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Author (up) Andersson, D.R.; Bjornsson, E.; Bergquist, F.; Nissbrandt, H. file  url
  Title Motor activity-induced dopamine release in the substantia nigra is regulated by muscarinic receptors Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Experimental Neurology Abbreviated Journal Exp Neurol  
  Volume 221 Issue 1 Pages 251-259  
  Keywords Analysis of Variance; Animals; Area Under Curve; Brain Injuries/chemically induced/*pathology; Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods; Dendrites/drug effects/metabolism; Disease Models, Animal; Dopamine/*metabolism; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Electrochemistry/methods; Female; Functional Laterality; Mecamylamine/pharmacology; Microdialysis/methods; Motor Activity/drug effects/*physiology; Muscarinic Antagonists/pharmacology; Nicotinic Antagonists/pharmacology; Oxidopamine; Rats; Rats, Sprague-Dawley; Receptors, Muscarinic/*physiology; Rotarod Performance Test/methods; Scopolamine Hydrobromide/pharmacology; Substantia Nigra/drug effects/*metabolism/pathology; gamma-Aminobutyric Acid/metabolism  
  Abstract Nigro-striatal neurons release dopamine not only from their axon terminals in the striatum, but also from somata and dendrites in the substantia nigra. Somatodendritic dopamine release in the substantia nigra can facilitate motor function by mechanisms that may act independently of axon terminal dopamine release in the striatum. The dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra receive a cholinergic input from the pedunculopontine nucleus. Despite recent efforts to introduce this nucleus as a potential target for deep brain stimulation to treat motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease; and the well-known antiparkinsonian effects of anticholinergic drugs; the cholinergic influence on somatodendritic dopamine release is not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible regulation of locomotor-induced dopamine release in the substantia nigra by endogenous acetylcholine release. In intact and 6-OHDA hemi-lesioned animals alike, the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine, when perfused in the substantia nigra, amplified the locomotor-induced somatodendritic dopamine release to approximately 200% of baseline, compared to 120-130% of baseline in vehicle-treated animals. A functional importance of nigral muscarinic receptor activation was demonstrated in hemi-lesioned animals, where motor performance was significantly improved by scopolamine to 82% of pre-lesion performance, as compared to 56% in vehicle-treated controls. The results indicate that muscarinic activity in the substantia nigra is of functional importance in an animal Parkinson's disease model, and strengthen the notion that nigral dopaminergic regulation of motor activity/performance is independent of striatal dopamine release.  
  Call Number Serial 308  
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Author (up) Arias-Carrion, O.; Palomero-Rivero, M.; Millan-Aldaco, D.; Haro, R.; Drucker-Colin, R.; Murillo-Rodriguez, E. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Infusion of modafinil into anterior hypothalamus or pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus at different time-points enhances waking and blocks the expression of recovery sleep in rats after sleep deprivation Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Experimental Neurology Abbreviated Journal Exp Neurol  
  Volume 229 Issue 2 Pages 358-363  
  Keywords Analysis of Variance; Animals; Benzhydryl Compounds/pharmacology/*therapeutic use; Central Nervous System Stimulants/pharmacology/*therapeutic use; Electroencephalography; Hypothalamus, Anterior/*drug effects; Microinjections; Pedunculopontine Tegmental Nucleus/*drug effects; Rats; Sleep/*drug effects; Sleep Deprivation/*drug therapy; Wakefulness/*drug effects  
  Abstract Clinical studies have indicated that the primary pharmacological activity of modafinil (MOD) is inducing wakefulness; however, the brain targets that underlie its wake-promoting activity have not been described. In the present study, we show that MOD injected into sleep-wake related brain areas promoted alertness. If administered (10, 20, or 30 mug/1 muL) into either anterior hypothalamus (AH) or pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) at 08:00, 12:00 or 16:00 h, MOD enhanced wakefulness whereas diminished slow wave sleep as well as rapid eye movement sleep. In addition, microinjection of MOD (10, 20, or 30 mug/1 muL) either into AH or PPTg after total sleep deprivation prevented the sleep rebound. Taken together, these observations suggest that AH and PPTg play a key role in the wake-inducing effects of MOD and encourage further experimentation to draw a possible mechanism of action.  
  Call Number Serial 330  
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Author (up) Atkinson, C.M.; Drysdale, K.A.; Fulham, W.R. file  url
  Title Event-related potentials to Stroop and reverse Stroop stimuli Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication International Journal of Psychophysiology : Official Journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology Abbreviated Journal Int J Psychophysiol  
  Volume 47 Issue 1 Pages 1-21  
  Keywords Adult; Analysis of Variance; Attention/*physiology; Electroencephalography/methods; Evoked Potentials/*physiology; Humans; Middle Aged; Reaction Time/physiology  
  Abstract In the Stroop task, the latency of response to a colour is either faster or slower in the presence of a congruent or incongruent colour-word (J. Exp. Psychol. 18 (1935) 643). Debate remains as to whether this effect occurs during early stimulus processing or late response competition. The present study examined the task using reaction time (RT) and event-related potentials to determine temporal differences in this processing. The 'reverse Stroop' effect (where colour interferes with processing of a colour-word) which is much less well established, was also examined. Standard Stroop interference was found as well as reverse Stroop interference. A late lateralised negativity at frontal sites was greater for Incongruent trials and also for the word-response (reverse Stroop) task, and was interpreted as semantic selection and word-rechecking effects. Late positive component latency effects generally mirrored the speed of processing of the different conditions found in RT data. Stroop effects were also found in early temporal N100 and parietal P100 components, which differentiated Congruent from Incongruent trials in the reverse Stroop but not the standard Stroop, and were interpreted as early perception of physical mismatch between the colour and word. It was concluded that Stroop stimuli are processed in parallel in a network of brain areas rather than a particular structure and that Stroop interference arises at the output stage.  
  Call Number Serial 235  
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Author (up) Azuma, T. file  url
  Title Working memory and perseveration in verbal fluency Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Neuropsychology Abbreviated Journal Neuropsychology  
  Volume 18 Issue 1 Pages 69-77  
  Keywords Analysis of Variance; Humans; Memory, Short-Term/*physiology; Neuropsychological Tests; Random Allocation; Semantics; Task Performance and Analysis; Verbal Behavior/*physiology; Verbal Learning/*physiology; Vocabulary  
  Abstract Letter and semantic fluency tasks are often used in neuropsychological assessment and are sensitive to many conditions. Performance is assessed by correct responses and errors, including perseverations. Healthy young adults performed letter and semantic fluency tasks. One group performed these tasks in the conventional manner; 2 other groups performed them while maintaining memory loads. The memory loads consisted either of words from the same category as the fluency task or of words from a different category. The results showed little effect of memory loads on correct responses but significant effects of memory load on perseveration rates: Same-category loads resulted in higher rates, especially in letter fluency. The results are discussed in terms of frontal lobe function in verbal fluency.  
  Call Number Serial 239  
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Author (up) Cavedini, P.; Bassi, T.; Ubbiali, A.; Casolari, A.; Giordani, S.; Zorzi, C.; Bellodi, L. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Neuropsychological investigation of decision-making in anorexia nervosa Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Psychiatry Research Abbreviated Journal Psychiatry Res  
  Volume 127 Issue 3 Pages 259-266  
  Keywords Adult; Analysis of Variance; Anorexia Nervosa/diagnosis/*psychology; Body Mass Index; Bulimia/epidemiology/psychology; Cognition Disorders/*diagnosis/*etiology; *Decision Making; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; Female; Gambling/psychology; Humans; Male; Neuropsychological Tests; Severity of Illness Index  
  Abstract Anorexia nervosa (AN) could be considered a form of obsessive-compulsive disorder in which an impairment of the cognitive domain related to decision-making was found. We explored this function in AN patients, as well as possible differences between restricting type and binge/purge type, with the aim of examining the hypothesis that AN is part of the obsessive-compulsive spectrum. Decision-making was assessed in 59 inpatients with AN and 82 control subjects using the Gambling task, which simulates real-life decision-making by assessing the ability to balance immediate rewards against long-term negative consequences. We confirmed the supposed deficit of decision-making in AN. However, restricting and binge eating/purge subtypes showed different patterns of decision-making impairment. Poor performance on the Gambling task is not a mere consequence of starvation and does not appear to be related to illness severity. The decision-making deficiency that some AN patients show is linked to those individual features that contribute to the phenomenological expression of the disorder.  
  Call Number Serial 91  
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Author (up) Colloca, L.; Benedetti, F. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title How prior experience shapes placebo analgesia Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Pain Abbreviated Journal Pain  
  Volume 124 Issue 1-2 Pages 126-133  
  Keywords Adult; Analgesia/methods; Analysis of Variance; Child; Electroshock/adverse effects; Female; Humans; Male; Pain/*drug therapy/etiology/physiopathology/*psychology; Pain Measurement/methods/psychology; Pain Threshold/drug effects; *Placebo Effect; Placebos/*therapeutic use  
  Abstract Some studies indicate that placebo analgesia is stronger when pre-conditioning with effective analgesic treatments is performed, thereby suggesting that the placebo response is a learning phenomenon. Here we further tested this hypothesis in order to better understand when and how previous experience affects the placebo analgesic response. To do this, we used a conditioning procedure whereby the intensity of painful stimulation was reduced surreptitiously, so as to make the subjects believe that an analgesic treatment was effective. This procedure induced strong placebo responses after minutes, and these responses, albeit reduced, lasted up to 4-7 days. In addition, in a second group of subjects we repeated the same conditioning procedure 4-7 days after a totally ineffective analgesic treatment, and found that the placebo responses were remarkably reduced compared to the first group. Thus we obtained small, medium and large placebo responses, depending on several factors, such as the previous positive or negative experience of an analgesic treatment and the time lag between the treatment and the placebo responses. We also ran extinction trials, and found that these effects did not undergo extinction in a time span of several minutes. These findings indicate that placebo analgesia is finely tuned by prior experience and these effects may last, albeit reduced, several days. These results emphasize that the placebo effect is a learning phenomenon in which many factors come into play, and may explain the large variability of the placebo responses that is found in many studies.  
  Call Number Serial 205  
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Author (up) Conrad, K.L.; Louderback, K.M.; Gessner, C.P.; Winder, D.G. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Stress-induced alterations in anxiety-like behavior and adaptations in plasticity in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Physiology & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Physiol Behav  
  Volume 104 Issue 2 Pages 248-256  
  Keywords Adaptation, Physiological/drug effects/*physiology; Analysis of Variance; Animals; Anxiety/*etiology/*pathology; Behavior, Animal/drug effects; Biophysics; Corticosterone/adverse effects; Disease Models, Animal; Electric Stimulation; Exploratory Behavior/drug effects/physiology; Long-Term Potentiation/drug effects/*physiology; Male; Maze Learning/drug effects; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Patch-Clamp Techniques/methods; Septal Nuclei/drug effects/*physiopathology; Social Isolation/psychology; Time Factors  
  Abstract In vulnerable individuals, exposure to stressors can result in chronic disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The extended amygdala is critically implicated in mediating acute and chronic stress responsivity and anxiety-like behaviors. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a subregion of the extended amygdala, serves as a relay of corticolimbic information to the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) to directly influence the stress response. To investigate the influence of the corticosteroid milieu and housing conditions on BNST function, adult C57Bl/6J were either acutely or chronically administered corticosterone (CORT, 25mg/kg in sesame oil) or vehicle (sesame oil) or were group housed or socially isolated for 1 day (acute) or 6-8 weeks (chronic). To ascertain whether these stressors could influence anxiety-like behavior, studies were performed using the novel open-field (NOF) and the elevated zero maze (EZM) tests. To investigate potential associated changes in plasticity, alterations in BNST function were assessed using ex vivo extracellular field potential recordings in the (dorsal-lateral) dlBNST and a high frequency stimulus protocol to induce long-term potentiation (LTP). Our results suggest that chronic CORT injections and chronic social isolation housing conditions lead to an increase in anxiety-like behavior on the EZM and NOF. Chronically stressed mice also displayed a parallel blunting of LTP in the dlBNST. Conversely, acute social isolation housing had no effect on anxiety-like behavior but still resulted in a blunting of LTP in the dlBNST. Collectively, our results suggest acute and chronic stressors can have a distinct profile on plasticity in the BNST that is not uniformly associated with an increase in anxiety-like behavior.  
  Call Number Serial 85  
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Author (up) Davis, J. file  url
  Title The effect of qualifying language on perceptions of drug appeal, drug experience, and estimates of side-effect incidence in DTC advertising Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Journal of Health Communication Abbreviated Journal J Health Commun  
  Volume 12 Issue 7 Pages 607-622  
  Keywords Adult; Advertising as Topic/*standards; Analysis of Variance; Drug Industry/*standards; Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions; Female; Humans; Likelihood Functions; Male; Patient Satisfaction/*statistics & numerical data; *Persuasive Communication; *Pharmaceutical Preparations; Risk Assessment/*standards; Surveys and Questionnaires; *Terminology as Topic; United States; United States Food and Drug Administration  
  Abstract This study examined how the use of qualifying language in direct-to-consumer (DTC) pharmaceutical advertising affects consumers' perceptions of drug appeal, anticipated pleasantness of drug usage, and the expected incidence of side-effect occurrence. A sample of 669 individuals participated in a 2 x 8 complete factorial design. The design manipulated the number of side effects associated with drug use and the type of qualifying language used to describe the side effects. The eight experimental qualifying language cells represented one control condition (no qualifying language), three cells where each of three types of qualifying language were presented individually, and four cells where qualifying language was combined. The results indicate that qualifying language has a profound effect on drug perceptions, especially when used in combination. Drug appeal and the anticipated drug-using experience almost always were more positive in the presence of qualifying language. Qualifying language appears to exert its influence by causing individuals to reduce their estimate of the likelihood of experiencing individual side effects. Policy implications of the research, particularly for evaluation of “fair balance” and the reporting of side effects, are presented.  
  Call Number Serial 1390  
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Author (up) El Amki, M.; Lerouet, D.; Coqueran, B.; Curis, E.; Orset, C.; Vivien, D.; Plotkine, M.; Marchand-Leroux, C.; Margaill, I. file  url
  Title Experimental modeling of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator effects after ischemic stroke Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Experimental Neurology Abbreviated Journal Exp Neurol  
  Volume 238 Issue 2 Pages 138-144  
  Keywords Analysis of Variance; Animals; Brain Edema/etiology/prevention & control; Brain Infarction/etiology/prevention & control; *Disease Models, Animal; Drug Administration Schedule; Fibrinolytic Agents/*therapeutic use; Hemorrhage/drug therapy/etiology; Humans; Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/*complications; Male; Mice; Nervous System Diseases/etiology; Random Allocation; Stroke/complications/*drug therapy/*etiology; Time Factors; Tissue Plasminogen Activator/*therapeutic use; Treatment Outcome  
  Abstract Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) is currently the only approved drug for ischemic stroke treatment, with a dose of 0.9 mg/kg. Since the fibrinolytic activity of rt-PA has been reported in vitro to be 10-fold less potent in rodent than in human, in most in vivo experimental models of cerebral ischemia rt-PA is used at 10 mg/kg. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of the “human” (0.9 mg/kg) and “rodent” (10 mg/kg) doses of rt-PA given at an early or a delayed time point in a mouse model of cerebral ischemia. Cerebral ischemia was induced by thrombin injection into the left middle cerebral artery of mice. Rt-PA (0.9 or 10 mg/kg) was intravenously administered 30 min or 4 h after the onset of ischemia. The degree of reperfusion after rt-PA was followed for 90 min after its injection. The neurological deficit, infarct volumes, edema and hemorrhagic transformations (HT) were assessed at 24 h. Reperfusion was complete after early administration of rt-PA at 10 mg/kg but partial with rt-PA at 0.9 mg/kg. Both doses given at 4 h induced partial reperfusion. Early administration of both doses of rt-PA reduced the neurological deficit, lesion volume and brain edema, without modifying post-ischemic HT. Injected at 4 h, rt-PA at 0.9 and 10 mg/kg lost its beneficial effects and worsened HT. In conclusion, in the mouse thrombin stroke model, the “human” dose of rt-PA exhibits effects close to those observed in clinic.  
  Call Number Serial 925  
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Author (up) Fernandez-del-Valle, M.; Larumbe-Zabala, E.; Villasenor-Montarroso, A.; Cardona Gonzalez, C.; Diez-Vega, I.; Lopez Mojares, L.M.; Perez Ruiz, M. url  doi
  Title Resistance training enhances muscular performance in patients with anorexia nervosa: a randomized controlled trial Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication The International Journal of Eating Disorders Abbreviated Journal Int J Eat Disord  
  Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages 601-609  
  Keywords Adolescent; Analysis of Variance; Anorexia Nervosa/*physiopathology/therapy; Body Mass Index; Body Weight; Child; Female; Humans; Motor Skills; *Muscle Strength; *Resistance Training; agility test; anorexia nervosa; body mass index; detraining; resistance training; restricting type; strength test  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: Low-intensity exercise applied in anorexia nervosa patients has been shown to have a harmless effect on body composition and to effect short-term improvements in muscular strength and agility. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a high-intensity resistance training program designed for adolescents to improve strength and agility in anorexia nervosa restricting-type patients (AN-R). METHODS: From a total of 36 female patients with AN-R, one group (intervention, n = 18) underwent a supervised high-intensity resistance training program lasting 8 weeks, and the other group with no exercise (control, n = 18). Body weight, body mass index, whole-body muscular strength, and agility were assessed before, after, and 4 weeks after training (detraining). RESULTS: Leg-press, bench-press, and lateral row tests improved significantly (p < 0.001) after 8 weeks of training compared with controls. Improvements were maintained after the detraining period. The training program also showed beneficial effects on agility. DISCUSSION: A high-intensity resistance training program adapted to the recommendations for adolescents in AN-R patients was effective and safe, improving muscular strength in the whole body and the ability to perform daily tasks. However, long-term maintenance of gains seems to be linked to the continuance of training or the use of a maintenance program.  
  Call Number Serial 1029  
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