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Author (up) Cohen, C.; Welzl, H.; Battig, K. file  url
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  Title Effects of nicotine, caffeine, and their combination on locomotor activity in rats Type Journal Article
  Year 1991 Publication Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior Abbreviated Journal Pharmacol Biochem Behav  
  Volume 40 Issue 1 Pages 121-123  
  Keywords Animals; Caffeine/administration & dosage/*pharmacology; Cognition/drug effects; Drug Interactions/physiology; Drug Tolerance/physiology; Exploratory Behavior/drug effects; Male; Motor Activity/*drug effects; Nicotine/administration & dosage/*pharmacology; Rats; Rats, Inbred Strains  
  Abstract The interactive effect of caffeine and nicotine on spontaneous locomotor activity in a tunnel maze was determined in nicotine-naive and nicotine-tolerant rats. Rats were daily injected subcutaneously for 12 days with nicotine (0.4 mg/kg) to induce nicotine tolerance. Nicotine-naive rats were injected with saline. During the next two days, they were exposed to a tunnel maze for two 6-min trials. On the third day, locomotor activity was measured (30-min trial) in the tunnel maze 15 minutes after subcutaneous injection of saline, nicotine (0.2 mg/kg), caffeine (8 mg/kg), or nicotine (0.2 mg/kg) and caffeine (8 mg/kg) in combination. Acute exposure to nicotine decreased locomotor activity in nicotine-naive rats. This decrease was antagonized by simultaneous injection of caffeine. Chronic nicotine exposure induced the development of tolerance to the acute behavioral depressive effects of nicotine. In nicotine-tolerant rats, caffeine and nicotine in combination significantly increased locomotor activity above saline level, whereas given alone they had no significant stimulant effect. Neither chronic nicotine treatment nor acute drug treatments affected exploratory efficiency of rats.  
  Call Number Serial 1578  
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Author (up) Hilakivi, L.A.; Durcan, M.J.; Lister, R.G. file  url
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  Title Effects of caffeine on social behavior, exploration and locomotor activity: interactions with ethanol Type Journal Article
  Year 1989 Publication Life Sciences Abbreviated Journal Life Sci  
  Volume 44 Issue 8 Pages 543-553  
  Keywords Aggression/drug effects; Animals; Caffeine/administration & dosage/*pharmacology; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Drug Interactions; Ethanol/administration & dosage/*pharmacology; Exploratory Behavior/*drug effects; Male; Mice; Motor Activity/*drug effects; Social Behavior/*drug effects  
  Abstract The effects of caffeine and its interaction with ethanol were examined in a test of social behavior and a holeboard test of exploration and locomotion. Male mice were injected i.p. with 15, 30 or 60 mg/kg caffeine alone or in combination with 2 g/kg ethanol. The animals were then put in pairs into a familiar arena, or examined individually in the holeboard. Only the highest dose of caffeine (60 mg/kg) had a significant effect on the time spent in social interaction and motor activity in the social behavior test: both measures were reduced. The duration and frequency of avoidance-irritability behavior was dose-dependently increased by caffeine. In the holeboard, caffeine caused a dose-dependent increase in locomotor activity. 30 mg/kg caffeine reversed the ethanol-induced reduction of time spent in social interaction, and 60 mg/kg caffeine antagonized the ethanol-induced increase in locomotor activity in both the social behavior and holeboard tests. Caffeine's effects on ethanol-induced behavioral changes are compared with those of other drugs.  
  Call Number Serial 342  
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Author (up) Killgore, W.D.S.; Kahn-Greene, E.T.; Lipizzi, E.L.; Newman, R.A.; Kamimori, G.H.; Balkin, T.J. file  url
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  Title Sleep deprivation reduces perceived emotional intelligence and constructive thinking skills Type
  Year 2008 Publication Sleep Medicine Abbreviated Journal Sleep Med  
  Volume 9 Issue 5 Pages 517-526  
  Keywords *Adaptation, Psychological/drug effects; Adolescent; Adult; Assertiveness; *Awareness; Caffeine/administration & dosage; Culture; Defense Mechanisms; Double-Blind Method; *Emotions; Empathy; Female; Humans; Internal-External Control; Interpersonal Relations; Male; Personality Inventory; *Problem Solving/drug effects; Self Concept; Sleep Deprivation/drug therapy/*psychology; Superstitions/psychology; *Thinking; Young Adult  
  Abstract BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Insufficient sleep can adversely affect a variety of cognitive abilities, ranging from simple alertness to higher-order executive functions. Although the effects of sleep loss on mood and cognition are well documented, there have been no controlled studies examining its effects on perceived emotional intelligence (EQ) and constructive thinking, abilities that require the integration of affect and cognition and are central to adaptive functioning. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-six healthy volunteers completed the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQi) and the Constructive Thinking Inventory (CTI) at rested baseline and again after 55.5 and 58 h of continuous wakefulness, respectively. RESULTS: Relative to baseline, sleep deprivation was associated with lower scores on Total EQ (decreased global emotional intelligence), Intrapersonal functioning (reduced self-regard, assertiveness, sense of independence, and self-actualization), Interpersonal functioning (reduced empathy toward others and quality of interpersonal relationships), Stress Management skills (reduced impulse control and difficulty with delay of gratification), and Behavioral Coping (reduced positive thinking and action orientation). Esoteric Thinking (greater reliance on formal superstitions and magical thinking processes) was increased. CONCLUSIONS: These findings are consistent with the neurobehavioral model suggesting that sleep loss produces temporary changes in cerebral metabolism, cognition, emotion, and behavior consistent with mild prefrontal lobe dysfunction.  
  Call Number Serial 264  
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Author (up) Marriott, A.S. file  url
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  Title The effects of amphetamine, caffeine and methylphenidate on the locomotor activity of rats in an unfamiliar environment Type Journal Article
  Year 1968 Publication International Journal of Neuropharmacology Abbreviated Journal Int J Neuropharmacol  
  Volume 7 Issue 6 Pages 487-491  
  Keywords Amphetamine/administration & dosage/*pharmacology; Animals; Caffeine/administration & dosage/*pharmacology; Learning/*drug effects; Male; Methylphenidate/administration & dosage/*pharmacology; Motor Activity/*drug effects; Rats; Stimulation, Chemical  
  Abstract The effects of amphetamine, methylphenidate and caffeine were investigated on the locomotor activity of rats in a novel Y-maze situation. Parallel studies were made using locomotor wheels. Neither amphetamine nor caffeine increased Y-maze activity at doses which increased locomotor wheel activity. In contrast methylphenidate greatly increased activity in the Y-maze indicating a qualitative difference in the effects of this drug.  
  Call Number Serial 1577  
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Author (up) Shi, D.; Nikodijevic, O.; Jacobson, K.A.; Daly, J.W. file  url
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  Title Chronic caffeine alters the density of adenosine, adrenergic, cholinergic, GABA, and serotonin receptors and calcium channels in mouse brain Type Journal Article
  Year 1993 Publication Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology Abbreviated Journal Cell Mol Neurobiol  
  Volume 13 Issue 3 Pages 247-261  
  Keywords Animals; Brain Chemistry/*drug effects; Caffeine/administration & dosage/*pharmacology; Calcium Channels/*drug effects; Cerebellum/chemistry/drug effects; Cerebral Cortex/chemistry/drug effects; Corpus Striatum/chemistry/drug effects; Male; Mice; Receptors, Adrenergic/classification/drug effects; Receptors, Cholinergic/classification/drug effects; Receptors, Dopamine/analysis; Receptors, GABA/classification/drug effects; Receptors, Glutamate/analysis; Receptors, Neurotransmitter/*drug effects; Receptors, Purinergic P1/classification/drug effects; Receptors, Serotonin/classification/drug effects  
  Abstract 1. Chronic ingestion of caffeine by male NIH strain mice alters the density of a variety of central receptors. 2. The density of cortical A1 adenosine receptors is increased by 20%, while the density of striatal A2A adenosine receptors is unaltered. 3. The densities of cortical beta 1 and cerebellar beta 2 adrenergic receptors are reduced by ca. 25%, while the densities of cortical alpha 1 and alpha 2 adrenergic receptors are not significantly altered. Densities of striatal D1 and D2 dopaminergic receptors are unaltered. The densities of cortical 5 HT1 and 5 HT2 serotonergic receptors are increased by 26-30%. Densities of cortical muscarinic and nicotinic receptors are increased by 40-50%. The density of cortical benzodiazepine-binding sites associated with GABAA receptors is increased by 65%, and the affinity appears slightly decreased. The density of cortical MK-801 sites associated with NMDA-glutaminergic receptors appear unaltered. 4. The density of cortical nitrendipine-binding sites associated with calcium channels is increased by 18%. 5. The results indicate that chronic ingestion of caffeine equivalent to about 100 mg/kg/day in mice causes a wide range of biochemical alterations in the central nervous system.  
  Call Number Serial 357  
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