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Author (up) Adachi, R.; Osada, H.; Shingai, R. file  url
  Title Phase-dependent preference of thermosensation and chemosensation during simultaneous presentation assay in Caenorhabditis elegans Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication BMC Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal BMC Neurosci  
  Volume 9 Issue Pages 106  
  Keywords Animals; Caenorhabditis elegans; Chemotactic Factors; Chemotaxis--physiology; Choice Behavior; Cold Temperature; Pentanols; Psychomotor Performance--physiology; Sensation; Sensory Receptor Cells--physiology; Sodium Chloride; Thermosensing--physiology  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Multi-sensory integration is necessary for organisms to discriminate different environmental stimuli and thus determine behavior. Caenorhabditis elegans has 12 pairs of amphid sensory neurons, which are involved in generating behaviors such as thermotaxis toward cultivation temperature, and chemotaxis toward chemical stimuli. This arrangement of known sensory neurons and measurable behavioral output makes C. elegans suitable for addressing questions of multi-sensory integration in the nervous system. Previous studies have suggested that C. elegans can process different chemoattractants simultaneously. However, little is known about how these organisms can integrate information from stimuli of different modality, such as thermal and chemical stimuli. RESULTS: We studied the behavior of a population of C. elegans during simultaneous presentation of thermal and chemical stimuli. First, we examined thermotaxis within the radial temperature gradient produced by a feedback-controlled thermoregulator. Separately, we examined chemotaxis toward sodium chloride or isoamyl alcohol. Then, assays for simultaneous presentations of 15 degrees C (colder temperature than 20 degrees C room temperature) and chemoattractant were performed with 15 degrees C-cultivated wild-type worms. Unlike the sum of behavioral indices for each separate behavior, simultaneous presentation resulted in a biased migration to cold regions in the first 10 min of the assay, and sodium chloride-regions in the last 40 min. However, when sodium chloride was replaced with isoamyl alcohol in the simultaneous presentation, the behavioral index was very similar to the sum of separate single presentation indices. We then recorded tracks of single worms and analyzed their behavior. For behavior toward sodium chloride, frequencies of forward and backward movements in simultaneous presentation were significantly different from those in single presentation. Also, migration toward 15 degrees C in simultaneous presentation was faster than that in 15 degrees C-single presentation. CONCLUSION: We conclude that worms preferred temperature to chemoattractant at first, but preferred the chemoattractant sodium chloride thereafter. This preference was not seen for isoamyl alcohol presentation. We attribute this phase-dependent preference to the result of integration of thermosensory and chemosensory signals received by distinct sensory neurons.  
  Call Number Serial 262  
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Author (up) Adachi, R.; Wakabayashi, T.; Oda, N.; Shingai, R. file  url
  Title Modulation of Caenorhabditis elegans chemotaxis by cultivation and assay temperatures Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Neuroscience Research Abbreviated Journal Neurosci Res  
  Volume 60 Issue 3 Pages 300-306  
  Keywords Ammonium Chloride; Animals; Behavior, Animal/*physiology; Caenorhabditis elegans/*physiology; Chemoreceptor Cells/physiology; Chemotaxis/*physiology; Neurons, Afferent/*physiology; Sodium Acetate; Stimulation, Chemical; *Temperature  
  Abstract The chemotaxis behaviors of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans cultivated at various temperatures (15 degrees C, 20 degrees C and 25 degrees C) were examined at various temperatures (10 degrees C, 15 degrees C, 20 degrees C and 25 degrees C) to determine the multi-sensory integration of physical (thermal) and chemical sensory information within its nervous system. Chemotaxis behavior toward sodium acetate and ammonium chloride were differently affected by both assay and cultivation temperatures, suggesting that the temperature effect on chemotaxis is not general, but rather distinctive for each chemosensory pathway. Since thermosensory cues are likely encountered constantly in C. elegans, we supposed that the chemotaxis behaviors of worms are achieved by the integration of chemo- and thermosensory information. To verify the possible contribution of thermosensory function in chemotaxis, we examined the chemotaxis behaviors of ttx-1(p767) mutant worms with defective AFD thermosensory neurons. The chemotaxis behaviors toward sodium acetate or ammonium chloride of mutant worms cultivated at 20 degrees C and 25 degrees C were reduced relative to those of wild-type worms. These results indicate the important role of multi-sensory integration of chemosensory and thermosensory information in chemotaxis behavior of the C. elegans.  
  Call Number Serial 1025  
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Author (up) Alcock, J.; Maley, C.C.; Aktipis, C.A. file  url
  Title Is eating behavior manipulated by the gastrointestinal microbiota? Evolutionary pressures and potential mechanisms Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication BioEssays : News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology Abbreviated Journal Bioessays  
  Volume 36 Issue 10 Pages 940-949  
  Keywords Animals; *Biological Evolution; *Feeding Behavior; Gastrointestinal Tract/*microbiology; Humans; *Microbiota; Models, Biological; Obesity/etiology; Cravings; Evolutionary conflict; Host manipulation; Microbiome; Obesity  
  Abstract Microbes in the gastrointestinal tract are under selective pressure to manipulate host eating behavior to increase their fitness, sometimes at the expense of host fitness. Microbes may do this through two potential strategies: (i) generating cravings for foods that they specialize on or foods that suppress their competitors, or (ii) inducing dysphoria until we eat foods that enhance their fitness. We review several potential mechanisms for microbial control over eating behavior including microbial influence on reward and satiety pathways, production of toxins that alter mood, changes to receptors including taste receptors, and hijacking of the vagus nerve, the neural axis between the gut and the brain. We also review the evidence for alternative explanations for cravings and unhealthy eating behavior. Because microbiota are easily manipulatable by prebiotics, probiotics, antibiotics, fecal transplants, and dietary changes, altering our microbiota offers a tractable approach to otherwise intractable problems of obesity and unhealthy eating.  
  Call Number Serial 2002  
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Author (up) Anderson, J.L.; Albergotti, L.; Proulx, S.; Peden, C.; Huey, R.B.; Phillips, P.C. file  url
  Title Thermal preference of Caenorhabditis elegans: a null model and empirical tests Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication The Journal of Experimental Biology Abbreviated Journal J Exp Biol  
  Volume 210 Issue Pt 17 Pages 3107-3116  
  Keywords Acclimatization; Animals; Behavior, Animal; Body Temperature Regulation; Caenorhabditis elegans--physiology; Escherichia coli--growth & development; Models, Biological; Temperature  
  Abstract The preferred body temperature of ectotherms is typically inferred from the observed distribution of body temperatures in a laboratory thermal gradient. For very small organisms, however, that observed distribution might misrepresent true thermal preferences. Tiny ectotherms have limited thermal inertia, and so their body temperature and speed of movement will vary with their position along the gradient. In order to separate the direct effects of body temperature on movement from actual preference behaviour on a thermal gradient, we generate a null model (i.e. of non-thermoregulating individuals) of the spatial distribution of ectotherms on a thermal gradient and test the model using parameter values estimated from the movement of nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans) at fixed temperatures and on a thermal gradient. We show that the standard lab strain N2, which is widely used in thermal gradient studies, avoids high temperature but otherwise does not exhibit a clear thermal preference, whereas the Hawaiian natural isolate CB4856 shows a clear preference for cool temperatures ( approximately 17 degrees C). These differences are not influenced substantially by changes in the starting position of worms in the gradient, the natal temperature of individuals or the presence and physiological state of bacterial food. These results demonstrate the value of an explicit null model of thermal effects and highlight problems in the standard model of C. elegans thermotaxis, showing the value of using natural isolates for tests of complex natural behaviours.  
  Call Number Serial 260  
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Author (up) Ardiel, E.L.; Rankin, C.H. file  url
  Title C. elegans: social interactions in a “nonsocial” animal Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Advances in Genetics Abbreviated Journal Adv Genet  
  Volume 68 Issue Pages 1-22  
  Keywords Animals; Behavior, Animal; Caenorhabditis elegans/genetics/*physiology; Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/genetics; Ecosystem; Female; Genetics, Behavioral; Male; Pheromones/physiology; Social Behavior  
  Abstract As self-fertilizing nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans do not normally come to mind when one thinks of social animals. However, their reproductive mode is optimized for rapid population growth, and although they do not form structured societies, conspecifics are an important source of sensory input. A pheromone signal underlies multiple complex behaviors, including diapause, male-mating, and aggregation. The use of C. elegans in sociogenetics research allows for the analysis of social interactions at the level of genes, circuits, and behaviors. This chapter describes natural polymorphisms in mab-23, plg-1, npr-1, and glb-5 as they relate to two C. elegans social behaviors: male-mating and aggregation.  
  Call Number Serial 1074  
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Author (up) Arrant, A.E.; Schramm-Sapyta, N.L.; Kuhn, C.M. file  url
  Title Use of the light/dark test for anxiety in adult and adolescent male rats Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Behavioural Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Behav Brain Res  
  Volume 256 Issue Pages 119-127  
  Keywords Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology; Age Factors; Animals; Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology; Anxiety/*diagnosis/drug therapy; Carbolines/pharmacology; Exploratory Behavior/drug effects; Factor Analysis, Statistical; *Light; Male; Motor Activity/drug effects; *Neuropsychological Tests; Rats, Sprague-Dawley; Regression Analysis; Risk-Taking; Time Factors; Yohimbine/pharmacology; Adolescence; Anxiety; Fg-7142; Factor analysis; Light/dark test; Yohimbine  
  Abstract The light/dark (LD) test is a commonly used rodent test of unconditioned anxiety-like behavior that is based on an approach/avoidance conflict between the drive to explore novel areas and an aversion to brightly lit, open spaces. We used the LD test to investigate developmental differences in behavior between adolescent (postnatal day (PN) 28-34) and adult (PN67-74) male rats. We investigated whether LD behavioral measures reflect anxiety-like behavior similarly in each age group using factor analysis and multiple regression. These analyses showed that time in the light compartment, percent distance in the light, rearing, and latency to emerge into the light compartment were measures of anxiety-like behavior in each age group, while total distance traveled and distance in the dark compartment provided indices of locomotor activity. We then used these measures to assess developmental differences in baseline LD behavior and the response to anxiogenic drugs. Adolescent rats emerged into the light compartment more quickly than adults and made fewer pokes into the light compartment. These age differences could reflect greater risk taking and less risk assessment in adolescent rats than adults. Adolescent rats were less sensitive than adults to the anxiogenic effects of the benzodiazepine inverse agonist N-methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxamide (FG-7142) and the alpha(2) adrenergic antagonist yohimbine on anxiety-like behaviors validated by factor analysis, but locomotor variables were similarly affected. These data support the results of the factor analysis and indicate that GABAergic and noradrenergic modulation of LD anxiety-like behavior may be immature during adolescence.  
  Call Number Serial 1614  
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Author (up) Azuma, T. file  url
  Title Working memory and perseveration in verbal fluency Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Neuropsychology Abbreviated Journal Neuropsychology  
  Volume 18 Issue 1 Pages 69-77  
  Keywords Analysis of Variance; Humans; Memory, Short-Term/*physiology; Neuropsychological Tests; Random Allocation; Semantics; Task Performance and Analysis; Verbal Behavior/*physiology; Verbal Learning/*physiology; Vocabulary  
  Abstract Letter and semantic fluency tasks are often used in neuropsychological assessment and are sensitive to many conditions. Performance is assessed by correct responses and errors, including perseverations. Healthy young adults performed letter and semantic fluency tasks. One group performed these tasks in the conventional manner; 2 other groups performed them while maintaining memory loads. The memory loads consisted either of words from the same category as the fluency task or of words from a different category. The results showed little effect of memory loads on correct responses but significant effects of memory load on perseveration rates: Same-category loads resulted in higher rates, especially in letter fluency. The results are discussed in terms of frontal lobe function in verbal fluency.  
  Call Number Serial 239  
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Author (up) Bablanian, G.M.; Weiss, K.R.; Kupfermann, I. file  url
  Title Motor control of the appetitive phase of feeding behavior in Aplysia Type Journal Article
  Year 1987 Publication Behavioral and Neural Biology Abbreviated Journal Behav Neural Biol  
  Volume 48 Issue 3 Pages 394-407  
  Keywords Animals; Aplysia; Appetitive Behavior/*physiology; Feeding Behavior/*physiology; Ganglia/physiology; Locomotion; Motor Activity/*physiology; Motor Neurons/physiology; Muscle Contraction; Muscles/*innervation; Neck Muscles/innervation; Peripheral Nerves/physiology  
  Abstract The appetitive phase of feeding behavior, in the gastropod, Aplysia, consists of head lifting, head waving, orientation of the head to food, and locomotion. We have initiated studies of the neural control of head waving using three methods: (i) anatomical description of the nerves innervating muscles that are involved in head movement, (ii) electrical stimulation of nerves in a semi-intact preparation, and (iii) recording from nerves in free-moving animals. The muscles controlling head movements, located in the dorsal and lateral neck region, are innervated primarily by pleural nerve 1 and pedal nerves 2, 3, and 5. Electrical stimulation of these nerves caused both longitudinal and lateral contractions of the neck muscles, the largest contractions being in the area where the nerve first enters the muscle. Extracellular recordings from pleural nerve 1 and pedal nerves, in free-moving animals, showed an increase in extracellular activity during head lifting, at the onset of appetitive feeding behavior. Directionally specific inhibition and excitation in neural activity occurred in pleural nerve 1 and pedal nerve 5 during leftward and rightward movements of the head (head waving). Cobalt and nickel backfills of pleural nerve 1 and pedal nerve 5 revealed cell bodies in the cerebral, pedal, and pleural ganglia. The neurons are therefore putative motor neurons for the neck muscles involved in appetitive behavior. This evidence suggests that appetitive control of feeding may involve the coordinated activity of several different ganglia.  
  Call Number Serial 1379  
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Author (up) Bakan, D. file  url
  Title Behaviorism and American urbanization Type Journal Article
  Year 1966 Publication Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences Abbreviated Journal J. Hist. Behav. Sci.  
  Volume 2 Issue 1 Pages 5-28  
  Keywords Behaviorism; United States, Ideological  
  Abstract An attempt “to explain the development of behaviorism in the United States by placing it within the larger cultural, ideological and historical context of the American experience.” (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)  
  Call Number Serial 2114  
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Author (up) Baldwin, H.A.; File, S.E. file  url
  Title Caffeine-induced anxiogenesis: the role of adenosine, benzodiazepine and noradrenergic receptors Type Journal Article
  Year 1989 Publication Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior Abbreviated Journal Pharmacol Biochem Behav  
  Volume 32 Issue 1 Pages 181-186  
  Keywords 2-Chloroadenosine; Adenosine/analogs & derivatives/pharmacology; Alprazolam/analogs & derivatives/pharmacology; *Anxiety; Caffeine/*toxicity; Chlordiazepoxide/pharmacology; Clonidine/pharmacology; Flumazenil/pharmacology; Motor Activity/drug effects; Muscle Relaxants, Central/pharmacology; *Norepinephrine; Propranolol/pharmacology; Receptors, Adrenergic/*physiology; Receptors, GABA-A/*physiology; Receptors, Purinergic/*physiology; Social Behavior  
  Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism by which caffeine increases anxiety. Rats were tested in the social interaction test of anxiety after administration of caffeine (20 or 40 mg/kg) alone or in combination with various compounds. In order to investigate the role of adenosine receptors, caffeine was given in combination with 2-chloroadenosine (0.1 and 1 mg/kg). To investigate the role of benzodiazepine receptors, chlordiazepoxide (5 mg/kg), a benzodiazepine antagonist, flumazenil (RO 15-1788, 1 and 10 mg/kg) and a triazolobenzodiazepine U-43,465 (32 mg/kg) were used. Finally, an alpha 2-receptor agonist, clonidine (0.1 and 0.025 mg/kg) and a beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, DL-propranolol (5 mg/kg), were used to study the role of noradrenergic systems in the effects of caffeine. Caffeine (20 and 40 mg/kg) reduced the time spent in social interaction and this effect was antagonized by chlordiazepoxide, U-43,465 and DL-propranolol, but not by flumazenil, 2-chloroadenosine or clonidine. It was therefore concluded that the anxiogenic effect of caffeine was unlikely to be due to its effects at adenosine or benzodiazepine receptors. It is suggested that the reversal of caffeine's effects by chordiazepoxide may have been “functional,” i.e., merely a cancellation of two opposite effects. It is discussed whether the reversal of caffeine's effects by propranolol and U-43,465 are functional, or reflect a noradrenergic site of action.  
  Call Number Serial 1184  
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