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Author (up) Kelly, J.B. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Children's adjustment in conflicted marriage and divorce: a decade review of research Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry  
  Volume 39 Issue 8 Pages 963-973  
  Keywords Adult; Child; Child of Impaired Parents/*psychology; Divorce/*psychology; Domestic Violence/*psychology; Humans; Marriage/*psychology; *Social Adjustment  
  Abstract OBJECTIVES: To review important research of the past decade in divorce, marital conflict, and children's adjustment and to describe newer divorce interventions. METHOD: Key empirical studies from 1990 to 1999 were surveyed regarding the impact of marital conflict, parental violence, and divorce on the psychological adjustment of children, adolescents, and young adults. RESULTS: Recent studies investigating the impact of divorce on children have found that many of the psychological symptoms seen in children of divorce can be accounted for in the years before divorce. The past decade also has seen a large increase in studies assessing complex variables within the marriage which profoundly affect child and adolescent adjustment, including marital conflict and violence and related parenting behaviors. This newer literature provides provocative and helpful information for forensic and clinical psychiatrists in their work with both married and divorcing families. CONCLUSIONS: While children of divorced parents, as a group, have more adjustment problems than do children of never-divorced parents, the view that divorce per se is the major cause of these symptoms must be reconsidered in light of newer research documenting the negative effects of troubled marriages on children.  
  Call Number Serial 285  
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Author (up) Khatib, Y.; Bhui, K.; Stansfeld, S.A. file  url
openurl 
  Title Does social support protect against depression & psychological distress? Findings from the RELACHS study of East London adolescents Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Journal of Adolescence Abbreviated Journal J Adolesc  
  Volume 36 Issue 2 Pages 393-402  
  Keywords Adolescent; Child; Confidence Intervals; Depression/ethnology/*prevention & control; Female; Humans; London; Male; Odds Ratio; Prospective Studies; *Social Support; Stress, Psychological/ethnology/*prevention & control; Surveys and Questionnaires  
  Abstract Few prospective studies have examined the relationship between social support and psychological distress and depressive symptoms in adolescents. The aims of this study were to test whether social support is protective against psychological distress and depressive symptoms in an ethnically diverse population of adolescents and whether differences in support are reflected by ethnic differences in psychological distress and depressive symptoms. Based on a longitudinal survey of 821 adolescents, this study found low levels of social support from family members was prospectively associated with depressive symptoms (OR = 2.25, 95% CI 1.43-3.54). Compared with White UK pupils, Black pupils were less likely to display psychological distress (OR = 0.21, 95% CI 0.09-0.51). However, social support did not explain the ethnic variations in psychological distress. Family environment may be a more consistent source of support compared with support from peers. The lower risk of psychological distress among Black pupils compared to White pupils requires further investigation.  
  Call Number Serial 1717  
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Author (up) Kim, H.; Ha, J.-S.; Park, J. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title High temperature, heat index, and mortality in 6 major cities in South Korea Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health Abbreviated Journal Arch Environ Occup Health  
  Volume 61 Issue 6 Pages 265-270  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Age Factors; Aged; Child; Child, Preschool; *Climate; Hot Temperature/*adverse effects; Humans; Infant; Korea/epidemiology; Middle Aged; Mortality/*trends; Time Factors; Urban Health/*trends  
  Abstract The authors conducted a time-series analysis to estimate the acute effects of high temperature in 6 cities in Korea and to compare thresholds of temperature on daily mortality among the cities. They examined the association between total mortality and the daily mean temperature and heat index during the summers in Korea from 1994 to 2003. The threshold temperature was estimated to be between 27.0 degrees C and 29.7 degrees C for 4 cities. For a daily mean temperature increase of 1 degrees C above the thresholds in Seoul, Daegu, Incheon, and Gwangju, estimated percentage increases in daily mortality were 16.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 14.2-18.4), 9.10 (CI = 5.12-13.2), 7.01 (CI = 4.42-9.66), and 6.73 (CI = 2.47-11.2), respectively. These city-specific threshold temperatures and the magnitude of the effects of hot temperature indicate that any analysis of the impact of climate change should take into account regional differences.  
  Call Number Serial 487  
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Author (up) Kressel, K.; Jaffee, N.; Tuchman, B.; Watson, C.; Deutsch, M. file  url
openurl 
  Title A typology of divorcing couples: implications for mediation and the divorce process Type Journal Article
  Year 1980 Publication Family Process Abbreviated Journal Fam Process  
  Volume 19 Issue 2 Pages 101-116  
  Keywords Adult; Child; Communication; Decision Making; Divorce--legislation & jurisprudence; Evaluation Studies as Topic; Family Characteristics; Humans; Male; Time Factors; United States  
  Abstract An experimental mediation procedure for the negotiation of divorce settlement agreements was studied through the intensive analysis of nine completed mediation cases. The audio recordings of mediation sessions and postdivorce interviews with both of the former marital partners provided the material on which the analysis is based. Five additional couples, drawn from a similar population but who used the traditional adversarial system, provided a comparative perspective. High levels of prenegotiation conflict and nonmutuality of the decision to divorce were negatively related to attitudes toward mediation and behavior during negotiations. The report focuses on four distinctive patterns of divorce decision-making. The typology is based on three primary dimensions: degree of ambivalence; frequency and openness of communication; and level and overtness of conflict. Couples exhibiting the enmeshed and autistic patterns of divorce were the most difficult for mediators to work with and had the poorest postdivorce adjustment; couples exhibiting the direct and disengaged conflict patterns fared better, both in mediation and in the postdivorce period. The potential importance of intercouple differences for the divorce mediation process and postdivorce adjustment are considered.  
  Call Number Serial 14  
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Author (up) Lanigan, J.D. file  url
openurl 
  Title The substance and sources of young children's healthy eating and physical activity knowledge: implications for obesity prevention efforts Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Child: Care, Health and Development Abbreviated Journal Child Care Health Dev  
  Volume 37 Issue 3 Pages 368-376  
  Keywords Child Development; Child Welfare; Child, Preschool; Drinking; Eating/*psychology; Exercise/*psychology; Female; *Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Humans; Information Dissemination/methods; Male; Motor Activity; Obesity/epidemiology/prevention & control; Preventive Health Services; Qualitative Research  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight among young children is increasing at an alarming rate. Global efforts to address the issue can benefit from understanding how young children's experiences across multiple contexts shape their perspectives of healthy weight. METHODS: This qualitative study examines the substance and sources of young American children's knowledge related to healthy eating, physical activity and media practices. Role play and semi-structured interviews were conducted in child-care settings with 81 children aged 3-5 who represented diverse socio-economic statuses and ethnic backgrounds. RESULTS: Children demonstrated better understanding of the benefits of healthy eating compared with physical activity. Snacks and beverages consumed outside mealtime were less likely to be healthy even among the 40% of children who demonstrated an understanding of healthy nutrition. The majority of children's leisure activity selections involved media and minimally active pursuits. Three quarters of the children were unable to articulate reasons for healthy choices or identify the sources of their health understandings. The media was listed as source of health information more frequently than adults. CONCLUSION: Obesity prevention efforts targeting young children need to use consistent messaging across all contexts in which children develop in order to increase their understanding that physical activity and eating choices support health. Efforts need to counter inaccurate information and address the rationale for health practices. Key gaps in young children's understanding include: the importance of drinking water, that snacks are part of nutritional intake and the benefits of engaging in physical activities.  
  Call Number Serial 2127  
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Author (up) Levenson, J.S.; D'Amora, D.A.; Hern, A.L. file  url
openurl 
  Title Megan's Law and its impact on community re-entry for sex offenders Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Behavioral Sciences & the law Abbreviated Journal Behav Sci Law  
  Volume 25 Issue 4 Pages 587-602  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Child; Child Abuse, Sexual/*legislation & jurisprudence/prevention & control; Connecticut; Data Collection; Female; Humans; Indiana; Male; *Mandatory Reporting; Middle Aged; Registries; *Residence Characteristics; *Social Adjustment  
  Abstract Community notification, known as “Megan's Law,” provides the public with information about known sex offenders in an effort to assist parents and potential victims to protect themselves from dangerous predators. The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of community notification on the lives of registered sex offenders. Two hundred and thirty-nine sex offenders in Connecticut and Indiana were surveyed. The negative consequences that occurred with the greatest frequency included job loss, threats and harassment, property damage, and suffering of household members. A minority of sex offenders reported housing disruption or physical violence following community notification. The majority experienced psychosocial distress such as depression, shame, and hopelessness. Recommendations are made for community notification policies that rely on empirically derived risk assessment classification systems in order to better inform the public about sex offenders' danger while minimizing the obstacles that interfere with successful community reintegration.  
  Call Number Serial 1964  
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Author (up) Liem, D.G.; Mars, M.; De Graaf, C. file  url
openurl 
  Title Sweet preferences and sugar consumption of 4- and 5-year-old children: role of parents Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 43 Issue 3 Pages 235-245  
  Keywords Adult; Child, Preschool; Diet Surveys; Dietary Sucrose/*administration & dosage; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Feeding Behavior/physiology/psychology; Female; Food Preferences/physiology/*psychology; Humans; Male; Parents/*psychology; Surveys and Questionnaires; Taste/physiology  
  Abstract We investigated the relationships in children between rules that restrict consumption of mono- and disaccharides (MDS), consumption of MDS and preferences for sucrose-containing orangeade. The background ideas of restriction rules we also investigated. To this end, 44 children (5.1+/-0.5 years) performed a rank-order and paired-comparison test of preference for five orangeades, which differed in sucrose concentration (0.14, 0.20, 0.29, 0.42, 0.61 M sucrose). Parents filled out a questionnaire concerning restriction rules and their children's consumption of MDS-containing foods. Stronger restriction rules were related to a lower consumption of beverages that contained MDS and to a lower consumption of MDS-containing foods during breakfast and lunch. The most freedom to choose foods that contain MDS was given during the afternoon. Fifty-five percent of the children who were highly restricted showed a preference for the highest concentration of sucrose in orangeade. None of these children preferred the orangeade with the lowest concentration of sucrose. While 19% of the children who were little restricted preferred the beverage with the lowest concentration of sucrose, 33% preferred the beverage with the highest concentration. These parents generally believed that sugar has a bad effect on health and had similar background ideas concerning restriction rules.  
  Call Number Serial 1942  
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Author (up) Lind, S.E. file  url
openurl 
  Title Memory and the self in autism: A review and theoretical framework Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Autism : the International Journal of Research and Practice Abbreviated Journal Autism  
  Volume 14 Issue 5 Pages 430-456  
  Keywords Autistic Disorder--physiopathology, psychology; Awareness; Child; Child, Preschool; Humans; Infant; Memory Disorders; Mental Recall; Recognition (Psychology); Self Concept  
  Abstract This article reviews research on (a) autobiographical episodic and semantic memory, (b) the self-reference effect, (c) memory for the actions of self versus other (the self-enactment effect), and (d) non-autobiographical episodic memory in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and provides a theoretical framework to account for the bidirectional relationship between memory and the self in ASD. It is argued that individuals with ASD have diminished psychological self-knowledge (as a consequence of diagnostic social and communication impairments), alongside intact physical self-knowledge, resulting in an under-elaborated self-concept. Consequently, individuals with ASD show impaired autobiographical episodic memory and a reduced self-reference effect (which may each rely on psychological aspects of the self-concept) but do not show specific impairments in memory for their own rather than others' actions (which may rely on physical aspects of the self-concept). However, it is also argued that memory impairments in ASD (e.g., in non-autobiographical episodic memory) may not be entirely accounted for in terms of self-related processes. Other factors, such as deficits in memory binding, may also play a role. Finally, it is argued that deficits in autobiographical episodic memory and future thinking may result in a diminished temporally extended self-concept in ASD.  
  Call Number Serial 59  
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Author (up) Lo, C.C.; Cheng, T.C. file  url
openurl 
  Title The impact of childhood maltreatment on young adults' substance abuse Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse Abbreviated Journal Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse  
  Volume 33 Issue 1 Pages 139-146  
  Keywords Adult; Child; Child Abuse/*statistics & numerical data; Child Abuse, Sexual/statistics & numerical data; Chronic Disease; Demography; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; Female; Humans; Male; Prevalence; Substance-Related Disorders/*epidemiology; Surveys and Questionnaires  
  Abstract Designed to establish a causal relationship between childhood victimization and young adults' substance abuse, this study also examined depression's role as mediator in that causal relationship. The study employs child-abuse measures that weigh both the type (sexual, physical) and the persistence of abuse. The study took as its substance-abuse measures the DSM-IV criteria for current alcohol abuse, current marijuana abuse, and current drug abuse. Data from the first 5 waves of the National Youth Survey (NYS) was employed, along with data from its 7th wave, to establish the temporal order needed to determine causal relationship. Childhood physical abuse proved a strong predictor of young adults' current substance abuse, although sexual abuse did not. Depression was shown to mediate the relationship of physical abuse to current alcohol abuse and current drug abuse, but not to current marijuana abuse.  
  Call Number Serial 1684  
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Author (up) Loeber, R.; Burke, J.D.; Lahey, B.B.; Winters, A.; Zera, M. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Oppositional defiant and conduct disorder: a review of the past 10 years, part I Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry  
  Volume 39 Issue 12 Pages 1468-1484  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Age of Onset; *Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders/diagnosis/epidemiology/psychology; Child; Comorbidity; *Conduct Disorder/diagnosis/epidemiology/psychology; Diagnosis, Differential; Female; Humans; Male; Prevalence; Prognosis; Sex Factors  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: To review empirical findings on oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD). METHOD: Selected summaries of the literature over the past decade are presented. RESULTS: Evidence supports a distinction between the symptoms of ODD and many symptoms of CD, but there is controversy about whether aggressive symptoms should be considered to be part of ODD or CD. CD is clearly heterogenous, but further research is needed regarding the most useful subtypes. Some progress has been made in documenting sex differences. Symptoms that are more serious, more atypical for the child's sex, or more age-atypical appear to be prognostic of serious dysfunction. Progress has been made in the methods for assessment of ODD and CD, but some critical issues, such as combined information from different informants, remains to be addressed. A proportion of children with ODD later develop CD, and a proportion of those with CD later meet criteria for antisocial personality disorder. ODD and CD frequently co-occur with other psychiatric conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Although major advances in the study of the prevalence and course of ODD and CD have occurred in the past decade, some key issues remain unanswered.  
  Call Number Serial 101  
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