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Author (up) Alapin, I.; Fichten, C.S.; Libman, E.; Creti, L.; Bailes, S.; Wright, J. file  url
  Title How is good and poor sleep in older adults and college students related to daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and ability to concentrate? Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Journal of Psychosomatic Research Abbreviated Journal J Psychosom Res  
  Volume 49 Issue 5 Pages 381-390  
  Keywords Adaptation, Psychological; Adult; Aged; Attention; Circadian Rhythm--physiology; Cognition Disorders--diagnosis, etiology; Disorders of Excessive Somnolence--diagnosis, etiology; Fatigue--diagnosis, etiology; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Severity of Illness Index; Sleep--physiology; Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders--complications, diagnosis; Students; Universities; Wakefulness--physiology  
  Abstract We compared good sleepers with minimally and highly distressed poor sleepers on three measures of daytime functioning: self-reported fatigue, sleepiness, and cognitive inefficiency. In two samples (194 older adults, 136 college students), we tested the hypotheses that (1) poor sleepers experience more problems with daytime functioning than good sleepers, (2) highly distressed poor sleepers report greater impairment in functioning during the day than either good sleepers or minimally distressed poor sleepers, (3) daytime symptoms are more closely related to psychological adjustment and to psychologically laden sleep variables than to quantitative sleep parameters, and (4) daytime symptoms are more closely related to longer nocturnal wake times than to shorter sleep times. Results in both samples indicated that poor sleepers reported more daytime difficulties than good sleepers. While low- and high-distress poor sleepers did not differ on sleep parameters, highly distressed poor sleepers reported consistently more difficulty in functioning during the day and experienced greater tension and depression than minimally distressed poor sleepers. Severity of all three daytime problems was generally significantly and positively related to poor psychological adjustment, psychologically laden sleep variables, and, with the exception of sleepiness, to quantitative sleep parameters. Results are used to discuss discrepancies between experiential and quantitative measures of daytime functioning.  
  Call Number Serial 216  
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Author (up) Atkinson, C.M.; Drysdale, K.A.; Fulham, W.R. file  url
  Title Event-related potentials to Stroop and reverse Stroop stimuli Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication International Journal of Psychophysiology : Official Journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology Abbreviated Journal Int J Psychophysiol  
  Volume 47 Issue 1 Pages 1-21  
  Keywords Adult; Analysis of Variance; Attention/*physiology; Electroencephalography/methods; Evoked Potentials/*physiology; Humans; Middle Aged; Reaction Time/physiology  
  Abstract In the Stroop task, the latency of response to a colour is either faster or slower in the presence of a congruent or incongruent colour-word (J. Exp. Psychol. 18 (1935) 643). Debate remains as to whether this effect occurs during early stimulus processing or late response competition. The present study examined the task using reaction time (RT) and event-related potentials to determine temporal differences in this processing. The 'reverse Stroop' effect (where colour interferes with processing of a colour-word) which is much less well established, was also examined. Standard Stroop interference was found as well as reverse Stroop interference. A late lateralised negativity at frontal sites was greater for Incongruent trials and also for the word-response (reverse Stroop) task, and was interpreted as semantic selection and word-rechecking effects. Late positive component latency effects generally mirrored the speed of processing of the different conditions found in RT data. Stroop effects were also found in early temporal N100 and parietal P100 components, which differentiated Congruent from Incongruent trials in the reverse Stroop but not the standard Stroop, and were interpreted as early perception of physical mismatch between the colour and word. It was concluded that Stroop stimuli are processed in parallel in a network of brain areas rather than a particular structure and that Stroop interference arises at the output stage.  
  Call Number Serial 235  
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Author (up) Bigelow, A.E. file  url
  Title The development of joint attention in blind infants Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Development and Psychopathology Abbreviated Journal Develop. Psychopathol.  
  Volume 15 Issue 02 Pages  
  Keywords Infants; Joint attention; Stage 4  
  Abstract There is little documentation of how and when joint attention emerges in blind infants because the study of this ability has been predominantly reliant on visual information. Ecological self-knowledge, which is necessary for joint attention, is impaired in blind infants and is evidenced by their reaching for objects on external cues, which also marks the beginning of their Stage 4 understanding of space and object. Entry into Stage 4 should occur before joint attention emerges in these infants. In a case study of two totally blind infants, the development of joint attention was longitudinally examined during Stage 4 in monthly sessions involving interactions with objects and familiar adults. The interactions were scored for behavior preliminary to joint attention, behavior liberally construed as joint attention, and behavior conservatively construed as joint attention. Behavior preliminary to joint attention occurred throughout Stage 4; behavior suggestive of joint attention by both liberal and conservative standards emerged initially in Stage 4 and became prevalent by mid to late Stage 4. The findings are discussed in terms of how they inform our thinking about the development of joint attention with respect to the importance of vision, cognition, social context, language, and early self-knowledge.  
  Call Number Serial 1907  
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Author (up) Bogels, S.M.; Lehtonen, A.; Restifo, K. file  url
  Title Mindful Parenting in Mental Health Care Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Mindfulness Abbreviated Journal Mindfulness (N Y)  
  Volume 1 Issue 2 Pages 107-120  
  Keywords Mindfulness; Meditation; Mental health; Parenting; Children; Attention  
  Abstract Mindfulness is a form of meditation based on the Buddhist tradition, which has been used over the last two decades to successfully treat a multitude of mental health problems. Bringing mindfulness into parenting (“mindful parenting”) is one of the applications of mindfulness. Mindful parenting interventions are increasingly being used to help prevent and treat mental disorders in children, parenting problems, and prevent intergenerational transmission of mental disorders from parents to children. However, to date, few studies have examined the hypothesized mechanisms of change brought about by mindful parenting. We discuss six possible mechanisms through which mindful parenting may bring about change in parent-child interactions in the context of child and parent mental health problems. These mechanisms are hypothesized to be mediated by the effects of mindfulness on parental attention by: (1) reducing parental stress and resulting parental reactivity; (2) reducing parental preoccupation resulting from parental and/or child psychopathology; (3) improving parental executive functioning in impulsive parents; (4) breaking the cycle of intergenerational transmission of dysfunctional parenting schemas and habits; (5) increasing self-nourishing attention; and (6) improving marital functioning and co-parenting. We review research that has applied mindful parenting in mental health settings, with a focus on evidence for these six mechanisms. Finally, we discuss directions for future research into mindful parenting and the crucial questions that this research should strive to answer.  
  Call Number Serial 947  
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Author (up) Bornovalova, M.A.; Hicks, B.M.; Iacono, W.G.; McGue, M. file  url
  Title Familial transmission and heritability of childhood disruptive disorders Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication The American Journal of Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal Am J Psychiatry  
  Volume 167 Issue 9 Pages 1066-1074  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Age Factors; Antisocial Personality Disorder/diagnosis/epidemiology/genetics; Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders/diagnosis/*epidemiology/etiology/psychology; Child; Child of Impaired Parents/psychology/*statistics & numerical data; Conduct Disorder/diagnosis/epidemiology/genetics; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; Diseases in Twins/diagnosis/epidemiology/genetics; Family/psychology; Female; Genetic Predisposition to Disease; Humans; Male; Minnesota/epidemiology; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales; Risk Factors; Social Environment; Substance-Related Disorders/diagnosis/epidemiology/genetics  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: There is substantial evidence of a link between parental substance use disorders and antisocial behavior and childhood disruptive disorders in offspring, but it is unclear whether this transmission is specific to particular disorders or if a general liability accounts for familial resemblance. The authors examined whether the association between parental externalizing disorders and childhood disruptive disorders in preadolescent offspring is a result of the transmission of general or disorder-specific liabilities and estimated the genetic and environmental contributions to variation in these general and specific liability indicators. METHOD: Participants were 1,069 families consisting of 11-year-old twins and their biological mother and father. Structural equation modeling was used to simultaneously estimate the general and specific transmission effects of four parental externalizing disorders (conduct disorder, adult antisocial behavior, alcohol dependence, and drug dependence) on childhood disruptive disorders (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder). RESULTS: Parent-child resemblance was accounted for by the transmission of a general liability to externalizing disorders, and this general liability was highly heritable. Specific effects were also detected, but for sibling rather than parental transmission. Specific genetic and nonshared environmental effects were detected for each childhood disruptive disorder, but only conduct disorder exhibited a significant shared environmental effect. CONCLUSIONS: A highly heritable general liability accounts for the parent-child transmission of externalizing psychopathology from parents to their preadolescent offspring. This general liability should be a focus of research for both etiology and intervention.  
  Call Number Serial 97  
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Author (up) Britton, J.C.; Rauch, S.L.; Rosso, I.M.; Killgore, W.D.S.; Price, L.M.; Ragan, J.; Chosak, A.; Hezel, D.M.; Pine, D.S.; Leibenluft, E.; Pauls, D.L.; Jenike, M.A.; Stewart, S.E. file  url
  Title Cognitive inflexibility and frontal-cortical activation in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry  
  Volume 49 Issue 9 Pages 944-953  
  Keywords Adolescent; Attention/physiology; Brain Mapping; Caudate Nucleus/physiopathology; Child; Cognition/*physiology; Color Perception/*physiology; Corpus Striatum/physiopathology; Dominance, Cerebral/physiology; Female; Frontal Lobe/*physiopathology; Humans; *Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Male; Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis/*physiopathology/psychology; Orientation/physiology; Pattern Recognition, Visual/*physiology; Psychomotor Performance/physiology; Reaction Time/physiology; Reference Values; Reversal Learning/*physiology  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: Deficits in cognitive flexibility and response inhibition have been linked to perturbations in cortico-striatal-thalamic circuitry in adult obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Although similar cognitive deficits have been identified in pediatric OCD, few neuroimaging studies have been conducted to examine its neural correlates in the developing brain. In this study, we tested hypotheses regarding group differences in the behavioral and neural correlates of cognitive flexibility in a pediatric OCD and a healthy comparison (HC) sample. METHOD: In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, a pediatric sample of 10- to 17-year-old subjects, 15 with OCD and 20 HC, completed a set-shifting task. The task, requiring an extradimensional shift to identify a target, examines cognitive flexibility. Within each block, the dimension (color or shape) that identified the target either alternated (i.e., mixed) or remained unchanged (i.e., repeated). RESULTS: Compared with the HC group, the OCD group tended to be slower to respond to trials within mixed blocks. Compared with the HC group, the OCD group exhibited less left inferior frontal gyrus/BA47 activation in the set-shifting contrast (i.e., HC > OCD, mixed versus repeated); only the HC group exhibited significant activation in this region. The correlation between set shifting-induced right caudate activation and shift cost (i.e., reaction time differential in response to mixed versus repeated trials) was significantly different between HC and OCD groups, in that we found a positive correlation in HC and a negative correlation in OCD. CONCLUSIONS: In pediatric OCD, less fronto-striatal activation may explain previously identified deficits in shifting cognitive sets.  
  Call Number Serial 2043  
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Author (up) Brown, R.G.; Marsden, C.D. file  url
  Title Internal versus external cues and the control of attention in Parkinson's disease Type Journal Article
  Year 1988 Publication Brain : a Journal of Neurology Abbreviated Journal Brain  
  Volume 111 ( Pt 2) Issue Pages 323-345  
  Keywords *Attention; *Cues; Humans; Neuropsychological Tests; Parkinson Disease/*psychology; Reaction Time  
  Abstract In recent years, several attempts have been made to characterize the nature of the cognitive deficits shown by patients with Parkinson's disease. It has been suggested variously that they have difficulty in switching cognitive set, in performing effortful (or controlled) as opposed to automatic tasks, or that their impairment is found in tasks which maximize the amount of 'self-directed task specific planning'. It is proposed that this latter distinction may be reformulated in terms of the degree of internal versus external attentional control which is required by the task. An experiment is described which attempted to manipulate this parameter. A version of the Stroop colour-word test was used, in which the words 'red' and 'green' were presented in the complementary coloured 'ink'. Subjects responded either to the colour of the ink in which the word was written or the colour named by the word. The relevant attribute changed at intervals during the course of the experiment. In one condition, the relevant stimulus attribute was cued before each trial. In another condition, subjects had to remember which attribute was currently relevant. Results revealed that patients with Parkinson's disease were impaired mainly on the second version of the task which required internal attentional control. The results are discussed in relation to the models of Working Memory (Baddeley, 1986), and attentional control (Norman and Shallice, 1980). Exploration of these models leads to the formulation of a theory in which the crucial determinant of cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease is reduced resources in the Supervisory Attentional System. Provided the demands of the task are within the patient's available attentional resources the patient may not show any deficit. If, however, the attentional demands exceed available resources, as in tasks which depend upon internal cues, then deficits will be observed.  
  Call Number Serial 158  
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Author (up) Cunnington, R.; Windischberger, C.; Robinson, S.; Moser, E. file  url
  Title The selection of intended actions and the observation of others' actions: a time-resolved fMRI study Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication NeuroImage Abbreviated Journal Neuroimage  
  Volume 29 Issue 4 Pages 1294-1302  
  Keywords Adult; Arousal--physiology; Attention--physiology; Brain Mapping; Contingent Negative Variation--physiology; Female; Gestures; Gyrus Cinguli--physiology; Humans; Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted; Imagination--physiology; Imitative Behavior--physiology; Intention; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Male; Motor Cortex--physiology; Nerve Net--physiology; Parietal Lobe--physiology; Prefrontal Cortex--physiology; Psychomotor Performance--physiology; Set (Psychology); Visual Cortex--physiology; Visual Pathways--physiology  
  Abstract Whenever we plan, imagine, or observe an action, the motor systems that would be involved in preparing and executing that action are similarly engaged. The way in which such common motor activation is formed, however, is likely to differ depending on whether it arises from our own intentional selection of action or from the observation of another's action. In this study, we use time-resolved event-related functional MRI to tease apart neural processes specifically related to the processing of observed actions, the selection of our own intended actions, the preparation for movement, and motor response execution. Participants observed a finger gesture movement or a cue indicating they should select their own finger gesture to perform, followed by a 5-s delay period; participants then performed the observed or self-selected action. During the preparation and readiness for action, prior to initiation, we found activation in a common network of higher motor areas, including dorsal and ventral premotor areas and the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA); the more caudal SMA showed greater activation during movement execution. Importantly, the route to this common motor activation differed depending on whether participants freely selected the actions to perform or whether they observed the actions performed by another person. Observation of action specifically involved activation of inferior and superior parietal regions, reflecting involvement of the dorsal visual pathway in visuomotor processing required for planning the action. In contrast, the selection of action specifically involved the dorsal lateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex, reflecting the role of these prefrontal areas in attentional selection and guiding the selection of responses.  
  Call Number Serial 69  
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Author (up) Decamp, E.; Clark, K.; Schneider, J.S. file  url
  Title Effects of the alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonist guanfacine on attention and working memory in aged non-human primates Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication The European Journal of Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal Eur J Neurosci  
  Volume 34 Issue 6 Pages 1018-1022  
  Keywords Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists--pharmacology; Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists--pharmacology; Aging--psychology; Animals; Attention--drug effects; Cognition--physiology; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Guanfacine--pharmacology; Idazoxan--pharmacology; Macaca mulatta; Male; Memory, Short-Term--drug effects; Psychomotor Performance--drug effects; Reaction Time--physiology; Space Perception--physiology  
  Abstract Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors are potential targets for ameliorating cognitive deficits associated with aging as well as certain pathologies such as attention deficit disorder, schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. Although the alpha-2 agonist guanfacine has been reported to improve working memory in aged primates, it has been difficult to assess the extent to which these improvements may be related to drug effects on attention and/or memory processes involved in task performance. The present study investigated effects of guanfacine on specific attention and memory tasks in aged monkeys. Four Rhesus monkeys (18-21 years old) performed a sustained attention (continuous performance) task and spatial working memory task (self-ordered spatial search) that has minimal demands on attention. Effects of a low (0.0015 mg/kg) and high (0.5 mg/kg) dose of gunafacine were examined. Low-dose guanfacine improved performance on the attention task [i.e. decreased omission errors by 50.8 +/- 4.3% (P = 0.001) without an effect on commission errors] but failed to improve performance on the spatial working memory task. The high dose of guanfacine had no effects on either task. Guanfacine may have a preferential effect on some aspects of attention in normal aged monkeys and in doing so may also improve performance on other tasks, including some working memory tasks that have relatively high attention demands.  
  Call Number Serial 67  
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Author (up) Dugdale, A. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Rationale for psychostimulants in ADHD Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication BMJ (Clinical Research ed.) Abbreviated Journal Bmj  
  Volume 330 Issue 7482 Pages 95  
  Keywords Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/*drug therapy; Central Nervous System Stimulants/*therapeutic use; Humans  
  Abstract Confusion about levels of diagnosis causes most debate about psychostimulants in childhood behavioural disorders.1 DSM-IV definitions are all syndromes—that is, symptoms and signs unrelated to pathology and aetiology. Most effective therapies treat pathology and aetiology; syndromes can be treated only symptomatically. The syndrome of chronic diarrhoea is analogous. Gluten intolerance is one cause. If we suspect this clinically, we test the person by gluten challenge. Clinical improvement on withdrawal and relapse on challenge confirms the diagnosis. No clinical response excludes gluten intolerance. Most chronic diarrhoeas have other causes, and some persons with proved gluten intolerance have other clinical features.

Research has found defects in dopamine transport in the brains of children with clinical attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.2,3 Some children with the biochemical defect have other symptoms; some are clinically normal. Some with clinical attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are biochemically normal. Clinical and biochemical changes overlap but do not coincide. We can call the clinical condition “attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome” and the biochemical disorder “stimulant responsive behavioural disorder.” Symptoms in children with the biochemical disorder improve dramatically with psychostimulants.4 A formal, short term trial is needed. We should give long term psychostimulants only when the symptoms are severe but not necessarily typical of attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome, improve on psychostimulants, and return when they are stopped.

Stimulant responsive behavioural disorder is a group of defects of dopamine transport in the brain, with varying clinical expressions, including the attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome, but that syndrome also has other causes. Separating the biochemical disorder and clinical syndrome promotes the rational use of psychostimulant drugs.
  Call Number Serial 1071  
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