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Author (up) Besson, M.; Schon, D. file  url
openurl 
  Title Comparison between language and music Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Abbreviated Journal Ann N Y Acad Sci  
  Volume 930 Issue Pages 232-258  
  Keywords Brain/*physiology; Humans; *Language; Mental Processes/*physiology; *Music  
  Abstract Similarities and differences between language and music processing are examined from an evolutionary and a cognitive perspective. Language and music cannot be considered single entities; they need to be decomposed into different component operations or levels of processing. The central question concerns one of the most important claims of the generative grammar theory, that is, the specificity of language processing: do the computations performed to process language rely on specific linguistic processes or do they rely on general cognitive principles? Evidence from brain imaging results is reviewed, noting that this field is currently in need of metanalysis of the available results to precisely evaluate this claim. A series of experiments, mainly using the event-related brain potentials method, were conducted to compare different levels of processing in language and music. Overall, results favor language specificity when certain aspects of semantic processing in language are compared with certain aspects of melodic and harmonic processing in music. By contrast, results support the view that general cognitive principles are involved when aspects of syntactic processing in language are compared with aspects of harmonic processing in music. Moreover, analysis of the temporal structure led to similar effects in language and music. These tentative conclusions must be supported by other brain imaging results to shed further light on the spatiotemporal dynamics of the brain structure-function relationship.  
  Call Number Serial 476  
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Author (up) Bialystok, E.; Feng, X. file  url
openurl 
  Title Language proficiency and executive control in proactive interference: evidence from monolingual and bilingual children and adults Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Brain and Language Abbreviated Journal Brain Lang  
  Volume 109 Issue 2-3 Pages 93-100  
  Keywords Adult; Brain/*physiology; Child; Female; Humans; *Language; Male; Mental Recall/*physiology; *Multilingualism; *Proactive Inhibition; Vocabulary  
  Abstract Two studies are reported in which monolingual and bilingual children (Study 1) and adults (Study 2) completed a memory task involving proactive interference. In both cases, the bilinguals attained lower scores on a vocabulary test than monolinguals but performed the same on the proactive interference task. For the children, bilinguals made fewer intrusions from previous lists even though they recalled the same number of words. For the adults, bilinguals recalled more words than monolinguals when the scores were corrected for differences in vocabulary. In addition, there was a strong effect of vocabulary in which higher vocabulary participants recalled more words irrespective of language group. These results point to the important role of vocabulary in verbal performance and memory. They also suggest that bilinguals may compensate for weaker language proficiency with their greater executive control to achieve the same or better levels of performance as monolinguals.  
  Call Number Serial 942  
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Author (up) Borre, Y.E.; Moloney, R.D.; Clarke, G.; Dinan, T.G.; Cryan, J.F. file  url
openurl 
  Title The impact of microbiota on brain and behavior: mechanisms & therapeutic potential Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology Abbreviated Journal Adv Exp Med Biol  
  Volume 817 Issue Pages 373-403  
  Keywords Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology; *Behavior; Brain/*physiology; Brain Diseases/therapy; Cognition; Humans; Intestines/microbiology; Microbiome; Microbiota/*physiology; Probiotics/pharmacology; Signal Transduction; Tryptophan/metabolism  
  Abstract There is increasing evidence that host-microbe interactions play a key role in maintaining homeostasis. Alterations in gut microbial composition is associated with marked changes in behaviors relevant to mood, pain and cognition, establishing the critical importance of the bi-directional pathway of communication between the microbiota and the brain in health and disease. Dysfunction of the microbiome-brain-gut axis has been implicated in stress-related disorders such as depression, anxiety and irritable bowel syndrome and neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism. Bacterial colonization of the gut is central to postnatal development and maturation of key systems that have the capacity to influence central nervous system (CNS) programming and signaling, including the immune and endocrine systems. Moreover, there is now expanding evidence for the view that enteric microbiota plays a role in early programming and later response to acute and chronic stress. This view is supported by studies in germ-free mice and in animals exposed to pathogenic bacterial infections, probiotic agents or antibiotics. Although communication between gut microbiota and the CNS are not fully elucidated, neural, hormonal, immune and metabolic pathways have been suggested. Thus, the concept of a microbiome-brain-gut axis is emerging, suggesting microbiota-modulating strategies may be a tractable therapeutic approach for developing novel treatments for CNS disorders.  
  Call Number Serial 2003  
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Author (up) Linden, D.J. file  url
openurl 
  Title Long-term synaptic depression in the mammalian brain Type Journal Article
  Year 1994 Publication Neuron Abbreviated Journal Neuron  
  Volume 12 Issue 3 Pages 457-472  
  Keywords Animals; Brain/*physiology; Cerebellum/physiology; Humans; Learning/physiology; Long-Term Potentiation; Mammals; Synapses/*physiology; Time Factors  
  Abstract A generally accepted hypothesis in neurobiology has been that at the cellular level, memories are stored, at least in part, as long-term alterations in the strength of synaptic tranmission. In recent years, considerable attention has been paid to persistent, use-dependent mechanisms that increase synaptic strength, which are collectively referred to as long-term potentiation (LTP). This review shall examine the opposite phenomenon, use-dependent decreases in synaptic strength, or long-term depression (LTD). LTD is a broad term that is used to describe synaptic depression according to several different learning rules and in a wide variety of brain structures.  
  Call Number Serial 948  
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Author (up) Malter Cohen, M.; Tottenham, N.; Casey, B.J. file  url
openurl 
  Title Translational developmental studies of stress on brain and behavior: implications for adolescent mental health and illness? Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal Neuroscience  
  Volume 249 Issue Pages 53-62  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adolescent Behavior/*physiology/psychology; Animals; Brain/*physiology; Humans; Mental Disorders/genetics/*metabolism/psychology; *Mental Health; Stress, Psychological/genetics/*metabolism/psychology; Translational Medical Research/*methods; Bdnf; BDNFmet; Mri; Met; P; Pi; Scr; Val; Val66met; adolescence; anxiety; brain-derived neurotrophic factor; emotion regulation; fMRI; fear; functional magnetic resonance imaging; magnetic resonance imaging; methionine; methionine in codon 66 of the BDNF protein; postnatal day; previously institutionalized; skin conductance response; stress; valine; valine-to-methionine substitution at codon 66; ventromedial prefrontal cortex; vmPFC  
  Abstract Adolescence is the transition from childhood to adulthood, with onset marked by puberty and the offset by relative independence from parents. Across species, it is a time of incredible change that carries increased risks and rewards. The ability of the individual to respond adequately to the mental, physical and emotional stresses of life during this time is a function of both their early environment and their present state. In this article, we focus on the effects that acute threat and chronic stress have on the brain and behavior in humans and rodents. First, we highlight developmental changes in frontolimbic function as healthy individuals transition into and out of adolescence. Second, we examine genetic factors that may enhance susceptibility to stress in one individual over another using translation from genetic mouse models to human neuroimaging. Third, we examine how the timing and nature of stress varies in its impact on brain and behavior. These findings are discussed in the context of implications for adolescent mental health and illness.  
  Call Number Serial 1971  
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