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Author Schechter, D.S.; Coots, T.; Zeanah, C.H.; Davies, M.; Coates, S.W.; Trabka, K.A.; Marshall, R.D.; Liebowitz, M.R.; Myers, M.M. file  url
Title Maternal mental representations of the child in an inner-city clinical sample: violence-related posttraumatic stress and reflective functioning Type Journal Article
Year 2005 Publication Attachment & Human Development Abbreviated Journal Attach Hum Dev  
Volume 7 Issue 3 Pages 313-331  
Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Analysis of Variance; Child Abuse/prevention & control/psychology; Child of Impaired Parents/psychology; Child, Preschool; Female; Humans; Infant; Logistic Models; *Mental Processes; Middle Aged; *Mother-Child Relations; Parenting/*psychology; Poverty Areas; Risk Factors; *Social Perception; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/*psychology; United States; Violence/*psychology  
Abstract Parental mental representations of the child have been described in the clinical literature as potentially useful risk-indicators for the intergenerational transmission of violent trauma. This study explored factors associated with the quality and content of maternal mental representations of her child and relationship with her child within an inner-city sample of referred, traumatized mothers. Specifically, it examined factors that have been hypothesized to support versus interfere with maternal self- and mutual-regulation of affect: posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and maternal reflective functioning (RF). More severe PTSD, irrespective of level of RF, was significantly associated with the distorted classification of non-balanced mental representations on the Working Model of the Child Interview (WMCI) within this traumatized sample. Higher Levels of RF, irrespective of PTSD severity, were significantly associated with the balanced classification of maternal mental representations on the WMCI. Level of maternal reflective functioning and severity of PTSD were not significantly correlated in this sample. Clinical implications are discussed.  
Call Number Serial 2171  
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Author Izquierdo, A.; Darling, C.; Manos, N.; Pozos, H.; Kim, C.; Ostrander, S.; Cazares, V.; Stepp, H.; Rudebeck, P.H. file  url
Title Basolateral amygdala lesions facilitate reward choices after negative feedback in rats Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal J Neurosci  
Volume 33 Issue 9 Pages 4105-4109  
Keywords Amygdala/injuries/*physiology; Analysis of Variance; Animals; Choice Behavior/*physiology; Conditioning, Operant/*physiology; Discrimination Learning/drug effects/physiology; Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists/toxicity; *Feedback/drug effects; Food Preferences/drug effects/physiology; Ibotenic Acid/toxicity; Male; Photic Stimulation; Prefrontal Cortex/injuries/physiology; Rats; Rats, Long-Evans; Reversal Learning; *Reward  
Abstract The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) constitute part of a neural circuit important for adaptive, goal-directed learning. One task measuring flexibility of response to changes in reward is discrimination reversal learning. Damage to OFC produces well documented impairments on various forms of reversal learning in rodents, monkeys, and humans. Recent reports show that BLA, though highly interconnected with OFC, may be differentially involved in reversal learning. In the present experiment, we compared the effects of bilateral, ibotenic acid lesions of OFC or BLA (or SHAM) on visual discrimination and reversal learning. Specifically, we used pairwise visual discrimination methods, as is commonly administered in non-human primate studies, and analyzed how animals use positive and negative trial-by-trial feedback, domains not previously explored in a rat study. As expected, OFC lesions displayed significantly slower reversal learning than SHAM and BLA rats across sessions. Rats with BLA lesions, conversely, showed facilitated reversal learning relative to SHAM and OFC groups. Furthermore, a trial-by-trial analysis of the errors committed showed the BLA group benefited more from incorrectly performed trials (or negative feedback) on future choices than either SHAM or OFC rats. This provides evidence that BLA and OFC are involved in updating responses to changes in reward contingency and that the roles are distinct. Our results are discussed in relation to a competitive framework model for OFC and BLA in reward processing.  
Call Number Serial 1970  
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Author Goldfield, G.S.; Adamo, K.B.; Rutherford, J.; Legg, C. file  url
Title Stress and the relative reinforcing value of food in female binge eaters Type Journal Article
Year 2008 Publication Physiology & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Physiol Behav  
Volume 93 Issue 3 Pages 579-587  
Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Analysis of Variance; Body Mass Index; Body Weight; Bulimia/*physiopathology/*psychology; Computer Simulation; Feeding Behavior/physiology; Female; Food Preferences/physiology; Functional Laterality; Humans; Psychological Theory; *Reinforcement (Psychology); Stress, Psychological/*physiopathology  
Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the independent and interactive effects of stress reactivity and binge eating (BE) status on changes in the relative reinforcing value of snack foods. The relative reinforcing value of snack foods was assessed in binge eaters and non-binge eaters across a stress-induction session (after 3-minutes of anticipation of giving a speech) or a control day (after 3-minutes of reading magazines), with order of conditions counterbalanced. Subjects were divided into four groups based on scores on the Binge Eating Scale (BES) and changes in perceived stress: Binge eaters/low stress reactivity (n=12), binge eaters/high stress reactivity (n=10), non-binge eaters/low stress reactivity (n=6), non-binge eaters/high stress reactivity (n=9). Dietary restraint, hunger, disinhibition, and hedonics were measured by self-report. Body composition was estimated by body mass index (BMI=weight in kilograms divided by height in metres squared). The relative reinforcing value of snack food was influenced differently by binge status and stress reactivity in the stress and control conditions (p<0.05). Binge eaters who reacted to stress earned more snack food points (p<0.001) in stress condition, but non-binge eaters who showed high stress reactivity earned less points for snack food in stress condition (p<0.05). This same pattern of results remained after statistically controlling for body mass index (BMI) and dietary restraint. Findings suggest that reactivity to interpersonal or ego-related stress increases the relative reinforcing value of food in binge eaters but decreases the relative reinforcing value of snack food in non-binge eaters, and these findings appear to be independent of dietary restraint and BMI.  
Call Number Serial 1827  
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Author Reinecke, A.; Rinck, M.; Becker, E.S.; Hoyer, J. file  url
Title Cognitive-behavior therapy resolves implicit fear associations in generalized anxiety disorder Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Behaviour Research and Therapy Abbreviated Journal Behav Res Ther  
Volume 51 Issue 1 Pages 15-23  
Keywords Adult; Analysis of Variance; Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis/psychology/*therapy; *Association; Attention; Case-Control Studies; *Cognitive Therapy; Depression/diagnosis; Fear/*psychology; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Generalization (Psychology); Humans; Male; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales; Regression Analysis; Severity of Illness Index; Treatment Outcome; Word Association Tests  
Abstract BACKGROUND: Cognitive schema theories postulate that anxiety disorders are associated with excessive fear associations in memory. For generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), it has been shown that patients not only exhibit negative implicit evaluations of clearly negative worry words (e.g., cancer), but also a generalization of this effect to neutral words (e.g., diagnosis). This study assessed the sensitivity of this bias, which has been interpreted as an indicator of a pathologically broadened fear structure, to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). METHODS: An Extrinsic Affective Simon task was used to measure implicit associations with idiosyncratic neutral and negative worry words in 23 GAD patients and 25 healthy controls (HC). Patients were tested before and after CBT, and half of them were additionally tested while waiting for treatment. Clinical symptoms were measured before and after treatment, and at 6-months follow-up. RESULTS: CBT normalized bias for neutral words, and the extent of bias reduction during treatment predicted the extent of additional symptom improvement during the 6 months following intervention. Furthermore, the amplitude of pre-treatment bias predicted the onset of CBT response, with lower bias predicting immediate symptom improvement at the end of treatment, and higher bias predicting delayed treatment effects during the 6 months follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Biased implicit evaluation of neutral worry targets does not represent an enduring vulnerability factor for the development of GAD but is related to heightened levels of state worry. Furthermore, the normalization of this bias might be a crucial factor in the therapeutic action of CBT.  
Call Number Serial 1773  
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Author Klinger, R.; Matter, N.; Kothe, R.; Dahme, B.; Hofmann, U.G.; Krug, F. file  url
Title Unconditioned and conditioned muscular responses in patients with chronic back pain and chronic tension-type headaches and in healthy controls Type Journal Article
Year 2010 Publication Pain Abbreviated Journal Pain  
Volume 150 Issue 1 Pages 66-74  
Keywords Analysis of Variance; Back Pain/*physiopathology; Conditioning, Classical/*physiology; Electric Stimulation; Electrocardiography; Electromyography; Humans; Muscle, Skeletal/*physiopathology; Pain Threshold/physiology; Tension-Type Headache/*physiopathology  
Abstract Muscular tension is assigned an important role in the development and maintenance of chronic pain syndromes. It is seen as a psychophysiological correlate of learned fear and avoidance behavior. Basic theoretical models emphasize classical conditioning of muscular responses as a mechanism of pain chronification. However, the empirical basis for this field is very small. Our aim was to investigate muscular factors in relation to unconditioned and conditioned pain stimuli. An experimental study was conducted using a differential classical conditioning paradigm with 18 patients with chronic back pain (BP) and tension-type headache (TTH), and 18 healthy controls (HC). A high-pitched sound served as the CS+, paired with an intracutaneous electric pain stimulus (US), while a neutral sound was used as the CS-. Simultaneously, integrated surface electromyograms (iEMGs) were recorded for seven muscle sites. Our hypothesis was that the pain patients would demonstrate enhanced conditionability. Baseline values between patients (TTH, BP) and HC showed no significant differences. Although the perception and pain thresholds were balanced, both patient groups revealed a higher number of significant muscular responses to the pain stimulus (UR) than the HC. All participants showed significant conditioned muscular responses, however, the patients displayed a higher number than the healthy controls. Furthermore a significant relation was found between muscular responses and the experience of pain 1day after the experiment. Muscular responses can be learned via classical conditioning. TTH and BP patients revealed a higher number of unconditioned and conditioned responses.  
Call Number Serial 1748  
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