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Author Schechter, D.S.; Coots, T.; Zeanah, C.H.; Davies, M.; Coates, S.W.; Trabka, K.A.; Marshall, R.D.; Liebowitz, M.R.; Myers, M.M. file  url
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Title Maternal mental representations of the child in an inner-city clinical sample: violence-related posttraumatic stress and reflective functioning Type Journal Article
Year 2005 Publication Attachment & Human Development Abbreviated Journal Attach Hum Dev  
Volume 7 Issue 3 Pages 313-331  
Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Analysis of Variance; Child Abuse/prevention & control/psychology; Child of Impaired Parents/psychology; Child, Preschool; Female; Humans; Infant; Logistic Models; *Mental Processes; Middle Aged; *Mother-Child Relations; Parenting/*psychology; Poverty Areas; Risk Factors; *Social Perception; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/*psychology; United States; Violence/*psychology  
Abstract Parental mental representations of the child have been described in the clinical literature as potentially useful risk-indicators for the intergenerational transmission of violent trauma. This study explored factors associated with the quality and content of maternal mental representations of her child and relationship with her child within an inner-city sample of referred, traumatized mothers. Specifically, it examined factors that have been hypothesized to support versus interfere with maternal self- and mutual-regulation of affect: posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and maternal reflective functioning (RF). More severe PTSD, irrespective of level of RF, was significantly associated with the distorted classification of non-balanced mental representations on the Working Model of the Child Interview (WMCI) within this traumatized sample. Higher Levels of RF, irrespective of PTSD severity, were significantly associated with the balanced classification of maternal mental representations on the WMCI. Level of maternal reflective functioning and severity of PTSD were not significantly correlated in this sample. Clinical implications are discussed.  
Call Number Serial 2171  
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Author Lanigan, J.D. file  url
openurl 
Title The substance and sources of young children's healthy eating and physical activity knowledge: implications for obesity prevention efforts Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Child: Care, Health and Development Abbreviated Journal Child Care Health Dev  
Volume 37 Issue 3 Pages 368-376  
Keywords Child Development; Child Welfare; Child, Preschool; Drinking; Eating/*psychology; Exercise/*psychology; Female; *Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Humans; Information Dissemination/methods; Male; Motor Activity; Obesity/epidemiology/prevention & control; Preventive Health Services; Qualitative Research  
Abstract BACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight among young children is increasing at an alarming rate. Global efforts to address the issue can benefit from understanding how young children's experiences across multiple contexts shape their perspectives of healthy weight. METHODS: This qualitative study examines the substance and sources of young American children's knowledge related to healthy eating, physical activity and media practices. Role play and semi-structured interviews were conducted in child-care settings with 81 children aged 3-5 who represented diverse socio-economic statuses and ethnic backgrounds. RESULTS: Children demonstrated better understanding of the benefits of healthy eating compared with physical activity. Snacks and beverages consumed outside mealtime were less likely to be healthy even among the 40% of children who demonstrated an understanding of healthy nutrition. The majority of children's leisure activity selections involved media and minimally active pursuits. Three quarters of the children were unable to articulate reasons for healthy choices or identify the sources of their health understandings. The media was listed as source of health information more frequently than adults. CONCLUSION: Obesity prevention efforts targeting young children need to use consistent messaging across all contexts in which children develop in order to increase their understanding that physical activity and eating choices support health. Efforts need to counter inaccurate information and address the rationale for health practices. Key gaps in young children's understanding include: the importance of drinking water, that snacks are part of nutritional intake and the benefits of engaging in physical activities.  
Call Number Serial 2127  
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Author Shaheen, S. file  url
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Title How child's play impacts executive function--related behaviors Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Applied Neuropsychology. Child Abbreviated Journal Appl Neuropsychol Child  
Volume 3 Issue 3 Pages 182-187  
Keywords Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/rehabilitation; Autistic Disorder/physiopathology/rehabilitation; Child; Child, Preschool; Developmental Disabilities/physiopathology/rehabilitation; *Evidence-Based Medicine; Executive Function/*physiology; Humans; Infant; Kinesthesis; Learning/*physiology; Play Therapy/*methods; *Play and Playthings; Treatment Outcome; Teams; Tools of the Mind; executive function; interventions; play; self-regulation  
Abstract Executive functions refer to an array of organizing and self-regulating behaviors often associated with maturation of the prefrontal cortex. In fact, young children with rudimentary neurodevelopment of the prefrontal cortex develop ways to inhibit impulses and regulate behavior from a very early age. Can executive functioning be impacted by intervention, practice, or training? What interventions impact development of executive function in childhood, and how can these be studied? Several programs are reviewed that propose to positively impact executive/self-regulation skills. Evidence-based programs are contrasted with popular programs that have little empirical basis but have apparent wide acceptance by educators and families. As self-regulation has critical implications for later school and life success, interventions may well attenuate the negative consequences of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, brain injury, and social stressors. Programs with active play components may be more successful in eliciting improved executive function (defined here as self-regulation) because of the importance of motor learning early on and because of the social motivation aspects of learning. Caution is advised in the recommendation of programs where there is little empirical basis to support program claims. Carefully planned outcome studies can help bring the most effective components of programs to the mainstream.  
Call Number Serial 2007  
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Author Ruokolainen, L.; von Hertzen, L.; Fyhrquist, N.; Laatikainen, T.; Lehtomaki, J.; Auvinen, P.; Karvonen, A.M.; Hyvarinen, A.; Tillmann, V.; Niemela, O.; Knip, M.; Haahtela, T.; Pekkanen, J.; Hanski, I. file  url
openurl 
Title Green areas around homes reduce atopic sensitization in children Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Allergy Abbreviated Journal Allergy  
Volume 70 Issue 2 Pages 195-202  
Keywords Adolescent; Agriculture; Allergens/immunology; Child; Child, Preschool; Environment; *Environmental Exposure; Estonia/epidemiology; Female; Finland/epidemiology; *Forests; *Housing; Humans; Hypersensitivity, Immediate/*epidemiology/*etiology; Immunoglobulin E/blood/immunology; Infant; Male; Microbiome; Microbiota; Odds Ratio; Prevalence; Skin/immunology/microbiology; Young Adult; Proteobacteria; allergen-specific IgE; biodiversity hypothesis; farming environment; skin microbiota  
Abstract BACKGROUND: Western lifestyle is associated with high prevalence of allergy, asthma and other chronic inflammatory disorders. To explain this association, we tested the 'biodiversity hypothesis', which posits that reduced contact of children with environmental biodiversity, including environmental microbiota in natural habitats, has adverse consequences on the assembly of human commensal microbiota and its contribution to immune tolerance. METHODS: We analysed four study cohorts from Finland and Estonia (n = 1044) comprising children and adolescents aged 0.5-20 years. The prevalence of atopic sensitization was assessed by measuring serum IgE specific to inhalant allergens. We calculated the proportion of five land-use types--forest, agricultural land, built areas, wetlands and water bodies--in the landscape around the homes using the CORINE2006 classification. RESULTS: The cover of forest and agricultural land within 2-5 km from the home was inversely and significantly associated with atopic sensitization. This relationship was observed for children 6 years of age and older. Land-use pattern explained 20% of the variation in the relative abundance of Proteobacteria on the skin of healthy individuals, supporting the hypothesis of a strong environmental effect on the commensal microbiota. CONCLUSIONS: The amount of green environment (forest and agricultural land) around homes was inversely associated with the risk of atopic sensitization in children. The results indicate that early-life exposure to green environments is especially important. The environmental effect may be mediated via the effect of environmental microbiota on the commensal microbiota influencing immunotolerance.  
Call Number Serial 1985  
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Author O'Doherty, K.; Troseth, G.L.; Shimpi, P.M.; Goldenberg, E.; Akhtar, N.; Saylor, M.M. file  url
openurl 
Title Third-party social interaction and word learning from video Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Child Development Abbreviated Journal Child Dev  
Volume 82 Issue 3 Pages 902-915  
Keywords Attention; Child, Preschool; Comprehension; Cues; Female; Humans; Imitative Behavior; *Interpersonal Relations; *Language Development; Male; *Social Environment; *Speech Perception; Television; *Verbal Learning; *Video Recording  
Abstract In previous studies, very young children have learned words while “overhearing” a conversation, yet they have had trouble learning words from a person on video. In Study 1, 64 toddlers (mean age=29.8 months) viewed an object-labeling demonstration in 1 of 4 conditions. In 2, the speaker (present or on video) directly addressed the child, and in 2, the speaker addressed another adult who was present or was with her on video. Study 2 involved 2 follow-up conditions with 32 toddlers (mean age=30.4 months). Across the 2 studies, the results indicated that toddlers learned words best when participating in or observing a reciprocal social interaction with a speaker who was present or on video.  
Call Number Serial 1969  
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