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Author (up) Boggiano, M.M.; Wenger, L.E.; Turan, B.; Tatum, M.M.; Morgan, P.R.; Sylvester, M.D.
Title Eating tasty food to cope. Longitudinal association with BMI Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite
Volume 87 Issue Pages 365-370
Keywords *Adaptation, Psychological; Adolescent; Adult; *Body Mass Index; Body Weight; Bulimia/psychology; Cross-Sectional Studies; Eating/*psychology; Emotions; Feeding Behavior/psychology; Female; Humans; Linear Models; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Motivation; Obesity/psychology; Overweight/psychology; Reproducibility of Results; Risk Factors; Self Report; Students; Young Adult; Assessment; Binge-eating; Emotions; Motivation; Obesity; Reward
Abstract The goals of this study were to determine if a change in certain motives to eat highly palatable food, as measured by the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS), could predict a change in body mass index (BMI) over time, to assess the temporal stability of these motive scores, and to test the reliability of previously reported associations between eating tasty foods to cope and BMI. BMI, demographics, and scores on the PEMS and the Binge Eating Scale were obtained from 192 college students. Test-retest analysis was performed on the PEMS motives in groups varying in three gap times between tests. Regression analyses determined what PEMS motives predicted a change in BMI over two years. The results replicated previous findings that eating palatable food for Coping motives (e.g., to forget about problems, reduce negative feelings) is associated with BMI. Test-retest correlations revealed that motive scores, while somewhat stable, can change over time. Importantly, among overweight participants, a change in Coping scores predicted a change in BMI over 2 years, such that a 1-point change in Coping predicted a 1.76 change in BMI (equivalent to a 10.5 lb. change in body weight) independent of age, sex, ethnicity, and initial binge-eating status (Cohen's f(2) effect size = 1.44). The large range in change of Coping scores suggests it is possible to decrease frequency of eating to cope by more than 1 scale point to achieve weight losses greater than 10 lbs. in young overweight adults, a group already at risk for rapid weight gain. Hence, treatments aimed specifically at reducing palatable food intake for coping reasons vs. for social, reward, or conformity reasons, should help achieve a healthier body weight and prevent obesity if this motive-type is identified prior to significant weight gain.
Call Number Serial 1202
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Author (up) Cavedini, P.; Bassi, T.; Ubbiali, A.; Casolari, A.; Giordani, S.; Zorzi, C.; Bellodi, L.
Title Neuropsychological investigation of decision-making in anorexia nervosa Type Journal Article
Year 2004 Publication Psychiatry Research Abbreviated Journal Psychiatry Res
Volume 127 Issue 3 Pages 259-266
Keywords Adult; Analysis of Variance; Anorexia Nervosa/diagnosis/*psychology; Body Mass Index; Bulimia/epidemiology/psychology; Cognition Disorders/*diagnosis/*etiology; *Decision Making; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; Female; Gambling/psychology; Humans; Male; Neuropsychological Tests; Severity of Illness Index
Abstract Anorexia nervosa (AN) could be considered a form of obsessive-compulsive disorder in which an impairment of the cognitive domain related to decision-making was found. We explored this function in AN patients, as well as possible differences between restricting type and binge/purge type, with the aim of examining the hypothesis that AN is part of the obsessive-compulsive spectrum. Decision-making was assessed in 59 inpatients with AN and 82 control subjects using the Gambling task, which simulates real-life decision-making by assessing the ability to balance immediate rewards against long-term negative consequences. We confirmed the supposed deficit of decision-making in AN. However, restricting and binge eating/purge subtypes showed different patterns of decision-making impairment. Poor performance on the Gambling task is not a mere consequence of starvation and does not appear to be related to illness severity. The decision-making deficiency that some AN patients show is linked to those individual features that contribute to the phenomenological expression of the disorder.
Call Number Serial 91
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Author (up) Fernandez-del-Valle, M.; Larumbe-Zabala, E.; Villasenor-Montarroso, A.; Cardona Gonzalez, C.; Diez-Vega, I.; Lopez Mojares, L.M.; Perez Ruiz, M.
Title Resistance training enhances muscular performance in patients with anorexia nervosa: a randomized controlled trial Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication The International Journal of Eating Disorders Abbreviated Journal Int J Eat Disord
Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages 601-609
Keywords Adolescent; Analysis of Variance; Anorexia Nervosa/*physiopathology/therapy; Body Mass Index; Body Weight; Child; Female; Humans; Motor Skills; *Muscle Strength; *Resistance Training; agility test; anorexia nervosa; body mass index; detraining; resistance training; restricting type; strength test
Abstract OBJECTIVE: Low-intensity exercise applied in anorexia nervosa patients has been shown to have a harmless effect on body composition and to effect short-term improvements in muscular strength and agility. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a high-intensity resistance training program designed for adolescents to improve strength and agility in anorexia nervosa restricting-type patients (AN-R). METHODS: From a total of 36 female patients with AN-R, one group (intervention, n = 18) underwent a supervised high-intensity resistance training program lasting 8 weeks, and the other group with no exercise (control, n = 18). Body weight, body mass index, whole-body muscular strength, and agility were assessed before, after, and 4 weeks after training (detraining). RESULTS: Leg-press, bench-press, and lateral row tests improved significantly (p < 0.001) after 8 weeks of training compared with controls. Improvements were maintained after the detraining period. The training program also showed beneficial effects on agility. DISCUSSION: A high-intensity resistance training program adapted to the recommendations for adolescents in AN-R patients was effective and safe, improving muscular strength in the whole body and the ability to perform daily tasks. However, long-term maintenance of gains seems to be linked to the continuance of training or the use of a maintenance program.
Call Number Serial 1029
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Author (up) Fernandez-del-Valle, M.; Larumbe-Zabala, E.; Villasenor-Montarroso, A.; Cardona Gonzalez, C.; Diez-Vega, I.; Lopez Mojares, L.M.; Perez Ruiz, M.
Title Resistance training enhances muscular performance in patients with anorexia nervosa: a randomized controlled trial Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication The International Journal of Eating Disorders Abbreviated Journal Int J Eat Disord
Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages 601-609
Keywords Adolescent; Analysis of Variance; Anorexia Nervosa/*physiopathology/therapy; Body Mass Index; Body Weight; Child; Female; Humans; Motor Skills; *Muscle Strength; *Resistance Training; agility test; anorexia nervosa; body mass index; detraining; resistance training; restricting type; strength test
Abstract OBJECTIVE: Low-intensity exercise applied in anorexia nervosa patients has been shown to have a harmless effect on body composition and to effect short-term improvements in muscular strength and agility. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a high-intensity resistance training program designed for adolescents to improve strength and agility in anorexia nervosa restricting-type patients (AN-R). METHODS: From a total of 36 female patients with AN-R, one group (intervention, n = 18) underwent a supervised high-intensity resistance training program lasting 8 weeks, and the other group with no exercise (control, n = 18). Body weight, body mass index, whole-body muscular strength, and agility were assessed before, after, and 4 weeks after training (detraining). RESULTS: Leg-press, bench-press, and lateral row tests improved significantly (p < 0.001) after 8 weeks of training compared with controls. Improvements were maintained after the detraining period. The training program also showed beneficial effects on agility. DISCUSSION: A high-intensity resistance training program adapted to the recommendations for adolescents in AN-R patients was effective and safe, improving muscular strength in the whole body and the ability to perform daily tasks. However, long-term maintenance of gains seems to be linked to the continuance of training or the use of a maintenance program.
Call Number Serial 1076
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Author (up) Goldfield, G.S.; Adamo, K.B.; Rutherford, J.; Legg, C.
Title Stress and the relative reinforcing value of food in female binge eaters Type Journal Article
Year 2008 Publication Physiology & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Physiol Behav
Volume 93 Issue 3 Pages 579-587
Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Analysis of Variance; Body Mass Index; Body Weight; Bulimia/*physiopathology/*psychology; Computer Simulation; Feeding Behavior/physiology; Female; Food Preferences/physiology; Functional Laterality; Humans; Psychological Theory; *Reinforcement (Psychology); Stress, Psychological/*physiopathology
Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the independent and interactive effects of stress reactivity and binge eating (BE) status on changes in the relative reinforcing value of snack foods. The relative reinforcing value of snack foods was assessed in binge eaters and non-binge eaters across a stress-induction session (after 3-minutes of anticipation of giving a speech) or a control day (after 3-minutes of reading magazines), with order of conditions counterbalanced. Subjects were divided into four groups based on scores on the Binge Eating Scale (BES) and changes in perceived stress: Binge eaters/low stress reactivity (n=12), binge eaters/high stress reactivity (n=10), non-binge eaters/low stress reactivity (n=6), non-binge eaters/high stress reactivity (n=9). Dietary restraint, hunger, disinhibition, and hedonics were measured by self-report. Body composition was estimated by body mass index (BMI=weight in kilograms divided by height in metres squared). The relative reinforcing value of snack food was influenced differently by binge status and stress reactivity in the stress and control conditions (p<0.05). Binge eaters who reacted to stress earned more snack food points (p<0.001) in stress condition, but non-binge eaters who showed high stress reactivity earned less points for snack food in stress condition (p<0.05). This same pattern of results remained after statistically controlling for body mass index (BMI) and dietary restraint. Findings suggest that reactivity to interpersonal or ego-related stress increases the relative reinforcing value of food in binge eaters but decreases the relative reinforcing value of snack food in non-binge eaters, and these findings appear to be independent of dietary restraint and BMI.
Call Number Serial 1827
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Author (up) Horstmann, A.; Dietrich, A.; Mathar, D.; Possel, M.; Villringer, A.; Neumann, J.
Title Slave to habit? Obesity is associated with decreased behavioural sensitivity to reward devaluation Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite
Volume 87 Issue Pages 175-183
Keywords Adaptation, Physiological; Adult; Body Mass Index; Body Weight; Energy Intake; Feeding Behavior/*psychology; Health Behavior; Humans; Hunger; Hyperphagia/psychology; Linear Models; Male; Models, Biological; Motivation; Obesity/*psychology; *Reward; Satiation; Surveys and Questionnaires; Young Adult; Control of food intake; Devaluation; Goal-directed; Habitual; Obesity; Reward sensitivity
Abstract The motivational value of food is lower during satiety compared to fasting. Dynamic changes in motivational value promote food seeking or meal cessation. In obesity this mechanism might be compromised since obese subjects ingest energy beyond homeostatic needs. Thus, lower adaptation of eating behaviour with respect to changes in motivational value might cause food overconsumption in obesity. To test this hypothesis, we implemented a selective satiation procedure to investigate the relationship between obesity and the size of the behavioural devaluation effect in humans. Lean to obese men (mean age 25.9, range 19-30 years; mean BMI 29.1, range 19.2-45.1 kg/m(2)) were trained on a free operant paradigm and learned to associate cues with the possibility to win different food rewards by pressing a button. After the initial training phase, one of the rewards was devalued by consumption. Response rates for and wanting of the different rewards were measured pre and post devaluation. Behavioural sensitivity to reward devaluation, measured as the magnitude of difference between pre and post responses, was regressed against BMI. Results indicate that (1) higher BMI compared to lower BMI in men led to an attenuated behavioural adjustment to reward devaluation, and (2) the decrease in motivational value was associated with the decrease in response rate between pre and post. Change in explicitly reported motivational value, however, was not affected by BMI. Thus, we conclude that high BMI in men is associated with lower behavioural adaptation with respect to changes in motivational value of food, possibly resulting in automatic overeating patterns that are hard to control in daily life.
Call Number Serial 1264
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Author (up) Jansen, E.; Mulkens, S.; Emond, Y.; Jansen, A.
Title From the Garden of Eden to the land of plenty. Restriction of fruit and sweets intake leads to increased fruit and sweets consumption in children Type Journal Article
Year 2008 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite
Volume 51 Issue 3 Pages 570-575
Keywords Analysis of Variance; Body Mass Index; Child; Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena/physiology; Child, Preschool; Dietary Sucrose/*administration & dosage; Eating/*psychology; Energy Intake/physiology; Female; *Fruit; Humans; *Inhibition (Psychology); Male; Obesity/epidemiology/etiology/psychology; Parent-Child Relations; Parents/*psychology; Psychology, Child; Surveys and Questionnaires
Abstract Overweight is increasing rapidly in children, compelling researchers to seek for determinants of adverse food intake. In a previous experiment it was found that manipulating the restriction of attractive snacks increased the desirability and intake of these snacks. In the present study, we tested whether this paradoxical restricting effect is also seen in relatively less attractive but healthy food, i.e. fruit. Will fruit become more desirable through restriction, and will children eat more forbidden fruit than non-forbidden fruit? Two groups of young children were forbidden to eat fruits and sweets, respectively, whereas a control group was invited to eat everything. Desire for sweets remained high in the sweets-prohibition condition, whereas it decreased in the fruit-prohibition and no-prohibition conditions. No group differences were found regarding the desire for fruit. With respect to intake, children in both the fruit- and the sweets-prohibition condition consumed more of the formerly forbidden food during a taste session as compared to the no-prohibition condition. In addition, total food intake was higher in the two prohibition conditions than in the no-prohibition condition. These data indicate that the adverse effects of restriction apply to both attractive unhealthy and relatively less attractive but healthy food.
Call Number Serial 1691
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Author (up) Laan, D.J.; Leidy, H.J.; Lim, E.; Campbell, W.W.
Title Effects and reproducibility of aerobic and resistance exercise on appetite and energy intake in young, physically active adults Type Journal Article
Year 2010 Publication Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism = Physiologie Appliquee, Nutrition et Metabolisme Abbreviated Journal Appl Physiol Nutr Metab
Volume 35 Issue 6 Pages 842-847
Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Appetite Regulation--physiology; Body Mass Index; Cross-Over Studies; Energy Intake--physiology; Exercise--physiology; Female; Humans; Hunger; Male; Oxygen Consumption--physiology; Physical Fitness; Reproducibility of Results; Resistance Training; Young Adult
Abstract Appetite and meal energy intake (MEI) following aerobic (AEx) and resistance (REx) exercises were evaluated in 19 young, active adults. The participants completed duplicate 35-min sessions of AEx, REx, and sedentary control, and consumed an ad libitum pasta meal 30 min postsession. Hunger transiently decreased after AEx but was not influenced by REx. MEI was 14% to 18% higher after AEx and REx than control. These findings are consistent with exercise-stimulated ingestive behavior, not anorexia of exercise.
Call Number Serial 35
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Author (up) Pulley, C.; Galloway, A.T.; Webb, R.M.; Payne, L.O.
Title Parental child feeding practices: how do perceptions of mother, father, sibling, and self vary? Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite
Volume 80 Issue Pages 96-102
Keywords Body Mass Index; Child; Fathers; Feeding Behavior/*psychology; Female; Humans; Male; Mothers; *Parent-Child Relations; Siblings; Socioeconomic Factors; Surveys and Questionnaires; Child feeding practices; Eating behavior; Family systems; Parent-child interactions
Abstract Mothers are important contributors to the development of eating behavior in children, but less is known about the influence of fathers. The purpose of this study was to investigate family perceptions of parental child feeding practices. Seventy two-parent American families including a mother, father, and two biologically related children participated in the study. Participants completed parent and child versions of the Child Feeding Questionnaire that assessed perceptions of parental control in child feeding. Most family member reports were positively correlated, indicating agreement about the use of the examined parental feeding practices; however, some salient differences between the reported behaviors of mothers and fathers were uncovered. Mothers reported using higher levels of monitoring and responsibility than fathers. In addition, fathers and children reported higher levels of paternal pressure related to feeding compared with mothers. Mothers and fathers used more pressure and felt more responsible for feeding younger children compared with older children. One interaction revealed that older male siblings reported the highest level of pressure from fathers. Reported differences in parents' use of child feeding practices suggest that mothers and fathers may have distinct interactions with their children regarding food. Paternal feeding practices are likely to have unique implications for understanding the development of children's eating behavior.
Call Number Serial 1939
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Author (up) Rothgerber, H.
Title Can you have your meat and eat it too? Conscientious omnivores, vegetarians, and adherence to diet Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite
Volume 84 Issue Pages 196-203
Keywords Animal Welfare; Animals; *Attitude; Body Mass Index; Culture; *Diet; Diet Surveys; *Diet, Vegetarian; *Emotions; Female; *Food Habits; Food Industry; Guilt; Humans; Male; *Meat; *Morals; Seafood; Social Identification; Taste; Conscientious omnivores; Ethical meat eating; Humane meat; Meat disgust; Vegans; Vegetarians
Abstract As criticisms of factory farming continue to mount, an increasing number of individuals have changed their existing dietary practices. Perhaps the two most important food movements reacting against industrial farming are (1) vegetarianism, the avoidance of animal flesh; and (2) conscientious omnivorism (CO), the consumption of meat or fish only when it satisfies certain ethical standards. While the former group has been well-studied in the social science literature, there have been few, if any, studies specifically examining those who identify themselves as ethical meat eaters. The present research sought to determine if one particular diet was more greatly adhered to by its followers. Results revealed that COs were less likely to perceive their diet as something that they absolutely needed to follow, reported violating their diet more, felt less guilty when doing so, believed less in animal rights, were less disgusted by factory-farmed meat, rated its sensory characteristics more favorably, and were lower in ingroup identification than vegetarians. Mediation analysis demonstrated that differences in the amount of violations and guilt associated with these violations could in part be traced to practical and psychological factors, making it more difficult to follow conscientious omnivorism.
Call Number Serial 1288
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