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Author (up) Atkinson, C.M.; Drysdale, K.A.; Fulham, W.R. file  url
openurl 
  Title Event-related potentials to Stroop and reverse Stroop stimuli Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication International Journal of Psychophysiology : Official Journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology Abbreviated Journal Int J Psychophysiol  
  Volume 47 Issue 1 Pages 1-21  
  Keywords Adult; Analysis of Variance; Attention/*physiology; Electroencephalography/methods; Evoked Potentials/*physiology; Humans; Middle Aged; Reaction Time/physiology  
  Abstract In the Stroop task, the latency of response to a colour is either faster or slower in the presence of a congruent or incongruent colour-word (J. Exp. Psychol. 18 (1935) 643). Debate remains as to whether this effect occurs during early stimulus processing or late response competition. The present study examined the task using reaction time (RT) and event-related potentials to determine temporal differences in this processing. The 'reverse Stroop' effect (where colour interferes with processing of a colour-word) which is much less well established, was also examined. Standard Stroop interference was found as well as reverse Stroop interference. A late lateralised negativity at frontal sites was greater for Incongruent trials and also for the word-response (reverse Stroop) task, and was interpreted as semantic selection and word-rechecking effects. Late positive component latency effects generally mirrored the speed of processing of the different conditions found in RT data. Stroop effects were also found in early temporal N100 and parietal P100 components, which differentiated Congruent from Incongruent trials in the reverse Stroop but not the standard Stroop, and were interpreted as early perception of physical mismatch between the colour and word. It was concluded that Stroop stimuli are processed in parallel in a network of brain areas rather than a particular structure and that Stroop interference arises at the output stage.  
  Call Number Serial 235  
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Author (up) Elaad, E.; Ben-Shakhar, G. file  url
openurl 
  Title Finger pulse waveform length in the detection of concealed information Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication International Journal of Psychophysiology : Official Journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology Abbreviated Journal Int J Psychophysiol  
  Volume 61 Issue 2 Pages 226-234  
  Keywords Adult; Arousal/*physiology; Attention/*physiology; Autonomic Nervous System/physiology; Female; Galvanic Skin Response/*physiology; *Guilt; Habituation, Psychophysiologic/physiology; Heart Rate/*physiology; Humans; Lie Detection/*psychology; Male; Mathematical Computing; Orientation/physiology; Plethysmography/statistics & numerical data; Problem Solving/*physiology; Pulse/*statistics & numerical data; Reference Values; *Respiration; Sensitivity and Specificity; Theft/*psychology  
  Abstract An attempt was made to assess the efficiency of the finger pulse waveform length (FPWL), in detection of concealed information. For this purpose, two mock-theft experiments were designed. In the first, 40 guilty participants were examined while electrodermal, respiration and finger pulse volume were recorded. Results showed that detection accuracy with the FPWL was at least as good as the accuracy obtained with the other two measures (respiration changes and skin conductance responses). Detection efficiency was further improved when a combination of FPWL with the other two measures was used. In the second experiment, 39 guilty and 23 innocent participants were instructed to deny knowledge while the transducers were not attached to them. Then, the same questions were repeated while electrodermal, respiration and finger pulse volume were recorded. Results showed reduced rates of identification compared to the first experiment, which were explained by habituation. However, finger pulse was less affected by habituation than both respiration and skin conductance. Results suggested that the FPWL might be a useful addition to the existing measures in the detection of concealed information.  
  Call Number Serial 1443  
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Author (up) Ferrari, P.F.; Coude, G.; Gallese, V.; Fogassi, L. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Having access to others' mind through gaze: the role of ontogenetic and learning processes in gaze-following behavior of macaques Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Social Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal Soc Neurosci  
  Volume 3 Issue 3-4 Pages 239-249  
  Keywords Age Factors; Animals; Attention/*physiology; Concept Formation; Female; Fixation, Ocular/*physiology; Head Movements; Imitative Behavior/*physiology; Learning/*physiology; Macaca/*physiology; Male; Reinforcement (Psychology); Social Behavior; Time Factors  
  Abstract In primates the gaze conveys important information about what others attend to and about their intentions. The ability to follow the gaze direction of conspecifics has been established for several primate species. It has been proposed to be a precursor for more complex cognitive skills related to mind reading. Studies in humans and other primates have shown that this behavior develops during the period between infancy and adulthood; however, the mechanisms responsible for its emergence are still unknown. In a series of experiments we investigated such mechanisms in macaques (Macaca nemestrina). Results show that juvenile macaques improve their ability to follow the gaze of a human experimenter and that adults' ability to follow gaze is more accurate than that of juveniles. Our data also show that this behavior can emerge as the result of learning processes. The discrepancy between the relatively long period of time needed for the full establishment of the gaze-following behavior and its high sensitivity to conditioning procedures may suggest that social experience and integration of this behavior with other social-cognitive skills are required for its development.  
  Call Number Serial 549  
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Author (up) Hill, E.L. file  url
openurl 
  Title Executive dysfunction in autism Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Trends in Cognitive Sciences Abbreviated Journal Trends Cogn Sci  
  Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 26-32  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Attention/*physiology; Autistic Disorder/*diagnosis/*physiopathology; Child; Frontal Lobe/physiopathology; Humans; *Inhibition (Psychology); Memory, Short-Term/*physiology; Neuropsychological Tests; Prefrontal Cortex/physiopathology; Problem Solving/*physiology  
  Abstract “Executive function” is an umbrella term for functions such as planning, working memory, impulse control, inhibition and mental flexibility, as well as for the initiation and monitoring of action. The primacy of executive dysfunction in autism is a topic of much debate, as are recent attempts to examine subtypes of executive function within autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders that are considered to implicate frontal lobe function. This article will review cognitive behavioural studies of planning, mental flexibility and inhibition in autism. It is concluded that more detailed research is needed to fractionate the executive system in autism by assessing a wide range of executive functions as well as their neuroanatomical correlates in the same individuals across the lifespan.  
  Call Number Serial 1113  
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Author (up) Miltner, W.; Johnson, R.J.; Braun, C.; Larbig, W. file  url
openurl 
  Title Somatosensory event-related potentials to painful and non-painful stimuli: effects of attention Type Journal Article
  Year 1989 Publication Pain Abbreviated Journal Pain  
  Volume 38 Issue 3 Pages 303-312  
  Keywords Adult; Attention/*physiology; Electric Stimulation; Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory/*physiology; Female; Humans; Male; Pain/*physiopathology; Pain Measurement/*methods  
  Abstract In order to determine the effects of attention and distraction on painful and non-painful stimuli, the amplitude changes of 3 components (N150, P200, P300) of the somatosensory event-related potential (SERP) elicited by painful and non-painful electrical stimuli were investigated. Painful and non-painful stimuli were determined using a visual analog scale. SERPs were recorded from 16 healthy volunteers at 5 midline and 4 left and 4 right hemispheric sites. The differences between the amplitudes of attended and ignored stimuli were quantified with a baseline-to-peak measure. ANOVA results revealed no significant attention or stimulus intensity effects for N150 but highly significant differences in P200 and P300 amplitudes between attended and ignored stimuli. In addition, P200 and P300 amplitudes were larger for strong stimuli than for weak stimuli, with no significant differences between non-painful and painful stimuli. These findings are consistent with the existence of a relative, rather than an absolute, relationship between SERP component amplitudes and subjective pain reports. Furthermore, the data give evidence that attentional manipulations represent a powerful method to decrease the perception of pain and that, when used with subjective and behavioral measures, the SERP represents a valuable asset in the multidimensional approach to pain measurement and assessment.  
  Call Number Serial 156  
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Author (up) Mundy, P.; Jarrold, W. file  url
openurl 
  Title Infant joint attention, neural networks and social cognition Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Neural Networks : the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society Abbreviated Journal Neural Netw  
  Volume 23 Issue 8-9 Pages 985-997  
  Keywords Attention/*physiology; Brain Mapping; Cognition/*physiology; Emotions/physiology; Fixation, Ocular; Humans; Infant; Learning/physiology; Nerve Net/*physiology; *Neural Networks (Computer); *Social Behavior  
  Abstract Neural network models of attention can provide a unifying approach to the study of human cognitive and emotional development (Posner & Rothbart, 2007). In this paper we argue that a neural network approach to the infant development of joint attention can inform our understanding of the nature of human social learning, symbolic thought process and social cognition. At its most basic, joint attention involves the capacity to coordinate one's own visual attention with that of another person. We propose that joint attention development involves increments in the capacity to engage in simultaneous or parallel processing of information about one's own attention and the attention of other people. Infant practice with joint attention is both a consequence and an organizer of the development of a distributed and integrated brain network involving frontal and parietal cortical systems. This executive distributed network first serves to regulate the capacity of infants to respond to and direct the overt behavior of other people in order to share experience with others through the social coordination of visual attention. In this paper we describe this parallel and distributed neural network model of joint attention development and discuss two hypotheses that stem from this model. One is that activation of this distributed network during coordinated attention enhances the depth of information processing and encoding beginning in the first year of life. We also propose that with development, joint attention becomes internalized as the capacity to socially coordinate mental attention to internal representations. As this occurs the executive joint attention network makes vital contributions to the development of human symbolic thinking and social cognition.  
  Call Number Serial 1908  
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Author (up) Puumala, T.; Sirvio, J. file  url
openurl 
  Title Changes in activities of dopamine and serotonin systems in the frontal cortex underlie poor choice accuracy and impulsivity of rats in an attention task Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal Neuroscience  
  Volume 83 Issue 2 Pages 489-499  
  Keywords Animals; Attention/*physiology; Brain Chemistry/physiology; Dopamine/*metabolism; Functional Laterality/physiology; Homovanillic Acid/metabolism; Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid/metabolism; Impulsive Behavior/*metabolism; Male; Norepinephrine/metabolism; Prefrontal Cortex/*metabolism; Rats; Rats, Wistar; Reaction Time/physiology; Serotonin/*metabolism  
  Abstract The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether differences in the function of monoaminergic systems could account for the variability in attention and impulsive behaviour between rats tested in the five-choice serial reaction time task in a model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The ability of a rat to sustain its attention in this task can be assessed by measuring choice accuracy (percent correct responses) to visual stimuli, whereas the percentage of premature responses indicates the level of impulsivity. Following training with the five-choice serial reaction time task, rats were decapitated and brain pieces taken for neurochemical determination. Levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine, the dopamine metabolites, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid and the 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were determined in the frontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, dorsal striatum and hippocampus. Multivariate regression analysis with a stepwise method revealed that the indeces of utilization of serotonin (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid/5-hydroxytryptamine) in the left frontal cortex and dopamine (3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid/dopamine) in the right frontal cortex together accounted for 49% of the variability in attentional performance between subjects. According to the regression analysis, a negative correlation existed between the left frontal cortex 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid/5-hydroxytryptamine and choice accuracy, and a positive correlation was observed between 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid/dopamine ratio and choice accuracy on the opposite hemisphere. Additionally, right frontal cortex serotonin utilization was found to correlate positively with the proportion of premature hole responses and this relation accounted for about 24% of the variability in this index of impulsivity between animals. These data indicate that frontal cortex dopamine and serotonin play an important role in the modulation of attention and response control.  
  Call Number Serial 391  
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Author (up) Shechner, T.; Rimon-Chakir, A.; Britton, J.C.; Lotan, D.; Apter, A.; Bliese, P.D.; Pine, D.S.; Bar-Haim, Y. file  url
openurl 
  Title Attention bias modification treatment augmenting effects on cognitive behavioral therapy in children with anxiety: randomized controlled trial Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry  
  Volume 53 Issue 1 Pages 61-71  
  Keywords Adolescent; Anxiety Disorders/*therapy; Attention/*physiology; Behavior Therapy/*methods; Child; Cognitive Therapy/methods; Female; Humans; Male; Treatment Outcome; anxiety; attention bias; attention bias modification treatment (ABMT); cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: Attention bias modification treatment (ABMT) is a promising novel treatment for anxiety disorders, but clinical trials have focused largely on stand-alone formats among adults. This randomized controlled trial examined the augmenting effects of threat-based ABMT on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in clinically anxious youth. METHOD: Sixty-three treatment-seeking children with anxiety disorder were randomly assigned to 1 of the following 3 treatment groups: ABMT + CBT; ABMT placebo + CBT; and CBT-alone. Participants in the 2 ABMT conditions received repeated training on dot-probe tasks either designed to shift attention away from threats (active) or designed to induce no changes in attention patterns (placebo). Primary outcome measures were frequency and severity of anxiety symptoms as determined by a clinician using a semi-structured interview. Self- and parent-rated anxiety measures and threat-related attention bias scores were also measured before and after treatment. RESULTS: Both the active and placebo ABMT groups showed greater reductions in clinician-rated anxiety symptoms than the CBT-alone group. Furthermore, only the active ABMT group showed significant reduction in self- or parent-rated anxiety symptoms. Finally, all groups showed a shift in attention patterns across the study, starting with a bias toward threat at baseline and shifting attention away from threat after treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Active and placebo ABMT might augment the clinical response to CBT for anxiety. This effect could arise from benefits associated with performing computer-based paradigms such as the dot-probe task. Given the absence of group differences in attention-bias changes during treatment, possible mechanisms and methodological issues underlying the observed findings are discussed. Clinical trial registration information-Augmenting Effects of ABMT on CBT in Anxious Children: A Randomized Clinical Trial; http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT01730625.  
  Call Number Serial 1774  
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Author (up) Trueswell, J.C.; Lin, Y.; Armstrong, B. 3rd; Cartmill, E.A.; Goldin-Meadow, S.; Gleitman, L.R. file  url
openurl 
  Title Perceiving referential intent: Dynamics of reference in natural parent-child interactions Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Cognition Abbreviated Journal Cognition  
  Volume 148 Issue Pages 117-135  
  Keywords Adult; Attention/*physiology; Female; Humans; Infant; *Intention; *Language; Language Development; Learning/*physiology; Male; *Parent-Child Relations; Perception/*physiology; Vocabulary; Language development; Psycholinguistics; Reference; Word learning  
  Abstract Two studies are presented which examined the temporal dynamics of the social-attentive behaviors that co-occur with referent identification during natural parent-child interactions in the home. Study 1 focused on 6.2 h of videos of 56 parents interacting during everyday activities with their 14-18 month-olds, during which parents uttered common nouns as parts of spontaneously occurring utterances. Trained coders recorded, on a second-by-second basis, parent and child attentional behaviors relevant to reference in the period (40 s) immediately surrounding parental naming. The referential transparency of each interaction was independently assessed by having naive adult participants guess what word the parent had uttered in these video segments, but with the audio turned off, forcing them to use only non-linguistic evidence available in the ongoing stream of events. We found a great deal of ambiguity in the input along with a few potent moments of word-referent transparency; these transparent moments have a particular temporal signature with respect to parent and child attentive behavior: it was the object's appearance and/or the fact that it captured parent/child attention at the moment the word was uttered, not the presence of the object throughout the video, that predicted observers' accuracy. Study 2 experimentally investigated the precision of the timing relation, and whether it has an effect on observer accuracy, by disrupting the timing between when the word was uttered and the behaviors present in the videos as they were originally recorded. Disrupting timing by only +/-1 to 2 s reduced participant confidence and significantly decreased their accuracy in word identification. The results enhance an expanding literature on how dyadic attentional factors can influence early vocabulary growth. By hypothesis, this kind of time-sensitive data-selection process operates as a filter on input, removing many extraneous and ill-supported word-meaning hypotheses from consideration during children's early vocabulary learning.  
  Call Number Serial 1821  
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Author (up) Yarnall, A.; Rochester, L.; Burn, D.J. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title The interplay of cholinergic function, attention, and falls in Parkinson's disease Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Movement Disorders : Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society Abbreviated Journal Mov Disord  
  Volume 26 Issue 14 Pages 2496-2503  
  Keywords *Accidental Falls; Acetylcholine/*physiology; Attention/*physiology; Cholinergic Neurons/pathology/*physiology; Dementia/pathology/physiopathology; Humans; Parkinson Disease/pathology/*physiopathology  
  Abstract Dopamine loss in the substantia nigra causes several of the motor signs seen in Parkinson's disease, but there is now increasing evidence highlighting the importance of cholinergic loss in the pathophysiology of nonmotor symptoms. The nucleus basalis of Meynert supplies the majority of the cholinergic input to the cerebral cortex, with the pedunculopontine nucleus providing many subcortical structures with acetylcholine. Both these structures undergo degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD), with more severe loss associated with cognitive impairment. The risk of dementia in PD is greater than that in control subjects, with impairments in attention, visuospatial function, and executive control dominating. Imaging studies have demonstrated degeneration of the cholinergic system in PD, Parkinson's disease dementia, and dementia with Lewy bodies, with improvements in attention seen following the introduction of cholinesterase inhibitors. Conversely, anticholinergic drugs are associated with cognitive decline, with neuropathology studies indicating the presence of increased neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaque formation. In addition, these drugs are also known to precipitate visual hallucinations, lending support to a cholinergic basis for visual hallucinations in PD. Gait, falls, and cognition may also be related, as evidenced by the findings that fallers perform less well on test of attention than nonfallers and that greater postural instability is associated with worse scores on attention and executive function. It is therefore feasible that cognition (namely, attention), visual hallucinations, falls, and gait are subserved by acetylcholine, and this is further explored in this clinically orientated review.  
  Call Number Serial 317  
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