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Author (up) Duan, H. file  url
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  Title Emissions and temperature benefits: The role of wind power in China Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Environmental Research Abbreviated Journal Environ Res  
  Volume 152 Issue Pages 342-350  
  Keywords Air Pollution/*prevention & control; China; *Climate Change; Coal/analysis; Global Warming/prevention & control; Greenhouse Effect/*prevention & control; Models, Economic; Models, Theoretical; Power Plants; Renewable Energy; *Wind; *Climate integrated model; *Fossil fuel substitution; *Temperature benefits; *Wind energy  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: As a non-fossil technology, wind power has an enormous advantage over coal because of its role in climate change mitigation. Therefore, it is important to investigate how substituting wind power for coal-fired electricity will affect emission reductions, changes in radiative forcing and rising temperatures, particularly in the context of emission limits. METHODS: We developed an integrated methodology that includes two parts: an energy-economy-environmental (3E) integrated model and an emission-temperature response model. The former is used to simulate the dynamic relationships between economic output, wind energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; the latter is used to evaluate changes in radiative forcing and warming. RESULTS: Under the present development projection, wind energy cannot serve as a major force in curbing emissions, even under the strictest space-restraining scenario. China's temperature contribution to global warming will be up to 21.76% if warming is limited to 2 degrees. With the wind-for-coal power substitution, the corresponding contribution to global radiative forcing increase and temperature rise will decrease by up to 10% and 6.57%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Substituting wind power for coal-fired electricity has positive effects on emission reductions and warming control. However, wind energy alone is insufficient for climate change mitigation. It forms an important component of the renewable energy portfolio used to combat global warming.  
  Call Number Serial 2104  
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Author (up) Hansen, A.C.; Zhang, Q.; Lyne, P.W.L. file  url
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  Title Ethanol-diesel fuel blends -- a review Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Bioresource Technology Abbreviated Journal Bioresour Technol  
  Volume 96 Issue 3 Pages 277-285  
  Keywords Air Pollution/*prevention & control; *Conservation of Energy Resources; Consumer Product Safety; Ethanol/*chemistry; Gasoline/*analysis; Lubrication; Materials Testing; *Vehicle Emissions; Viscosity  
  Abstract Ethanol is an attractive alternative fuel because it is a renewable bio-based resource and it is oxygenated, thereby providing the potential to reduce particulate emissions in compression-ignition engines. In this review the properties and specifications of ethanol blended with diesel fuel are discussed. Special emphasis is placed on the factors critical to the potential commercial use of these blends. These factors include blend properties such as stability, viscosity and lubricity, safety and materials compatibility. The effect of the fuel on engine performance, durability and emissions is also considered. The formulation of additives to correct certain key properties and maintain blend stability is suggested as a critical factor in ensuring fuel compatibility with engines. However, maintaining vehicle safety with these blends may entail fuel tank modifications. Further work is required in specifying acceptable fuel characteristics, confirming the long-term effects on engine durability, and ensuring safety in handling and storing ethanol-diesel blends.  
  Call Number Serial 1546  
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