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Author (up) Amato, P.R.
Title Children of divorce in the 1990s: an update of the Amato and Keith (1991) meta-analysis Type Journal Article
Year 2001 Publication Journal of Family Psychology : JFP : Journal of the Division of Family Psychology of the American Psychological Association (Division 43) Abbreviated Journal J Fam Psychol
Volume 15 Issue 3 Pages 355-370
Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Age Factors; Child; Child Psychology; Child, Preschool; Divorce--psychology; Educational Status; Female; Humans; Male; Marriage--psychology; Mental Health; Research Design; Self Concept; Sex Factors; Social Adjustment; United States--epidemiology
Abstract The present study updates the P. R. Amato and B. Keith (1991) meta-analysis of children and divorce with a new analysis of 67 studies published in the 1990s. Compared with children with continuously married parents, children with divorced parents continued to score significantly lower on measures of academic achievement, conduct, psychological adjustment, self-concept, and social relations. After controlling for study characteristics, curvilinear trends with respect to decade of publication were present for academic achievement, psychological well-being, self-concept, and social relations. For these outcomes, the gap between children with divorced and married parents decreased during the 1980s and increased again during the 1990s.
Call Number Serial 276
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Author (up) Amato, P.R.; Keith, B.
Title Parental divorce and the well-being of children: a meta-analysis Type Journal Article
Year 1991 Publication Psychological Bulletin Abbreviated Journal Psychol Bull
Volume 110 Issue 1 Pages 26-46
Keywords Adaptation, Psychological; Adolescent; Child; Child, Preschool; Divorce--psychology; Female; Humans; Male; Meta-Analysis as Topic; Parent-Child Relations; Personality Development
Abstract This meta-analysis involved 92 studies that compared children living in divorced single-parent families with children living in continuously intact families on measures of well-being. Children of divorce scored lower than children in intact families across a variety of outcomes, with the median effect size being .14 of a standard deviation. For some outcomes, methodologically sophisticated studies yielded weaker effect sizes than did other studies. In addition, for some outcomes, more recent studies yielded weaker effect sizes than did studies carried out during earlier decades. Some support was found for theoretical perspectives emphasizing parental absence and economic disadvantage, but the most consistent support was found for a family conflict perspective.
Call Number Serial 277
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Author (up) Angarne-Lindberg, T.; Wadsby, M.
Title Fifteen years after parental divorce: mental health and experienced life-events Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication Nordic Journal of Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal Nord J Psychiatry
Volume 63 Issue 1 Pages 32-43
Keywords *Adaptation, Psychological; Adjustment Disorders/*diagnosis/epidemiology/psychology; Adolescent; Adult; Adult Children/*psychology; Age Factors; Child; Child, Preschool; Cross-Sectional Studies; Divorce/*psychology; Female; Humans; Infant; *Life Change Events; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Middle Aged; Risk Factors; Sweden; Young Adult
Abstract The children who experienced their parents' divorce when the divorce rate in Sweden had begun to grow to higher levels than in preceding decades are today adults. The aim of this study was to investigate if adults who had experienced parental divorce 15 years before the time of our study, differed in mental health from those with continuously married parents, taking into account life events other than the divorce. Instruments used were the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) measuring mental health and the Life Event questionnaire capturing the number and experience of occurred events. Forty-eight persons, who were 7-18 years old when their parents divorced, constituted the divorce group, and 48 persons matched on age, sex and growth environment formed the study groups. The SCL-90 showed a limited difference between the groups, but not concerning total mental health. A main finding was a difference with regard to sex and age; women aged 22-27 in the divorce group displayed poorer mental health than other participants in both groups. The results from the Life Event questionnaire showed that the divorce group had experienced a significantly larger number of events, and more life events were described as negative with difficult adjustment. A regression analysis showed a significant relation between the SCL-90, Global Severity Index and life events experienced as negative with difficult adjustment, divorce events excluded, but not with the divorce itself. It seems highly desirable to pay more attention than has thus far been paid to girls with experience of childhood divorce at age 7-12.
Call Number Serial 278
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Author (up) Bailey, A.; Le Couteur, A.; Gottesman, I.; Bolton, P.; Simonoff, E.; Yuzda, E.; Rutter, M.
Title Autism as a strongly genetic disorder: evidence from a British twin study Type Journal Article
Year 1995 Publication Psychological Medicine Abbreviated Journal Psychol Med
Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 63-77
Keywords Abnormalities, Multiple/diagnosis/genetics/psychology; Adolescent; Adult; Autistic Disorder/diagnosis/*genetics/psychology; Child; Child, Preschool; Diseases in Twins/*genetics/psychology; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Great Britain; Humans; Infant; Infant, Newborn; Intelligence/genetics; Male; Models, Genetic; Personality Assessment; Pregnancy; Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects; Risk Factors; Social Adjustment; Social Environment; Twins, Dizygotic/genetics/psychology; Twins, Monozygotic/genetics/psychology
Abstract Two previous epidemiological studies of autistic twins suggested that autism was predominantly genetically determined, although the findings with regard to a broader phenotype of cognitive, and possibly social, abnormalities were contradictory. Obstetric and perinatal hazards were also invoked as environmentally determined aetiological factors. The first British twin sample has been re-examined and a second total population sample of autistic twins recruited. In the combined sample 60% of monozygotic (MZ) pairs were concordant for autism versus no dizygotic (DZ) pairs; 92% of MZ pairs were concordant for a broader spectrum of related cognitive or social abnormalities versus 10% of DZ pairs. The findings indicate that autism is under a high degree of genetic control and suggest the involvement of multiple genetic loci. Obstetric hazards usually appear to be consequences of genetically influenced abnormal development, rather than independent aetiological factors. Few new cases had possible medical aetiologies, refuting claims that recognized disorders are common aetiological influences.
Call Number Serial 1112
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Author (up) Birch, L.L.; Marlin, D.W.
Title I don't like it; I never tried it: effects of exposure on two-year-old children's food preferences Type Journal Article
Year 1982 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite
Volume 3 Issue 4 Pages 353-360
Keywords Age Factors; Child, Preschool; Feeding Behavior; *Food; *Food Preferences; Humans
Abstract The relationship between frequency of exposure to foods and preference for those foods was investigated in two experiments. Participants in both studies were two-year-old children. In Experiment 1, each of six children received 20, 15, 10, 5 or 2 exposures of five initially novel cheeses during a 26-day series of familiarization trials in which one pair of foods was presented per day. In Experiment 2, eight children received 20, 15, 10, 5 and 0 exposures to five initially novel fruits, following the same familiarization procedures, for 25 days. The particular food assigned to an exposure frequency was counterbalanced over subjects. Initial novelty was ascertained through food history information. Within ten days after the familiarization trials, children were given ten choice trials, comprising all possible pairs of the five foods. Thurstone scaling solutions were obtained for the series of choices: when the resulting scale values for the five stimuli were correlated with exposure frequency, values of r = 0·95, p < 0·02; r = 0·97, p < 0·01; and r = 0·94, p < 0·02 were obtained for the data of Experiments 1, 2, and the combined sample, respectively. A second analysis, employing subjects rather than stimuli as degrees of freedom, revealed that 13 of 14 subjects chose the more familiar stimulus in the sequence of ten choice trials at greater than the level expected by chance, providing evidence for effects within subjects as well as consistency across subjects. These results indicate that preference is an increasing function of exposure frequency. The data are consistent with the mere exposure hypothesis (Zajonc, 1968) as well as with the literature on the role of neophobia in food selection of animals other than man.

Subject Headings: Age Factors; Child, Preschool; Feeding Behavior; *Food; *Food Preferences; Humans

Keywords: I don't like it; I never tried it: effects of exposure on two-year-old children's food preferences
Call Number Serial 2686
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Author (up) Block, J.H.; Block, J.; Gjerde, P.F.
Title The personality of children prior to divorce: a prospective study Type Journal Article
Year 1986 Publication Child Development Abbreviated Journal Child Dev
Volume 57 Issue 4 Pages 827-840
Keywords Adolescent; Child; Child Development; Child, Preschool; *Divorce; Female; Humans; Intelligence; Male; *Personality; Personality Development; Prospective Studies; Sex Factors; Stress, Psychological/psychology
Abstract In a longitudinal study, the personalities of children from intact families at ages 3, 4, and 7 were reliably assessed by independent sets of raters using Q-items reflecting important psychological characteristics of children. A number of these families subsequently experienced divorce. The behavior of boys was found, as early as 11 years prior to parental separation or formal dissolution of marriage, to be consistently affected by what can be presumed to be predivorce familial stress. The behavior of boys from subsequently divorcing families was characterized by undercontrol of impulse, aggression, and excessive energy prior to parental divorce. The behavior of girls from subsequently divorcing families was found to be notably less affected by the stresses in families prior to parental divorce. The prospective relations afforded by the longitudinal analyses suggest that the behavior of conflicting, inaccessible parents during the preseparation period may have serious consequences for personality development, especially for boys. Hence, some characteristics of children commonly seen to be a consequence of divorce may be present prior to marital dissolution.
Call Number Serial 280
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Author (up) Broberg, D.J.; Bernstein, I.L.
Title Candy as a scapegoat in the prevention of food aversions in children receiving chemotherapy Type Journal Article
Year 1987 Publication Cancer Abbreviated Journal Cancer
Volume 60 Issue 9 Pages 2344-2347
Keywords Adolescent; Antineoplastic Agents/*adverse effects; *Avoidance Learning; *Candy; Child; Child, Preschool; Conditioning (Psychology); *Food Preferences; Humans; Nausea/chemically induced/*psychology
Abstract The effectiveness of a method for reducing the incidence of chemotherapy-induced learned food aversions was examined. Candy (coconut or rootbeer Lifesavers) was used as a scapegoat and given between the consumption of a meal and the administration of chemotherapy to determine whether this would lead to a greater willingness to consume items in that meal at a future test. This procedure produced evidence that the scapegoat had a significant protective effect: children were twice as likely to eat some portion of their test meal at the time of assessment if they had received the scapegoat at conditioning than when there was no intervention. Thus, the consumption of strongly flavored candies before chemotherapy appears to be a simple and effective way to reduce the impact of chemotherapy on preference for normal menu items.
Call Number Serial 219
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Author (up) Buu, M.M.C.; Sanders, L.M.; Mayo, J.A.; Milla, C.E.; Wise, P.H.
Title Assessing Differences in Mortality Rates and Risk Factors Between Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Patients With Cystic Fibrosis in California Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Chest Abbreviated Journal Chest
Volume 149 Issue 2 Pages 380-389
Keywords Adolescent; California/epidemiology; Child; Child, Preschool; Cystic Fibrosis/*mortality; *European Continental Ancestry Group; Female; Follow-Up Studies; *Hispanic Americans; Humans; Infant; Male; Outcome Assessment (Health Care)/*methods; Prevalence; Registries; Retrospective Studies; Risk Factors; Socioeconomic Factors; Survival Rate/trends; cystic fibrosis; ethnicity; health disparities; pediatric pulmonology
Abstract BACKGROUND: Over the past 30 years, therapeutic advances have extended the median lifespan of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Hispanic patients are a vulnerable subpopulation with a high prevalence of risk factors for worse health outcomes. The consequences of these differences on health outcomes have not been well described. The objective of this study was to characterize the difference in health outcomes, including mortality rate, between Hispanic and non-Hispanic patients with CF. METHODS: This study is a retrospective analysis of CF Foundation Patient Registry data of California residents with CF, diagnosed during or after 1991, from 1991 to 2010. Ethnicity was self-reported. The primary outcome was mortality. Hazard ratios were estimated from a Cox regression model, stratified by sex, and adjusted for socioeconomic status, clinical risk factors, and year of diagnosis. RESULTS: Of 1,719 patients, 485 (28.2%) self-identified as Hispanic. Eighty-five deaths occurred, with an overall mortality rate of 4.9%. The unadjusted mortality rate was higher among Hispanic patients than among non-Hispanic patients (9.1% vs 3.3%, P < .0001). Compared with non-Hispanic patients, Hispanic patients had a lower survival rate 18 years after diagnosis (75.9% vs 91.5%, P < .0001). Adjusted for socioeconomic status and clinical risk factors, Hispanic patients had an increased rate of death compared with non-Hispanic patients (hazard ratio, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.70-4.63). CONCLUSIONS: Hispanic patients with CF have a higher mortality rate than do non-Hispanic patients, even after adjusting for socioeconomic status and clinical severity. Further investigation into the mechanism for the measured difference in lung function will help inform interventions and improve the health of all patients with CF.
Call Number Serial 1377
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Author (up) Cattaneo, L.; Fabbri-Destro, M.; Boria, S.; Pieraccini, C.; Monti, A.; Cossu, G.; Rizzolatti, G.
Title Impairment of actions chains in autism and its possible role in intention understanding Type Journal Article
Year 2007 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
Volume 104 Issue 45 Pages 17825-17830
Keywords Autistic Disorder--physiopathology; Child; Child, Preschool; Comprehension--physiology; Electromyography; Female; Humans; Intelligence; Intention; Male; Motor Activity; Perception--physiology; Reference Values
Abstract Experiments in monkeys demonstrated that many parietal and premotor neurons coding a specific motor act (e.g., grasping) show a markedly different activation when this act is part of actions that have different goals (e.g., grasping for eating vs. grasping for placing). Many of these “action-constrained” neurons have mirror properties firing selectively to the observation of the initial motor act of the actions to which they belong motorically. By activating a specific action chain from its very outset, this mechanism allows the observers to have an internal copy of the whole action before its execution, thus enabling them to understand directly the agent's intention. Using electromyographic recordings, we show that a similar chained organization exists in typically developing children, whereas it is impaired in children with autism. We propose that, as a consequence of this functional impairment, high-functioning autistic children may understand the intentions of others cognitively but lack the mechanism for understanding them experientially.
Call Number Serial 18
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Author (up) Dales, L.; Hammer, S.J.; Smith, N.J.
Title Time trends in autism and in MMR immunization coverage in California Type Journal Article
Year 2001 Publication Jama Abbreviated Journal Jama
Volume 285 Issue 9 Pages 1183-1185
Keywords Autistic Disorder/*epidemiology/*etiology; California/epidemiology; Child; Child, Preschool; Humans; Infant; Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/*adverse effects; Retrospective Studies; Vaccination/*statistics & numerical data
Abstract CONTEXT: Considerable concern has been generated in the lay and medical communities by a theory that increased measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) immunization among young children may be the cause of an apparent marked increase in autism occurrence. OBJECTIVE: To determine if a correlation exists in secular trends of MMR immunization coverage among young children and autism occurrence. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Retrospective analyses of MMR immunization coverage rates among children born in 1980-1994 who were enrolled in California kindergartens (survey samples of 600-1900 children each year) and whose school immunization records were reviewed to retrospectively determine the age at which they first received MMR immunization; and of autism caseloads among children born in these years who were diagnosed with autism and were enrolled in the California Department of Developmental Services regional service center system. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Measles-mumps-rubella immunization coverage rates as of ages 17 months and 24 months and numbers of Department of Developmental Services system enrollees diagnosed with autism, grouped by year of birth. RESULTS: Essentially no correlation was observed between the secular trend of early childhood MMR immunization rates in California and the secular trend in numbers of children with autism enrolled in California's regional service center system. For the 1980-1994 birth cohorts, a marked, sustained increase in autism case numbers was noted, from 44 cases per 100 000 live births in the 1980 cohort to 208 cases per 100 000 live births in the 1994 cohort (a 373% relative increase), but changes in early childhood MMR immunization coverage over the same time period were much smaller and of shorter duration. Immunization coverage by the age of 24 months increased from 72% to 82%, a relative increase of only 14%, over the same time period. CONCLUSIONS: These data do not suggest an association between MMR immunization among young children and an increase in autism occurrence.
Call Number Serial 1120
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