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Author Yarnall, A.; Rochester, L.; Burn, D.J. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title The interplay of cholinergic function, attention, and falls in Parkinson's disease Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Movement Disorders : Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society Abbreviated Journal Mov Disord  
  Volume 26 Issue 14 Pages 2496-2503  
  Keywords (up) *Accidental Falls; Acetylcholine/*physiology; Attention/*physiology; Cholinergic Neurons/pathology/*physiology; Dementia/pathology/physiopathology; Humans; Parkinson Disease/pathology/*physiopathology  
  Abstract Dopamine loss in the substantia nigra causes several of the motor signs seen in Parkinson's disease, but there is now increasing evidence highlighting the importance of cholinergic loss in the pathophysiology of nonmotor symptoms. The nucleus basalis of Meynert supplies the majority of the cholinergic input to the cerebral cortex, with the pedunculopontine nucleus providing many subcortical structures with acetylcholine. Both these structures undergo degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD), with more severe loss associated with cognitive impairment. The risk of dementia in PD is greater than that in control subjects, with impairments in attention, visuospatial function, and executive control dominating. Imaging studies have demonstrated degeneration of the cholinergic system in PD, Parkinson's disease dementia, and dementia with Lewy bodies, with improvements in attention seen following the introduction of cholinesterase inhibitors. Conversely, anticholinergic drugs are associated with cognitive decline, with neuropathology studies indicating the presence of increased neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaque formation. In addition, these drugs are also known to precipitate visual hallucinations, lending support to a cholinergic basis for visual hallucinations in PD. Gait, falls, and cognition may also be related, as evidenced by the findings that fallers perform less well on test of attention than nonfallers and that greater postural instability is associated with worse scores on attention and executive function. It is therefore feasible that cognition (namely, attention), visual hallucinations, falls, and gait are subserved by acetylcholine, and this is further explored in this clinically orientated review.  
  Call Number Serial 317  
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Author Brown, R.G.; Marsden, C.D. file  url
openurl 
  Title Internal versus external cues and the control of attention in Parkinson's disease Type Journal Article
  Year 1988 Publication Brain : a Journal of Neurology Abbreviated Journal Brain  
  Volume 111 ( Pt 2) Issue Pages 323-345  
  Keywords (up) *Attention; *Cues; Humans; Neuropsychological Tests; Parkinson Disease/*psychology; Reaction Time  
  Abstract In recent years, several attempts have been made to characterize the nature of the cognitive deficits shown by patients with Parkinson's disease. It has been suggested variously that they have difficulty in switching cognitive set, in performing effortful (or controlled) as opposed to automatic tasks, or that their impairment is found in tasks which maximize the amount of 'self-directed task specific planning'. It is proposed that this latter distinction may be reformulated in terms of the degree of internal versus external attentional control which is required by the task. An experiment is described which attempted to manipulate this parameter. A version of the Stroop colour-word test was used, in which the words 'red' and 'green' were presented in the complementary coloured 'ink'. Subjects responded either to the colour of the ink in which the word was written or the colour named by the word. The relevant attribute changed at intervals during the course of the experiment. In one condition, the relevant stimulus attribute was cued before each trial. In another condition, subjects had to remember which attribute was currently relevant. Results revealed that patients with Parkinson's disease were impaired mainly on the second version of the task which required internal attentional control. The results are discussed in relation to the models of Working Memory (Baddeley, 1986), and attentional control (Norman and Shallice, 1980). Exploration of these models leads to the formulation of a theory in which the crucial determinant of cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease is reduced resources in the Supervisory Attentional System. Provided the demands of the task are within the patient's available attentional resources the patient may not show any deficit. If, however, the attentional demands exceed available resources, as in tasks which depend upon internal cues, then deficits will be observed.  
  Call Number Serial 158  
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Author Yu, C.; Smith, L.B. file  url
openurl 
  Title Joint attention without gaze following: human infants and their parents coordinate visual attention to objects through eye-hand coordination Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 8 Issue 11 Pages e79659  
  Keywords (up) *Attention; Female; *Fixation, Ocular; Humans; Infant; *Infant Behavior; *Parent-Child Relations; *Parents; Psychomotor Performance  
  Abstract The coordination of visual attention among social partners is central to many components of human behavior and human development. Previous research has focused on one pathway to the coordination of looking behavior by social partners, gaze following. The extant evidence shows that even very young infants follow the direction of another's gaze but they do so only in highly constrained spatial contexts because gaze direction is not a spatially precise cue as to the visual target and not easily used in spatially complex social interactions. Our findings, derived from the moment-to-moment tracking of eye gaze of one-year-olds and their parents as they actively played with toys, provide evidence for an alternative pathway, through the coordination of hands and eyes in goal-directed action. In goal-directed actions, the hands and eyes of the actor are tightly coordinated both temporally and spatially, and thus, in contexts including manual engagement with objects, hand movements and eye movements provide redundant information about where the eyes are looking. Our findings show that one-year-olds rarely look to the parent's face and eyes in these contexts but rather infants and parents coordinate looking behavior without gaze following by attending to objects held by the self or the social partner. This pathway, through eye-hand coupling, leads to coordinated joint switches in visual attention and to an overall high rate of looking at the same object at the same time, and may be the dominant pathway through which physically active toddlers align their looking behavior with a social partner.  
  Call Number Serial 1799  
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Author Yu, C.; Smith, L.B. file  url
openurl 
  Title Joint attention without gaze following: human infants and their parents coordinate visual attention to objects through eye-hand coordination Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 8 Issue 11 Pages e79659  
  Keywords (up) *Attention; Female; *Fixation, Ocular; Humans; Infant; *Infant Behavior; *Parent-Child Relations; *Parents; Psychomotor Performance  
  Abstract The coordination of visual attention among social partners is central to many components of human behavior and human development. Previous research has focused on one pathway to the coordination of looking behavior by social partners, gaze following. The extant evidence shows that even very young infants follow the direction of another's gaze but they do so only in highly constrained spatial contexts because gaze direction is not a spatially precise cue as to the visual target and not easily used in spatially complex social interactions. Our findings, derived from the moment-to-moment tracking of eye gaze of one-year-olds and their parents as they actively played with toys, provide evidence for an alternative pathway, through the coordination of hands and eyes in goal-directed action. In goal-directed actions, the hands and eyes of the actor are tightly coordinated both temporally and spatially, and thus, in contexts including manual engagement with objects, hand movements and eye movements provide redundant information about where the eyes are looking. Our findings show that one-year-olds rarely look to the parent's face and eyes in these contexts but rather infants and parents coordinate looking behavior without gaze following by attending to objects held by the self or the social partner. This pathway, through eye-hand coupling, leads to coordinated joint switches in visual attention and to an overall high rate of looking at the same object at the same time, and may be the dominant pathway through which physically active toddlers align their looking behavior with a social partner.  
  Call Number Serial 1818  
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Author Thiel, C.M.; Huston, J.P.; Schwarting, R.K. file  url
openurl 
  Title Hippocampal acetylcholine and habituation learning Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal Neuroscience  
  Volume 85 Issue 4 Pages 1253-1262  
  Keywords (up) Acetylcholine/*metabolism; Animals; Arousal/physiology; Attention/physiology; Exploratory Behavior/physiology; Extracellular Space/metabolism; Habituation, Psychophysiologic/*physiology; Hippocampus/*metabolism; Learning/*physiology; Male; Microdialysis; Rats; Rats, Wistar  
  Abstract Acetylcholine neurotransmission is considered to play a critical role in processes underlying behavioural activity, arousal, attention, learning, and memory. These functional attributions have largely been based on pharmacological findings. or data from brain damaged animals, and humans with neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. With the introduction of the in vivo microdialysis method it has recently become possible to monitor acetylcholine in the brain of the behaving animal, which allows to investigate its activity in specific behavioural tasks. With respect to learning and memory, one of the most elementary experimental paradigms is that of behavioural habituation, where the decrease of exploratory activity as a function of repeated exposure to the same environment is taken as an index of memory. We have used this paradigm to monitor hippocampal acetylcholine levels by means of in vivo microdialysis in rats, which were exposed to a novel open field and which were re-exposed to it on the following day (10 min each). The results show that exposure of rats to the novel environment led to increased extracellular levels of hippocampal acetylcholine which were positively correlated with exploratory behaviour. These cholinergic activations were larger than those of control animals which were handled like the experimental animals but which were not exposed to the open field. When re-exposing the experimental animals to the same environment, exploratory behaviour, but not cholinergic activation, was decreased. indicating habituation. In the subsequent 10 min, that is, when the animals where back in their home cages, cholinergic activity was still increased. The magnitude of increase was larger after re-exposure than after exposure to the novel open field. Finally, we differentiated the animals into “superior” vs “inferior” learners and found that the “superior” learners showed higher behavioural activation in the novel environment and stronger neurochemical responses, both. in the novel and familiar environment. Our data show that extracellular levels of hippocampal acetylcholine are not only elevated in relation to novelty and behavioural activation. but also during behavioural habituation. Furthermore, an inter-individual variability of cholinergic activation seems to exist which is related to individual differences in behavioural responsiveness to novelty. Such differences in cholinergic activity may be related to other known differences in hippocampal structure and function and may be important for previously reported inter-individual variabilities in sensation-seeking and related mnestic functions.  
  Call Number Serial 1500  
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Author Soderlund, G.; Sikstrom, S.; Smart, A. file  url
openurl 
  Title Listen to the noise: noise is beneficial for cognitive performance in ADHD Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines Abbreviated Journal J Child Psychol Psychiatry  
  Volume 48 Issue 8 Pages 840-847  
  Keywords (up) Acoustic Stimulation/methods; Adolescent; Analysis of Variance; Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/*psychology; Child; *Cognition; Humans; Male; Memory, Short-Term; Mental Recall; *Noise; *Task Performance and Analysis  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Noise is typically conceived of as being detrimental to cognitive performance. However, given the mechanism of stochastic resonance, a certain amount of noise can benefit performance. We investigate cognitive performance in noisy environments in relation to a neurocomputational model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and dopamine. The Moderate Brain Arousal model (MBA; Sikstrom & Soderlund, 2007) suggests that dopamine levels modulate how much noise is required for optimal cognitive performance. We experimentally examine how ADHD and control children respond to different encoding conditions, providing different levels of environmental stimulation. METHODS: Participants carried out self-performed mini tasks (SPT), as a high memory performance task, and a verbal task (VT), as a low memory task. These tasks were performed in the presence, or absence, of auditory white noise. RESULTS: Noise exerted a positive effect on cognitive performance for the ADHD group and deteriorated performance for the control group, indicating that ADHD subjects need more noise than controls for optimal cognitive performance. CONCLUSIONS: The positive effect of white noise is explained by the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR), i.e., the phenomenon that moderate noise facilitates cognitive performance. The MBA model suggests that noise in the environment, introduces internal noise into the neural system through the perceptual system. This noise induces SR in the neurotransmitter systems and makes this noise beneficial for cognitive performance. In particular, the peak of the SR curve depends on the dopamine level, so that participants with low dopamine levels (ADHD) require more noise for optimal cognitive performance compared to controls.  
  Call Number Serial 1317  
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Author Martin, L.F.; Kem, W.R.; Freedman, R. file  url
openurl 
  Title Alpha-7 nicotinic receptor agonists: potential new candidates for the treatment of schizophrenia Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Psychopharmacology Abbreviated Journal Psychopharmacology (Berl)  
  Volume 174 Issue 1 Pages 54-64  
  Keywords (up) Acoustic Stimulation/methods; Animals; Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use; Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/drug therapy/etiology; Benzylidene Compounds/therapeutic use; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15/genetics; Clozapine/therapeutic use; Evoked Potentials, Auditory/drug effects; Humans; Neural Inhibition/drug effects; Nicotinic Agonists/*therapeutic use; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics; Pyridines/therapeutic use; Receptors, Nicotinic/drug effects/genetics/*physiology; Schizophrenia/complications/*drug therapy; Sensation Disorders/drug therapy/etiology; alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor  
  Abstract RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: Auditory sensory gating, a biological measurement of the ability to suppress the evoked response to the second of two auditory stimuli, is diminished in people with schizophrenia. Deficits in sensory gating are associated with attentional impairment, and may contribute to cognitive symptoms and perceptual disturbances. This inhibitory process, which involves the alpha(7) nicotinic receptor mediated release of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by hippocampal interneurons, represents a potential new target for therapeutic intervention in schizophrenia. METHOD: This paper will review several lines of evidence implicating the nicotinic-cholinergic, and specifically, the alpha(7) nicotinic receptor system in the pathology of schizophrenia and the evidence that alpha(7) nicotinic receptor agonists may ameliorate some of these deficits. RESULTS: Impaired auditory sensory gating has been linked to the alpha(7) nicotinic receptor gene on the chromosome 15q14 locus. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of the promoter region of this gene are more frequent in people with schizophrenia. Although nicotine can acutely reverse diminished auditory sensory gating in people with schizophrenia, this effect is lost on a chronic basis due to receptor desensitization. Clozapine is able to reverse auditory sensory gating impairment, probably through an alpha(7) nicotinic receptor mechanism, in both humans and animal models with repeated dosing. The alpha(7) nicotinic agonist 3-2,4 dimethoxybenzylidene anabaseine (DMXBA) can also enhance auditory sensory gating in animal models. DMXBA is well tolerated in humans and improves several cognitive measures. CONCLUSION: Alpha-7 nicotinic receptor agonists appear to be reasonable candidates for the treatment of cognitive and perceptual disturbances in schizophrenia.  
  Call Number Serial 1883  
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Author Alapin, I.; Fichten, C.S.; Libman, E.; Creti, L.; Bailes, S.; Wright, J. file  url
openurl 
  Title How is good and poor sleep in older adults and college students related to daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and ability to concentrate? Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Journal of Psychosomatic Research Abbreviated Journal J Psychosom Res  
  Volume 49 Issue 5 Pages 381-390  
  Keywords (up) Adaptation, Psychological; Adult; Aged; Attention; Circadian Rhythm--physiology; Cognition Disorders--diagnosis, etiology; Disorders of Excessive Somnolence--diagnosis, etiology; Fatigue--diagnosis, etiology; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Severity of Illness Index; Sleep--physiology; Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders--complications, diagnosis; Students; Universities; Wakefulness--physiology  
  Abstract We compared good sleepers with minimally and highly distressed poor sleepers on three measures of daytime functioning: self-reported fatigue, sleepiness, and cognitive inefficiency. In two samples (194 older adults, 136 college students), we tested the hypotheses that (1) poor sleepers experience more problems with daytime functioning than good sleepers, (2) highly distressed poor sleepers report greater impairment in functioning during the day than either good sleepers or minimally distressed poor sleepers, (3) daytime symptoms are more closely related to psychological adjustment and to psychologically laden sleep variables than to quantitative sleep parameters, and (4) daytime symptoms are more closely related to longer nocturnal wake times than to shorter sleep times. Results in both samples indicated that poor sleepers reported more daytime difficulties than good sleepers. While low- and high-distress poor sleepers did not differ on sleep parameters, highly distressed poor sleepers reported consistently more difficulty in functioning during the day and experienced greater tension and depression than minimally distressed poor sleepers. Severity of all three daytime problems was generally significantly and positively related to poor psychological adjustment, psychologically laden sleep variables, and, with the exception of sleepiness, to quantitative sleep parameters. Results are used to discuss discrepancies between experiential and quantitative measures of daytime functioning.  
  Call Number Serial 216  
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Author Steiner, H.; Remsing, L. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with oppositional defiant disorder Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry  
  Volume 46 Issue 1 Pages 126-141  
  Keywords (up) Adolescent; *Adolescent Psychiatry; Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders/*diagnosis/*therapy; Child; *Child Psychiatry; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; Humans  
  Abstract Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a common clinical problem in children and adolescents. Oppositionality and associated types of aggressive behavior are among the most common referral problems in child psychiatry. Grouped among the disruptive behavior disorders, ODD is frequently comorbid with other psychiatric conditions and often precedes the development of conduct disorder (CD), substance abuse, and severely delinquent behavior. Youth with ODD may also have specific CD behaviors, such as aggression. Although compared with CD there exists a smaller and less sophisticated empirical database for ODD, this parameter draws upon the existing ODD and CD literature to make recommendations regarding diagnosis and treatment of ODD. The etiology of ODD is complex and its development is based on a cumulative risk/protective factor model that combines biological, psychological, and social factors. Recommended treatment is multimodal and extensive, involving individual and family psychotherapeutic approaches, medication, and sociotherapy. Methodologically sound controlled clinical trials are lacking.  
  Call Number Serial 102  
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Author Scott, D.; Ponsoda, V. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title The role of positive and negative affect in flashbulb memory Type Journal Article
  Year 1996 Publication Psychological Reports Abbreviated Journal Psychol Rep  
  Volume 79 Issue 2 Pages 467-473  
  Keywords (up) Adolescent; Adult; *Affect; *Attention; Female; Humans; *Life Change Events; Male; *Mental Recall; Middle Aged; Retention (Psychology)  
  Abstract All previous reports on the phenomenon of flashbulb memories relate to hearing of shocking (or “bad”) news: in other words, that of negative affect. This study represents the first attempt to investigate whether those criteria used to define flashbulb memories would similarly apply to events of similar strength but of positive affect. 70 questionnaires were administered relating to 20 events over a 10-yr. period. No significant differences were found on the cardinal features of flasbhulb memories for events of negative versus positive affect. This suggests that an hitherto untapped research area may be explored to clarify controversial issues within this construct such as whether a special mechanism exists in the formation of flashbulb memories.  
  Call Number Serial 89  
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