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Author (up) Anderson, L.M.; Scrimshaw, S.C.; Fullilove, M.T.; Fielding, J.E.; Normand, J. file  url
  Title Culturally competent healthcare systems. A systematic review Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication American Journal of Preventive Medicine Abbreviated Journal Am J Prev Med  
  Volume 24 Issue 3 Suppl Pages 68-79  
  Keywords Communication Barriers; Cultural Diversity; *Culture; *Delivery of Health Care; Health Personnel; Humans; Language; Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care); Quality of Health Care; United States  
  Abstract Culturally competent healthcare systems-those that provide culturally and linguistically appropriate services-have the potential to reduce racial and ethnic health disparities. When clients do not understand what their healthcare providers are telling them, and providers either do not speak the client's language or are insensitive to cultural differences, the quality of health care can be compromised. We reviewed five interventions to improve cultural competence in healthcare systems-programs to recruit and retain staff members who reflect the cultural diversity of the community served, use of interpreter services or bilingual providers for clients with limited English proficiency, cultural competency training for healthcare providers, use of linguistically and culturally appropriate health education materials, and culturally specific healthcare settings. We could not determine the effectiveness of any of these interventions, because there were either too few comparative studies, or studies did not examine the outcome measures evaluated in this review: client satisfaction with care, improvements in health status, and inappropriate racial or ethnic differences in use of health services or in received and recommended treatment.  
  Call Number Serial 1759  
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Author (up) Dann, G.M.S. file  url
  Title The language of tourism: a sociolinguistic perspective Type Book Whole
  Year 1996 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 298  
  Keywords Advertising; Communication; Languages; Marketing; Mass media; Sociology; Sociology of tourism; Terminology; Tourism; Tourist industry; News media; Social aspects  
  Abstract The book provides a sociolinguistic treatment of tourism. It draws on both semiotic analyses of tourism and on the content of promotional material produced by the tourist industry. It is shown that tourism, in the act of promotion, as well as in the accounts of its practitioners and clients, has a discourse of its own. Through the use of pictures, brochures and other media, the language of tourism attempts to seduce millions of people into becoming tourists and subsequently, to control their attitudes and behaviour. As tourists, such people then contribute further to this language through the communication of their experiences. The book is divided into eight chapters. Following an introduction to the language of tourism in chapter one, the second chapter focuses on tourism as language, showing that there is a growing awareness among tourism researchers and academics of the sociolinguistic nature of tourism. Chapter three identifies the properties of the language of tourism, discussing the points of convergence and divergence between the language of tourism and other forms of communication. Chapter four provides an in-depth treatment of tourism as a language of social control. Chapter five outlines the principal manner in which such control is exercised in a context of apparent freedom. It places the tourist in the child role, showing that tourists need to learn the language of tourism. Chapter six examines the media of the language of tourism and the channels of communication employed, for example, brochures, travelogues, videos, and word-of-mouth. Chapter seven examines the verbal and visual techniques employed by the language of tourism. Finally, chapter eight looks at the different registers encountered, such as 'Greenspeak' for ecotourism, 'Ol'talk' for nostalgia tourism, 'Spasprech' for health tourism, and 'Gastrolingo' for food and drink.  
  Call Number Serial 2187  
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Author (up) Davis, J. file  url
  Title The effect of qualifying language on perceptions of drug appeal, drug experience, and estimates of side-effect incidence in DTC advertising Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Journal of Health Communication Abbreviated Journal J Health Commun  
  Volume 12 Issue 7 Pages 607-622  
  Keywords Adult; Advertising as Topic/*standards; Analysis of Variance; Drug Industry/*standards; Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions; Female; Humans; Likelihood Functions; Male; Patient Satisfaction/*statistics & numerical data; *Persuasive Communication; *Pharmaceutical Preparations; Risk Assessment/*standards; Surveys and Questionnaires; *Terminology as Topic; United States; United States Food and Drug Administration  
  Abstract This study examined how the use of qualifying language in direct-to-consumer (DTC) pharmaceutical advertising affects consumers' perceptions of drug appeal, anticipated pleasantness of drug usage, and the expected incidence of side-effect occurrence. A sample of 669 individuals participated in a 2 x 8 complete factorial design. The design manipulated the number of side effects associated with drug use and the type of qualifying language used to describe the side effects. The eight experimental qualifying language cells represented one control condition (no qualifying language), three cells where each of three types of qualifying language were presented individually, and four cells where qualifying language was combined. The results indicate that qualifying language has a profound effect on drug perceptions, especially when used in combination. Drug appeal and the anticipated drug-using experience almost always were more positive in the presence of qualifying language. Qualifying language appears to exert its influence by causing individuals to reduce their estimate of the likelihood of experiencing individual side effects. Policy implications of the research, particularly for evaluation of “fair balance” and the reporting of side effects, are presented.  
  Call Number Serial 1390  
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Author (up) Gibbs Jr., R.W.; O'Brien, J. file  url
  Title Psychological aspects of irony understanding Type Journal Article
  Year 1991 Publication Journal of Pragmatics Abbreviated Journal Journal of Pragmatics  
  Volume 16 Issue 6 Pages 523-530  
  Keywords Irony; Psycholinguistics; Cooperative Communication  
  Abstract We discuss psychological aspects of irony understanding by reviewing some of the experimental research from psycholinguistics. These empirical findings suggest five main conclusions about how people understand irony in discourse: (1) people do not need to recognize irony to comprehend what speakers mean by their use of ironic statements, (2) understanding irony does not require that people see these statements as violating norms of cooperative communication, (3) people can easily understand sarcasm without any special intonational cues, (4) people find statements to be especially ironic that allude to or echo societal norms or expectations, and (5) people can understand statements as being ironic because of the situation even though speakers do not intend their utterances to be understood as irony. Theoretical models of irony should be capable of accounting for these aspects of how people understand ironic language and situations.  
  Call Number Serial 1917  
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Author (up) Grubesic, T.H.; Murray, A.T. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Waiting for Broadband: Local Competition and the Spatial Distribution of Advanced Telecommunication Services in the United States Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Growth and Change Abbreviated Journal Growth and Change  
  Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 139-165  
  Keywords Telecommunications Act of 1996; Federal Communications Commission; telecommunication capability  
  Abstract With the passage of the Telecommunications Act of 1996, Congress directed the Federal Communications Commission and all fifty U.S. states to encourage the deployment of advanced telecommunication capability in a reasonable and timely manner. Today, with the rollout of advanced data services such as digital subscriber lines (xDSL), cable modems, and fixed wireless technologies, broadband has become an important component of telecommunication service and competition. Unfortunately, the deployment of last-mile infrastructure enabling high-speed access has proceeded more slowly than anticipated and competition in many areas is relatively sparse. More importantly, there are significant differences in the availability of broadband services between urban and rural areas. This paper explores aspects of broadband access as a function of market demand and provider competition. Data collected from the Federal Communications Commission is analyzed using a geographic information system and spatial statistical techniques. Results suggest significant spatial variation in broadband Internet access as a function of provider competition in the United States.  
  Call Number Serial 655  
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Author (up) Haugen, E.; Weinreich, U. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Languages in Contact: Findings and Problems Type Journal Article
  Year 1954 Publication Language Abbreviated Journal Language  
  Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 380  
  Keywords Bibliographies, Bilingualism, Contrastive Linguistics, Cultural Pluralism, Descriptive Linguistics, Dialect Studies, Individual Psychology, Interference (Language), Language Ability, Language Research, Language Tests, Learning Processes, Linguistic Theory, Mutual Intelligibility, Psychological Characteristics, Second Language Learning, Sociocultural Patterns, Verbal Communication  
  Abstract A preface by Andre Martinet and a brief discussion of the author's approach to research introduce this descriptive study of bilingualism. Various aspects of interference--lexical, grammatical, and phonic are examined. Major emphasis is focused on the role and influence of socio-cultural setting and psychological factors inherent in bilingualism. The effects upon the individual are discussed in an appendix to the work. A comprehensive, indexed bibliography of 658 items is included along with suggested methods and opportunities for further research. (CW)  
  Call Number Serial 799  
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Author (up) Hoeft, F.; Walter, E.; Lightbody, A.A.; Hazlett, H.C.; Chang, C.; Piven, J.; Reiss, A.L. file  url
  Title Neuroanatomical differences in toddler boys with fragile x syndrome and idiopathic autism Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Archives of General Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal Arch Gen Psychiatry  
  Volume 68 Issue 3 Pages 295-305  
  Keywords Amygdala--pathology, physiopathology; Autistic Disorder--genetics, pathology, physiopathology, psychology; Brain--pathology, physiopathology; Brain Mapping; Cerebral Cortex--pathology, physiopathology; Child, Preschool; Communication; Developmental Disabilities--genetics, pathology, physiopathology, psychology; Fragile X Syndrome--genetics, pathology, physiopathology, psychology; Frontal Lobe--pathology, physiopathology; Genetic Diseases, Inborn--genetics; Gyrus Cinguli--pathology, physiopathology; Humans; Image Processing, Computer-Assisted; Infant; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Male; Multivariate Analysis; Reference Values; Social Behavior; Stereotyped Behavior--physiology; Temporal Lobe--pathology, physiopathology  
  Abstract CONTEXT: Autism is an etiologically heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder for which there is no known unifying etiology or pathogenesis. Many conditions of atypical development can lead to autism, including fragile X syndrome (FXS), which is presently the most common known single-gene cause of autism. OBJECTIVE: To examine whole-brain morphometric patterns that discriminate young boys with FXS from those with idiopathic autism (iAUT) as well as control participants. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, in vivo neuroimaging study. SETTING: Academic medical centers. PATIENTS: Young boys (n = 165; aged 1.57-4.15 years) diagnosed as having FXS or iAUT as well as typically developing and idiopathic developmentally delayed controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Univariate voxel-based morphometric analyses, voxel-based morphometric multivariate pattern classification (linear support vector machine), and clustering analyses (self-organizing map). RESULTS: We found that frontal and temporal gray and white matter regions often implicated in social cognition, including the medial prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, superior temporal region, temporal pole, amygdala, insula, and dorsal cingulum, were aberrant in FXS and iAUT as compared with controls. However, these differences were in opposite directions for FXS and iAUT relative to controls; in general, greater volume was seen in iAUT compared with controls, who in turn had greater volume than FXS. Multivariate analysis showed that the overall pattern of brain structure in iAUT generally resembled that of the controls more than FXS, both with and without AUT. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that FXS and iAUT are associated with distinct neuroanatomical patterns, further underscoring the neurobiological heterogeneity of iAUT.  
  Call Number Serial 17  
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Author (up) Howlin, P.; Wing, L.; Gould, J. file  url
  Title The recognition of autism in children with Down syndrome--implications for intervention and some speculations about pathology Type Journal Article
  Year 1995 Publication Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology Abbreviated Journal Dev Med Child Neurol  
  Volume 37 Issue 5 Pages 406-414  
  Keywords Age Factors; Autistic Disorder/*diagnosis/epidemiology; Child; Communication Disorders/etiology; Comorbidity; Diagnosis, Differential; Down Syndrome/*diagnosis/epidemiology; Humans; Imagination; Interpersonal Relations; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales; Psychometrics; Self Care; Stereotyped Behavior  
  Abstract Although autism can occur in conjunction with a range of other conditions, the association with Down syndrome is generally considered to be relatively rare. Four young boys with Down syndrome are described who were also autistic. All children clearly fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for autism required by the ICD-10 or DSM-III-R, but in each case the parents had faced considerable difficulties in obtaining this diagnosis. Instead, the children's problems had been attributed to their cognitive delays, despite the fact that their behaviour and general progress differed from other children with Down syndrome in many important aspects. The implications, for both families and children, of the failure to diagnose autism when it co-occurs with other conditions such as Down syndrome are discussed. Some speculations about possible pathological associations are also presented.  
  Call Number Serial 969  
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Author (up) Jennions, M.D.; Petrie, M. file  url
  Title Variation in mate choice and mating preferences: a review of causes and consequences Type Journal Article
  Year 1997 Publication Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society Abbreviated Journal Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc  
  Volume 72 Issue 2 Pages 283-327  
  Keywords Animal Communication; Animals; Female; Genetic Variation; Male; Phenotype; Sex Characteristics; Sex Ratio; Sexual Behavior, Animal/*physiology  
  Abstract The aim of this review is to consider variation in mating preferences among females. We define mating preferences as the sensory and behavioural properties that influence the propensity of individuals to mate with certain phenotypes. Two properties of mating preferences can be distinguished: (1) “preference functions'-the order with which an individual ranks prospective mates and (2) ”choosiness'-the effort an individual is prepared to invest in mate assessment. Patterns of mate choices can be altered by changing the costs of choosiness without altering the preference function. We discuss why it is important to study variation in female mating behaviour and identify five main areas of interest: Variation in mating preferences and costs of choosiness could (1) influence the rate and direction of evolution by sexual selection, (2) provide information about the evolutionary history of female preferences, (3) help explain inter-specific differences in the evolution of secondary sexual characteristics, (4) provide information about the level of benefits gained from mate choice, (5) provide information about the underlying mechanisms of mate choice. Variation in mate choice could be due to variability in preference functions, degree of choosiness, or both, and may arise due to genetic differences, developmental trajectories or proximate environmental factors. We review the evidence for genetic variation from genetic studies of heritability and also from data on the repeatability of mate-choice decisions (which can provide information about the upper limits to heritability). There can be problems in interpreting patterns of mate choice in terms of variation in mating preferences and we illustrate two main points. First, some factors can lead to mate choice patterns that mimic heritable variation in preferences and secondly other factors may obscure heritable preferences. These factors are divided into three overlapping classes, environmental, social and the effect of the female phenotype. The environmental factors discussed include predation risk and the costs of sampling; the social factors discussed include the effect of male-male interactions as well as female competition. We review the literature which presents data on how females sample males and discuss the number of cues females use. We conclude that sexual-selection studies have paid far less attention to variation among females than to variation among males, and that there is still much to learn about how females choose males and why different females make different choices. We suggest a number of possible lines for future research.  
  Call Number Serial 1628  
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Author (up) Johnston, J.R.; Kline, M.; Tschann, J.M. file  url
  Title Ongoing postdivorce conflict: effects on children of joint custody and frequent access Type Journal Article
  Year 1989 Publication The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry Abbreviated Journal Am J Orthopsychiatry  
  Volume 59 Issue 4 Pages 576-592  
  Keywords Adolescent; Child; Child Custody/*legislation & jurisprudence; Child Reactive Disorders/*psychology; Child Welfare; Child, Preschool; Communication; *Conflict (Psychology); Divorce/*legislation & jurisprudence; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Longitudinal Studies; Marriage; *Parent-Child Relations; Personality Development; San Francisco; Social Adjustment  
  Abstract Parental conflict and children's behavioral and social adjustment were measured at two periods in 100 families entrenched in custody and visitation disputes. More frequent access to both parents was associated with more emotional and behavioral problems in the children; different effects were noted for boys and girls.  
  Call Number Serial 284  
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