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Author (up) Angarne-Lindberg, T.; Wadsby, M. file  url
  Title Fifteen years after parental divorce: mental health and experienced life-events Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Nordic Journal of Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal Nord J Psychiatry  
  Volume 63 Issue 1 Pages 32-43  
  Keywords *Adaptation, Psychological; Adjustment Disorders/*diagnosis/epidemiology/psychology; Adolescent; Adult; Adult Children/*psychology; Age Factors; Child; Child, Preschool; Cross-Sectional Studies; Divorce/*psychology; Female; Humans; Infant; *Life Change Events; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Middle Aged; Risk Factors; Sweden; Young Adult  
  Abstract The children who experienced their parents' divorce when the divorce rate in Sweden had begun to grow to higher levels than in preceding decades are today adults. The aim of this study was to investigate if adults who had experienced parental divorce 15 years before the time of our study, differed in mental health from those with continuously married parents, taking into account life events other than the divorce. Instruments used were the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) measuring mental health and the Life Event questionnaire capturing the number and experience of occurred events. Forty-eight persons, who were 7-18 years old when their parents divorced, constituted the divorce group, and 48 persons matched on age, sex and growth environment formed the study groups. The SCL-90 showed a limited difference between the groups, but not concerning total mental health. A main finding was a difference with regard to sex and age; women aged 22-27 in the divorce group displayed poorer mental health than other participants in both groups. The results from the Life Event questionnaire showed that the divorce group had experienced a significantly larger number of events, and more life events were described as negative with difficult adjustment. A regression analysis showed a significant relation between the SCL-90, Global Severity Index and life events experienced as negative with difficult adjustment, divorce events excluded, but not with the divorce itself. It seems highly desirable to pay more attention than has thus far been paid to girls with experience of childhood divorce at age 7-12.  
  Call Number Serial 278  
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Author (up) Bandura, A.; Ross, D.; Ross, S.A. file  url
  Title Transmission of aggression through imitation of aggressive models Type Journal Article
  Year 1961 Publication Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology Abbreviated Journal J Abnorm Soc Psychol  
  Volume 63 Issue Pages 575-582  
  Keywords *Aggression; Humans; Children; Imitation; Model; Behavior  
  Abstract In a previous study, children imitated the behavior of a model in the presence of the model. The present study investigated the degree of imitation when the model was not present. Degree to which like-sexed model behavior would be followed was also studied. Nursery school children exposed to aggressively behaving models tended to imitate not only their aggressiveness but other behavior as well. There was some confirmation of like-sex imitation. The results were related to the psychoanalytic theory of identification.  
  Call Number Serial 1654  
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Author (up) Bogels, S.M.; Lehtonen, A.; Restifo, K. file  url
  Title Mindful Parenting in Mental Health Care Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Mindfulness Abbreviated Journal Mindfulness (N Y)  
  Volume 1 Issue 2 Pages 107-120  
  Keywords Mindfulness; Meditation; Mental health; Parenting; Children; Attention  
  Abstract Mindfulness is a form of meditation based on the Buddhist tradition, which has been used over the last two decades to successfully treat a multitude of mental health problems. Bringing mindfulness into parenting (“mindful parenting”) is one of the applications of mindfulness. Mindful parenting interventions are increasingly being used to help prevent and treat mental disorders in children, parenting problems, and prevent intergenerational transmission of mental disorders from parents to children. However, to date, few studies have examined the hypothesized mechanisms of change brought about by mindful parenting. We discuss six possible mechanisms through which mindful parenting may bring about change in parent-child interactions in the context of child and parent mental health problems. These mechanisms are hypothesized to be mediated by the effects of mindfulness on parental attention by: (1) reducing parental stress and resulting parental reactivity; (2) reducing parental preoccupation resulting from parental and/or child psychopathology; (3) improving parental executive functioning in impulsive parents; (4) breaking the cycle of intergenerational transmission of dysfunctional parenting schemas and habits; (5) increasing self-nourishing attention; and (6) improving marital functioning and co-parenting. We review research that has applied mindful parenting in mental health settings, with a focus on evidence for these six mechanisms. Finally, we discuss directions for future research into mindful parenting and the crucial questions that this research should strive to answer.  
  Call Number Serial 947  
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Author (up) Brinkman, B.G.; Rabenstein, K.L.; Rosen, L.A.; Zimmerman, T.S. file  url
  Title Children's Gender Identity Development: The Dynamic Negotiation Process Between Conformity and Authenticity Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Youth & Society Abbreviated Journal Youth & Society  
  Volume 46 Issue 6 Pages 835-852  
  Keywords Gender identity; Children; Focus groups  
  Abstract In the current study, 45 girls and 41 boys participated in focus groups following a program designed to teach them about social justice. The children articulated the discrepancy between their own gender identity and gender role stereotypes and discussed potential problems with conforming to gender role expectations as well as consequences of nonconformity. They articulated the ways in which gender identity is complex and they described the importance of choice and authenticity. Based on these findings, we present a model of how children’s gender identity develops in relationship to experiences of gender prejudice. In particular, we highlight how children act and react to gender role socialization as part of a dynamic negotiation process. Throughout the current article we strive to highlight the need for an alternative in the gender conformity process for children, with children in the position of power regarding their own gender identity development.  
  Call Number USED BY MULTIPLE STUDENTS Serial 1057  
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Author (up) Butkowsky, I.S.; Willows, D.M. file  url
  Title Cognitive-motivational characteristics of children varying in reading ability: Evidence for learned helplessness in poor readers Type Journal Article
  Year 1980 Publication Journal of Educational Psychology Abbreviated Journal Journal of Educational Psychology  
  Volume 72 Issue 3 Pages 408-422  
  Keywords Reading difficulties; Children; Self-perception  
  Abstract Employing a cognitive-motivational analysis, the present investigation sought to determine some specific self-perceptions that might contribute to motivational and performance deficits observed in children with reading difficulties. 72 5th-grade boys of relatively good, average, and poor reading ability were assessed on tasks in which success and failure were manipulated. Consistent with predictions, poor readers displayed characteristics indicative of learned helplessness and low self-concepts of ability. These included significantly lower initial estimates of success, less persistence, attribution of failures to lack of ability and of successes to factors beyond personal control, and greater decrements in expectancy of success following failure. (30 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)  
  Call Number Serial 2067  
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Author (up) Elsbernd, S.L.; Reicks, M.M.; Mann, T.L.; Redden, J.P.; Mykerezi, E.; Vickers, Z.M. file  url
  Title Serving vegetables first: A strategy to increase vegetable consumption in elementary school cafeterias Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 96 Issue Pages 111-115  
  Keywords Bell peppers; Children; School lunch; Vegetable consumption  
  Abstract Vegetable consumption in the United States is low despite the wealth of evidence that vegetables play an important role in reducing risk of various chronic diseases. Because eating patterns developed in childhood continue through adulthood, we need to form healthy eating habits in children. The objective of this study was to determine if offering vegetables before other meal components would increase the overall consumption of vegetables at school lunch. We served kindergarten through fifth-grade students a small portion (26-33 g) of a raw vegetable (red and yellow bell peppers) while they waited in line to receive the rest of their lunch meal. They then had the options to take more of the bell peppers, a different vegetable, or no vegetable from the lunch line. We measured the amount of each vegetable consumed by each child. Serving vegetables first greatly increased the number of students eating vegetables. On intervention days most of the vegetables consumed came from the vegetables-first portions. Total vegetable intake per student eating lunch was low because most students chose to not eat vegetables, but the intervention significantly increased this value. Serving vegetables first is a viable strategy to increase vegetable consumption in elementary schools. Long-term implementation of this strategy may have an important impact on healthy eating habits, vegetable consumption, and the health consequences of vegetable intake.  
  Call Number Serial 1258  
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Author (up) Fabes, R.A.; Martin, C.L.; Hanish, L.D. file  url
  Title The Next 50 Years: Considering Gender as a Context for Understanding Young Children's Peer Relationships Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Merrill-Palmer Quarterly Abbreviated Journal Merrill-Palmer Quarterly  
  Volume 50 Issue 3 Pages 260-273  
  Keywords Children's peer relationships  
  Abstract The study of children's peer relationships has been well represented within the pages of Merrill-Palmer Quarterly. Particularly over the last decade, the pace of publishing studies on peer relationships has increased. Despite this upswing in interest in peer relationships, significant gaps remain. In this article, we focus on a particularly overlooked and significant area of peer relationships, namely, the role of sex-segregated peer interactions and how these relate to development in early childhood. We review why this topic is important for researchers to consider and highlight promising directions for research that we hope will appear in future volumes of Merrill-Palmer Quarterly.  
  Call Number Serial 1537  
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Author (up) Friesen, D.C.; Bialystok, E. url  openurl
  Title Metalinguistic Ability in Bilingual Children: The Role of Executive Control Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Rivista di Psicolinguistica Applicata Abbreviated Journal Riv Psicolinguist Appl  
  Volume 12 Issue 3 Pages 47-56  
  Keywords Bilingual; Children; Executive control; Metalinguistic  
  Abstract Although bilingual children tend to obtain lower scores than their monolingual peers on tests of formal language ability, they exhibit a processing advantage on non-verbal executive control (EC) tasks. This advantage may be attributable to EC practice that bilinguals routinely receive from the constant need to manage attention to two jointly activated languages. Metalinguistic tasks, unlike linguistic tasks, require children to access both their language knowledge (i.e., representations) and recruit EC ability; that is, metalinguistic tasks require children to use attentional processes to operate on linguistic forms. In this article, we review our recent studies examining linguistic and metalinguistic abilities in tasks that differed in the extent to which solutions were based on linguistic knowledge (representations) or control processes, allowing us to examine the relative contribution of each to bilingual language processing. Results indicate that bilinguals' superior EC ability allows them to compensate for weaker linguistic knowledge in metalinguistic tasks where greater recruitment of control processes is required.  
  Call Number Serial 1180  
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Author (up) Lovett, M.W.; Ransby, M.J.; Hardwick, N.; Johns, M.S.; Donaldson, S.A. file  url
  Title Can dyslexia be treated? Treatment-specific and generalized treatment effects in dyslexic children's response to remediation Type Journal Article
  Year 1989 Publication Brain and Language Abbreviated Journal Brain and Language  
  Volume 37 Issue 1 Pages 90-121  
  Keywords Disabled children; dyslexia  
  Abstract A total of 178 reading disabled children were randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions providing training in word recognition and decoding skills (DS), oral and written language (OWLS), or classroom survival skills (CSS, an alternative treatment control). Pre- and post-treatment comparisons on an array of standardized and experimental measures indicated that the two experimental treatments (DS, OWLS) resulted in improvement on selected tests significantly greater than that resulting from a third treatment intervention which controlled for treatment time and individual attention (CSS). Effects specific to each experimental treatment were identified, as well as some generalized treatment advantages shared by both experimental groups at post-test. These results indicate that some of the deficits associated with developmental dyslexia are amenable to treatment. Greater generalization of treatment effects was observed following the DS than the OWLS treatment. While DS-instructed children exhibited better word recognition skills, however, their knowledge of grapheme-phoneme correspondence rules was not improved. Several OWLS-specific effects observed on experimental reading and language measures were not replicated on standardized tests which purport to measure the same skills. These results are discussed with respect to (i) possible mechanisms by which disabled readers may acquire word recognition skills, (ii) their failure to acquire and use grapheme-phoneme correspondence rules, and (iii) a possible reduced tendency in the present population to generalize newly acquired specific knowledge to related knowledge domains.  
  Call Number Serial 2049  
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Author (up) McIntosh, J.E. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Enduring Conflict in Parental Separation: Pathways of impact on child development Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Journal of Family Studies Abbreviated Journal Journal of Family Studies  
  Volume 9 Issue 1 Pages 63-80  
  Keywords Children, Divorce, Parental Conflict, Development, Adjustment  
  Abstract There are established research truths about parental conflict and its impact on children which are increasingly respected in practice: divorce does not have to be harmful; parental conflict is a more potent predictor of child adjustment than is divorce; conflict resolution is important to children’s coping with divorce. This synopsis of recent research moves beyond these truths, to a review of emerging “news” from the literature, with a focus on known impacts of entrenched parental conflict on children’s development and capacity to adjust to separation. The findings are illustrated by the case of two siblings, Jack and Rachel1, seen in short-term therapy by the author, in the period following their parents’ highly conflictive separation. From a practitioner’s chair, the news is more than noteworthy. It provides compelling arguments for a move beyond truisms about parental conflict and children’s adjustment, beyond wishful myths of resilience, to look at the process of impact on development, within the context of parental dispute and family restructure.  
  Call Number Serial 706  
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