposure to childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, and interparental violence; novelty-seeking; childhood and early adolescent adjustment and substance use; and affiliation with substance-using peers. RESULTS: Illicit drug use and abuse/dependence from ages 16 to 25 were significantly associated (all p values<.05) with a range of parental adjustment measures; exposure to abuse in childhood; individual factors; and measures of childhood and early adolescent adjustment. Analyses using repeated measures logistic regression models suggested that parental illicit drug use, gender, novelty-seeking, and childhood conduct disorder predicted later illicit drug use and abuse/dependence. Further analyses revealed that these pathways to illicit drug use and abuse/dependence were mediated via cannabis use, affiliation with substance-using peers, and alcohol use during ages 16-25. CONCLUSIONS: The current study suggested that the illicit drug use and abuse/dependence were associated with a range of early life circumstances and processes that put individuals at greater risk of illicit drug use and abuse/dependence. However, the use of cannabis in late adolescence and early adulthood emerged as the strongest risk factor for later involvement in other illicit drugs.  
  Call Number Serial 1682  
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