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Author (up) Aarestrup, F.M.; Bager, F.; Jensen, N.E.; Madsen, M.; Meyling, A.; Wegener, H.C. file  url
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  Title Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from food animals to antimicrobial growth promoters and related therapeutic agents in Denmark Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication APMIS : Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica Abbreviated Journal Apmis  
  Volume 106 Issue 6 Pages 606-622  
  Keywords Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents/*pharmacology; Bacteria/*drug effects/*isolation & purification; Bacterial Infections/drug therapy/veterinary; Cattle; Cattle Diseases/drug therapy/microbiology; Cecum/microbiology; Chickens/growth & development; Drug Resistance, Microbial; Feces/microbiology; Meat/*microbiology; Microbial Sensitivity Tests/veterinary; Poultry Diseases/drug therapy/microbiology; Swine/growth & development; Swine Diseases/drug therapy/microbiology  
  Abstract This study was conducted to describe the occurrence of acquired resistance to antimicrobials used for growth promotion among bacteria isolated from swine, cattle and poultry in Denmark. Resistance to structurally related therapeutic agents was also examined. Three categories of bacteria were tested: 1) indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium), 2) zoonotic bacteria (Campylobacter, Salmonella, Yersinia enterocolitica), and 3) animal pathogens (E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), Staphylococcus hyicus, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae). All antimicrobials used as growth promoters in Denmark and some structurally related therapeutic agents (in brackets) were included: Avilamycin, avoparcin (vancomycin), bacitracin, carbadox, flavomycin, monensin, olaquindox, salinomycin, spiramycin (erythromycin, lincomycin), tylosin (erythromycin, lincomycin), and virginiamycin (pristinamycin). Bacterial species intrinsically resistant to an antimicrobial were not tested towards that antimicrobial. Breakpoints for growth promoters were established by population distribution of the bacteria tested. A total of 2,372 bacterial isolates collected during October 1995 to September 1996 were included in the study. Acquired resistance to all currently used growth promoting antimicrobials was found. A frequent occurrence of resistance were observed to avilamycin, avoparcin, bacitracin, flavomycin, spiramycin, tylosin and virginiamycin, whereas resistance to carbadox, monensin, olaquindox and salinomycin was less frequent. The occurrence of resistance varied by animal origin and bacterial species. The highest levels of resistance was observed among enterococci, whereas less resistance was observed among zoonotic bacteria and bacteria pathogenic to animals. The association between the occurrence of resistance and the consumption of the antimicrobial is discussed. The results show the present level of resistance to growth promoters in bacteria from food animals in Denmark. They will form the baseline for comparison with future prospective studies, thereby enabling the determination of trends over time.  
  Call Number Serial 1676  
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Author (up) Edwards, R.G. file  url
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  Title Maturation in vitro of mouse, sheep, cow, pig, rhesus monkey and human ovarian oocytes Type Journal Article
  Year 1965 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume 208 Issue 5008 Pages 349-351  
  Keywords Animals; Cattle; *Cell Division; Culture Media; Female; Haplorhini; Humans; In Vitro Techniques; Mice; *Ovum; Sheep; Swine  
  Abstract “The investigation of early development in many mammalian species is restricted by the difficulty of obtaining sufficient numbers of oocytes and embryos at particular stages of development.”  
  Call Number Serial 1159  
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Author (up) Ikagawa, M. file  url
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  Title Invasive ungulate policy and conservation in Hawaii Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Pacific Conservation Biology Abbreviated Journal Pac. Conserv. Biol.  
  Volume 19 Issue 4 Pages 270  
  Keywords Feral cattle; Goats; Sheep  
  Abstract Feral Cattle Bos taurus, Goats Capra hircus, Sheep Ovis aries, and Pigs Sus scrofa have been modifying Hawaii’s native ecosystems since being introduced more than 200 years ago. Controlled rigorously in the early 1900s as pests, the animals have been increasing in number and range since the 1950s, when the rise of sport hunting resulted in take restrictions and the introduction of additional game species. Presently, free-roaming Pigs, Goats, Cattle, Sheep (both O. aries and the more recently introduced Mouflon O. gmelini mouflon) and deer Axis axis, Odocoileus hemionus are described in state reports and plans as high-threat invasive species, while simultaneously being protected under the law as game mammals. This study examines the statutes, rules and management practices pertaining to invasive ungulates in an island state with highly imperiled native ecosystems. This analysis reveals that Hawaii’s invasive-animal policy and management framework does not support the ungulate control needed to further state plans and mandates to preserve native species and watersheds. Lacking are laws that have been passed by other governments to reduce the spread and impacts of invasive vertebrates, such as maintaining a comprehensive vertebrate pest list, facilitating the control of such pests on all land ownerships, prohibiting the feeding and transport of vertebrate pests without a permit, and prohibiting the release of introduced vertebrates into the wild.  
  Call Number Serial 1346  
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Author (up) Moon, J.L.; Banbula, A.; Oleksy, A.; Mayo, J.A.; Travis, J. file  url
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  Title Isolation and characterization of a highly specific serine endopeptidase from an oral strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Biological Chemistry Abbreviated Journal Biol Chem  
  Volume 382 Issue 7 Pages 1095-1099  
  Keywords Amino Acid Sequence; Animals; Cattle; Complement C--chemistry; Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel; Fibrinogen--chemistry; Humans; Keratins--chemistry; Molecular Sequence Data; Molecular Weight; Mouth Diseases--microbiology; Protease Inhibitors--chemistry; Sequence Homology, Amino Acid; Serine Endopeptidases--chemistry, isolation & purification, metabolism; Staphylococcal Infections--microbiology; Staphylococcus epidermidis--enzymology  
  Abstract Infection by Staphylococcus epidermidis, an opportunistic pathogen, has become a major problem due to the increased use of implanted medical devices and the growing number of patients who are therapeutically or infectiously immunosuppressed. These infections appear to proceed via modulation of the coagulation and complement systems. In this communication we describe the purification and characterization of a novel extracellular proteinase from an oral strain of S. epidermidis that can degrade fibrinogen, complement protein C5, and several other proteins. This proteinase has a strong preference for cleavage after glutamic acid residues, but not after aspartic acid. The S. epidermidis enzyme may be a multifunctional protein which not only provides this organism with both the ability to evade the complement defense system and to dysregulate the coagulation cascade, but also supplies nutrients for its growth through the degradation of Glu-rich proteins.  
  Call Number Serial 52  
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Author (up) Pantoliano, M.W.; Valentine, J.S.; Burger, A.R.; Lippard, S.J. file  url
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  Title A pH-dependent superoxide dismutase activity for zinc-free bovine erythrocuprein. Reexamination of the role of zinc in the holoprotein Type Journal Article
  Year 1982 Publication Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry Abbreviated Journal J Inorg Biochem  
  Volume 17 Issue 4 Pages 325-341  
  Keywords Amino Acid Sequence; Animals; Blood Proteins/*metabolism; Cattle; Erythrocytes/*metabolism; Kinetics; Metalloproteins/*metabolism; Oxidation-Reduction; Protein Conformation; Superoxide Dismutase/*metabolism; Zinc/*pharmacology  
  Abstract The zinc-free derivative of bovine erythrocuprein, Cu2E2BE, was prepared and its superoxide dismutase activity was measured and compared with that of the holoprotein, Cu2Zn2BE. The dismutase activity of these proteins was measured by quantitating their inhibition of the superoxide-mediated autooxidation of 6-hydroxydopamine, dihydroxyfumaric acid, pyrogallol, and epinephrine. It was found that the superoxide dismutase activity of the zinc-free protein is pH dependent, ranging between 82 +/- 5% (relative to Cu2Zn2BE) at pH 5.8, and 25 +/- 10% at pH 10.2. The overlapping range of assays and buffers verified that these measurements are independent of the method of assay, buffer, and ionic strength (in the range of mu = 0.10 to 0.20). The variation in activity with pH is probably due, at least in part, to the migration of Cu(II) at high pH as described previously [J. S. Valentine, M. W. Pantoliano, P. J. McDonnell, A. R. Burger, and S. J. Lippard, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76, 4245 (1979)], since Cu(II) bound at the zinc binding site has been shown to have little or no dismutase activity. The observation of high activity (82%) for the zinc-free protein at pH 5.8, where Cu(II) is predominantly in the native Cu binding site, and less susceptible to removal by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, demonstrates that the presence of Zn(II) in Cu2Zn2BE does not greatly enhance the inherent dismutase activity of Cu(II) in the holoprotein.  
  Call Number Serial 124  
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