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Author (up) Eckel, L.A. file  url
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  Title The ovarian hormone estradiol plays a crucial role in the control of food intake in females Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Physiology & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Physiol Behav  
  Volume 104 Issue 4 Pages 517-524  
  Keywords Animals; Brain--physiology; Eating--physiology; Estradiol--physiology; Estrogen Receptor alpha--physiology; Estrogen Receptor beta--physiology; Female; Humans  
  Abstract Despite a strong male bias in both basic and clinical research, it is becoming increasingly accepted that the ovarian hormone estradiol plays an important role in the control of food intake in females. Estradiol's feeding inhibitory effect occurs in a variety of species, including women, but the underlying mechanism has been studied most extensively in rats and mice. Accordingly, much of the data reviewed here is derived from the rodent literature. Adult female rats display a robust decrease in food intake during estrus and ovariectomy promotes hyperphagia and weight gain, both of which can be prevented by a physiological regimen of estradiol treatment. Behavioral analyses have demonstrated that the feeding inhibitory effect of estradiol is mediated entirely by a decrease in meal size. In rats, estradiol appears to exert this action indirectly via interactions with peptide and neurotransmitter systems implicated in the direct control of meal size. Here, I summarize research examining the neurobiological mechanism underlying estradiol's anorexigenic effect. Central estrogen receptors (ERs) have been implicated and activation of one ER subtype in particular, ERalpha, appears both sufficient and necessary for the estrogenic control of food intake. Future studies are necessary to identify the critical brain areas and intracellular signaling pathways responsible for estradiol's anorexigenic effect. A clearer understanding of the estrogenic control of food intake is prerequisite to elucidating the biological factors that contribute to obesity and eating disorders, both of which are more prevalent in women, compared to men.  
  Call Number Serial 22  
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Author (up) Obermeier, C.; Dolk, T.; Gunter, T.C. file  url
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  Title The benefit of gestures during communication: evidence from hearing and hearing-impaired individuals Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior Abbreviated Journal Cortex  
  Volume 48 Issue 7 Pages 857-870  
  Keywords Adult; Brain--physiology; Communication; Comprehension--physiology; Evoked Potentials--physiology; Female; Gestures; Hearing Loss--physiopathology; Hearing Tests; Humans; Language; Male; Persons With Hearing Impairments; Speech--physiology; Speech Perception--physiology  
  Abstract There is no doubt that gestures are communicative and can be integrated online with speech. Little is known, however, about the nature of this process, for example, its automaticity and how our own communicative abilities and also our environment influence the integration of gesture and speech. In two Event Related Potential (ERP) experiments, the effects of gestures during speech comprehension were explored. In both experiments, participants performed a shallow task thereby avoiding explicit gesture-speech integration. In the first experiment, participants with normal hearing viewed videos in which a gesturing actress uttered sentences which were either embedded in multi-speaker babble noise or not. The sentences contained a homonym which was disambiguated by the information in a gesture, which was presented asynchronous to speech (1000 msec earlier). Downstream, the sentence contained a target word that was either related to the dominant or subordinate meaning of the homonym and was used to indicate the success of the disambiguation. Both the homonym and the target word position showed clear ERP evidence of gesture-speech integration and disambiguation only under babble noise. Thus, during noise, gestures were taken into account as an important communicative cue. In Experiment 2, the same asynchronous stimuli were presented to a group of hearing-impaired students and age-matched controls. Only the hearing-impaired individuals showed significant speech-gesture integration and successful disambiguation at the target word. The age-matched controls did not show any effect. Thus, individuals who chronically experience suboptimal communicative situations in daily life automatically take gestures into account. The data from both experiments indicate that gestures are beneficial in countering difficult communication conditions independent of whether the difficulties are due to external (babble noise) or internal (hearing impairment) factors.  
  Call Number Serial 503  
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