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Author (up) Altman, S.E.; Shankman, S.A. file  url
  Title What is the association between obsessive-compulsive disorder and eating disorders? Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Clinical Psychology Review Abbreviated Journal Clin Psychol Rev  
  Volume 29 Issue 7 Pages 638-646  
  Keywords Anorexia Nervosa/diagnosis/epidemiology/genetics/psychology; Bulimia Nervosa/diagnosis/epidemiology/genetics/psychology; Causality; Comorbidity; Cross-Sectional Studies; Diseases in Twins/genetics/psychology; Feeding and Eating Disorders/diagnosis/epidemiology/genetics/*psychology; Genotype; Humans; Longitudinal Studies; Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis/epidemiology/genetics/*psychology; Personality Disorders/diagnosis/epidemiology/genetics/psychology  
  Abstract Because eating disorders (EDs) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) co-occur at high rates and can have functionally similar clinical presentations, it has been suggested that both constructs might be part of a common spectrum of disorders. Identifying the relationship between EDs and OCD may lead to the discovery of important shared core disease processes and/or mechanisms for maintenance. The objective of this paper is to understand the relationship between EDs and OCD by systematically reviewing epidemiological, longitudinal and family studies guided by five models of comorbidity posited by Klein and Riso (1993) and others. Though this literature is relatively small, the preponderance of evidence from these studies largely suggests that OCD/ED co-occur because of a shared etiological relationship. Limitations to extant literature, and suggestions for future research are discussed.  
  Call Number Serial 1824  
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Author (up) Burg, M.M.; Barefoot, J.; Berkman, L.; Catellier, D.J.; Czajkowski, S.; Saab, P.; Huber, M.; DeLillo, V.; Mitchell, P.; Skala, J.; Taylor, C.B. file  url
  Title Low perceived social support and post-myocardial infarction prognosis in the enhancing recovery in coronary heart disease clinical trial: the effects of treatment Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Psychosomatic Medicine Abbreviated Journal Psychosom Med  
  Volume 67 Issue 6 Pages 879-888  
  Keywords Cognitive Therapy; Cohort Studies; Comorbidity; Coronary Disease/*drug therapy/mortality; Depressive Disorder/diagnosis/epidemiology/therapy; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Male; Mortality; Myocardial Infarction/*diagnosis/epidemiology/therapy; Outcome Assessment (Health Care); Prognosis; Proportional Hazards Models; Risk Factors; Secondary Prevention; *Social Support; Spouses/statistics & numerical data; Treatment Outcome  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: In post hoc analyses, to examine in low perceived social support (LPSS) patients enrolled in the Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease (ENRICHD) clinical trial (n = 1503), the pattern of social support following myocardial infarction (MI), the impact of psychosocial intervention on perceived support, the relationship of perceived support at the time of MI to subsequent death and recurrent MI, and the relationship of change in perceived support 6 months after MI to subsequent mortality. METHODS: Partner status (partner, no partner) and score (<12 = low support; >12 = moderate support) on the ENRICHD Social Support Instrument (ESSI) were used post hoc to define four levels of risk. The resulting 4 LPSS risk groups were compared on baseline characteristics, changes in social support, and medical outcomes to a group of concurrently enrolled acute myocardial infarction patients without depression or LPSS (MI comparison group, n = 408). Effects of treatment assignment on LPSS and death/recurrent MI were also examined. RESULTS: All 4 LPSS risk groups demonstrated improvement in perceived support, regardless of treatment assignment, with a significant treatment effect only seen in the LPSS risk group with no partner and moderate support at baseline. During an average 29-month follow-up, the combined end point of death/nonfatal MI was 10% in the MI comparison group and 23% in the ENRICHD LPSS patients; LPSS conferred a greater risk in unadjusted and adjusted models (HR = 1.74-2.39). Change in ESSI score and/or improvement in perceived social support were not found to predict subsequent mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Baseline LPSS predicted death/recurrent MI in the ENRICHD cohort, independent of treatment assignment. Intervention effects indicated a partner surrogacy role for the interventionist and the need for a moderate level of support at baseline for the intervention to be effective.  
  Call Number Serial 2057  
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Author (up) Campbell, P.; Jordan, K.P.; Dunn, K.M. file  url
  Title The role of relationship quality and perceived partner responses with pain and disability in those with back pain Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Pain Medicine (Malden, Mass.) Abbreviated Journal Pain Med  
  Volume 13 Issue 2 Pages 204-214  
  Keywords Adjustment Disorders/*epidemiology/*psychology/rehabilitation; Adult; Aged; Caregivers/*psychology; Cohort Studies; Comorbidity/trends; Cross-Sectional Studies; Empathy; Female; Humans; Longitudinal Studies; Low Back Pain/*epidemiology/*psychology/rehabilitation; Male; Middle Aged; *Social Support; Spouses/*psychology  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to investigate the associations of key constructs of relationship quality (cohesion, consensus, and satisfaction) and perceived partner responses to pain behavior (e.g., solicitous and negative responses) with the outcomes of pain and disability in those with long-term low back pain, and to explore the role of the patient's depressive symptom mood state on those associations. METHODS: Self-report questionnaires on pain intensity, disability, relationship quality, perceived partner reactions to pain, and depressive symptoms were collected from participants (N = 174) taking part in a longitudinal study on low back pain within a primary care sample. RESULTS: Participants reporting more consensus (e.g., agreement about sexual intimacy, level of affection) in their relationships had significantly higher pain intensity (P = 0.03), and solicitous partner responses (P = 0.04) were significantly positively associated with disability levels. However, the findings for pain intensity were only present in those with higher levels of depression, while the association of solicitous responses with disability was only significant in those with lower levels of depression, indicating a suppression effect of depression on pain and disability. CONCLUSIONS: Depressive symptoms play a significant role in determining the associations between relationship quality, perceived partner reactions, and pain and disability. The relationship construct of consensus and perceived solicitous responses were associated with pain and disability. These findings illustrate the importance of social context and patient mood state on the outcomes for those with low back pain.  
  Call Number Serial 2069  
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Author (up) Fawcett, J. file  url
  Title Targeting treatment in patients with mixed symptoms of anxiety and depression Type Journal Article
  Year 1990 Publication The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal J Clin Psychiatry  
  Volume 51 Suppl Issue Pages 40-43  
  Keywords Anti-Anxiety Agents/therapeutic use; Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use; Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology/*therapy; Clinical Trials as Topic; Comorbidity; Depressive Disorder/epidemiology/*therapy; Drug Therapy, Combination; Humans; Panic; Risk Factors; Suicide/psychology  
  Abstract Patients with major depression often exhibit clinical anxiety. Although not included among DSM-III-R criteria for major depression, clinical anxiety may be the most important symptom to assess in planning the treatment for this affective disorder. By actively treating the anxiety component, psychiatrists can modify serious suicide risk factors in some patients and provide the immediate benefits that will induce others to comply with antidepressant therapy.  
  Call Number Serial 210  
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Author (up) Howlin, P.; Wing, L.; Gould, J. file  url
  Title The recognition of autism in children with Down syndrome--implications for intervention and some speculations about pathology Type Journal Article
  Year 1995 Publication Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology Abbreviated Journal Dev Med Child Neurol  
  Volume 37 Issue 5 Pages 406-414  
  Keywords Age Factors; Autistic Disorder/*diagnosis/epidemiology; Child; Communication Disorders/etiology; Comorbidity; Diagnosis, Differential; Down Syndrome/*diagnosis/epidemiology; Humans; Imagination; Interpersonal Relations; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales; Psychometrics; Self Care; Stereotyped Behavior  
  Abstract Although autism can occur in conjunction with a range of other conditions, the association with Down syndrome is generally considered to be relatively rare. Four young boys with Down syndrome are described who were also autistic. All children clearly fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for autism required by the ICD-10 or DSM-III-R, but in each case the parents had faced considerable difficulties in obtaining this diagnosis. Instead, the children's problems had been attributed to their cognitive delays, despite the fact that their behaviour and general progress differed from other children with Down syndrome in many important aspects. The implications, for both families and children, of the failure to diagnose autism when it co-occurs with other conditions such as Down syndrome are discussed. Some speculations about possible pathological associations are also presented.  
  Call Number Serial 969  
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Author (up) Lewinsohn, P.M.; Striegel-Moore, R.H.; Seeley, J.R. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Epidemiology and natural course of eating disorders in young women from adolescence to young adulthood Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry  
  Volume 39 Issue 10 Pages 1284-1292  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Anorexia Nervosa/diagnosis/*epidemiology/psychology; Bulimia/diagnosis/*epidemiology/psychology; Comorbidity; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Oregon/epidemiology; Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data; Psychopathology; Sampling Studies  
  Abstract OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiology of eating disorders (ED) in a community sample of adolescent girls; to compare the clinical characteristics of full-syndrome (FS) and partial-syndrome (PS) ED cases; and to provide information about the continuity between adolescent ED and young adult psychopathology. METHOD: A randomly selected sample of high school girls were assessed during adolescence (n = 891) and a year later (n = 810), and a stratified subset (n = 538) was assessed during their 24th year. The assessments included the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children, the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation, level of functioning, mental health treatment utilization, history of suicide attempt, and physical symptoms. RESULTS: The incidence of ED was less than 2.8% by age 18, and 1.3% for ages 19 through 23. Comorbidity with other psychopathology (89.5%), but especially depression, was very high. FS- and PS-ED groups differed significantly from a no-disorder comparison group on most outcome measures, and more than 70% of the adolescent FS- and PS-ED cases met criteria for an Axis I disorder in young adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: FS- and PS-ED are associated with substantial comorbidity, treatment seeking, impaired functioning, and risk for psychopathology in young adulthood.  
  Call Number Serial 94  
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Author (up) Loeber, R.; Burke, J.D.; Lahey, B.B.; Winters, A.; Zera, M. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Oppositional defiant and conduct disorder: a review of the past 10 years, part I Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry  
  Volume 39 Issue 12 Pages 1468-1484  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Age of Onset; *Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders/diagnosis/epidemiology/psychology; Child; Comorbidity; *Conduct Disorder/diagnosis/epidemiology/psychology; Diagnosis, Differential; Female; Humans; Male; Prevalence; Prognosis; Sex Factors  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: To review empirical findings on oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD). METHOD: Selected summaries of the literature over the past decade are presented. RESULTS: Evidence supports a distinction between the symptoms of ODD and many symptoms of CD, but there is controversy about whether aggressive symptoms should be considered to be part of ODD or CD. CD is clearly heterogenous, but further research is needed regarding the most useful subtypes. Some progress has been made in documenting sex differences. Symptoms that are more serious, more atypical for the child's sex, or more age-atypical appear to be prognostic of serious dysfunction. Progress has been made in the methods for assessment of ODD and CD, but some critical issues, such as combined information from different informants, remains to be addressed. A proportion of children with ODD later develop CD, and a proportion of those with CD later meet criteria for antisocial personality disorder. ODD and CD frequently co-occur with other psychiatric conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Although major advances in the study of the prevalence and course of ODD and CD have occurred in the past decade, some key issues remain unanswered.  
  Call Number Serial 101  
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Author (up) Maughan, B.; Rowe, R.; Messer, J.; Goodman, R.; Meltzer, H. file  url
  Title Conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder in a national sample: developmental epidemiology Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines Abbreviated Journal J Child Psychol Psychiatry  
  Volume 45 Issue 3 Pages 609-621  
  Keywords Adolescent; Anxiety/epidemiology; Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/epidemiology; Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders/*diagnosis/epidemiology; Child; Child, Preschool; Comorbidity; Conduct Disorder/*diagnosis/epidemiology; Depression/epidemiology; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; Female; Humans; Male; Prevalence  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Despite an expanding epidemiological evidence base, uncertainties remain over key aspects of the epidemiology of the 'antisocial' disorders in childhood and adolescence. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data on a nationally representative sample of 10,438 5-15-year-olds drawn from the 1999 British Child Mental Health Survey to examine age trends, gender ratios and patterns of comorbidity in DSM-IV Conduct Disorder (CD) and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). RESULTS: CD was significantly more common in boys than girls, and increased in prevalence with age. Among children who met diagnostic criteria for CD, status violations and other non-aggressive conduct problems increased with age, while aggressive symptoms became less common. Gender differences in ODD varied by reporter. Estimates of age trends in ODD depended heavily on treatment of overlaps with CD. Following DSM-IV guidelines (where ODD is not diagnosed in the presence of CD), rates of ODD fell with age; if that constraint was released, clinically significant rates of oppositionality persisted at similar levels from early childhood to middle adolescence. CD and ODD showed high levels of overlap, and both diagnoses showed substantial comorbidity with other non-antisocial disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Results from this large-scale study confirm and extend previous findings in the epidemiology of the disruptive behaviour disorders.  
  Call Number Serial 99  
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Author (up) Smith, H.L.; Summers, B.J.; Dillon, K.H.; Cougle, J.R. url  openurl
  Title Is worst-event trauma type related to PTSD symptom presentation and associated features? Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Journal of Anxiety Disorders Abbreviated Journal J Anxiety Disord  
  Volume 38 Issue Pages 55-61  
  Keywords Comorbidity; Ptsd; Sexual assault; Trauma type  
  Abstract Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is generally assessed with reference to a “worst-event” (index) trauma, though little research has examined whether symptom presentation and comorbidity differ across worst-events. Data from individuals meeting lifetime PTSD criteria in the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (N=398) were used to examine relations between PTSD presentation and comorbidity with the three most commonly reported “worst-event” trauma types: sexual trauma, non-sexual physical violence, and unexpected death of a loved one. Sexual trauma and non-sexual physical violence were associated with more symptomatic presentation of PTSD and lifetime trauma types compared to other worst-events. Non-sexual physical violence was associated with comorbid substance use disorder, and unexpected death of a loved one was associated with comorbid depression. Inclusion of number of lifetime trauma types as a covariate rendered most, but not all associations non-significant. These findings suggest worst-event trauma type is related to some important differences in PTSD presentation.  
  Call Number Serial 1300  
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Author (up) Van Skike, C.E.; Maggio, S.E.; Reynolds, A.R.; Casey, E.M.; Bardo, M.T.; Dwoskin, L.P.; Prendergast, M.A.; Nixon, K. file  url
  Title Critical needs in drug discovery for cessation of alcohol and nicotine polysubstance abuse Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry  
  Volume 65 Issue Pages 269-287  
  Keywords Alcohol Deterrents/pharmacology/*therapeutic use; Alcohol-Related Disorders/*complications/*drug therapy/metabolism; Animals; Comorbidity; Drug Discovery; Drug Interactions; Humans; *Tobacco Use Cessation Products; Tobacco Use Disorder/*complications/*drug therapy/metabolism; Alcohol; Alcoholism; Nicotine; Pharmacotherapy; Polysubstance abuse; Smoking  
  Abstract Polysubstance abuse of alcohol and nicotine has been overlooked in our understanding of the neurobiology of addiction and especially in the development of novel therapeutics for its treatment. Estimates show that as many as 92% of people with alcohol use disorders also smoke tobacco. The health risks associated with both excessive alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking create an urgent biomedical need for the discovery of effective cessation treatments, as opposed to current approaches that attempt to independently treat each abused agent. The lack of treatment approaches for alcohol and nicotine abuse/dependence mirrors a similar lack of research in the neurobiology of polysubstance abuse. This review discusses three critical needs in medications development for alcohol and nicotine co-abuse: (1) the need for a better understanding of the clinical condition (i.e. alcohol and nicotine polysubstance abuse), (2) the need to better understand how these drugs interact in order to identify new targets for therapeutic development and (3) the need for animal models that better mimic this human condition. Current and emerging treatments available for the cessation of each drug and their mechanisms of action are discussed within this context followed by what is known about the pharmacological interactions of alcohol and nicotine. Much has been and will continue to be gained from studying comorbid alcohol and nicotine exposure.  
  Call Number Serial 1714  
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