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Author (up) Bialystok, E.; Viswanathan, M. file  url
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  Title Components of executive control with advantages for bilingual children in two cultures Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Cognition Abbreviated Journal Cognition  
  Volume 112 Issue 3 Pages 494-500  
  Keywords Canada; Child; Child Development/*physiology; Cognition/*physiology; Cross-Cultural Comparison; Discrimination Learning; Female; Humans; India; Male; *Multilingualism; Neuropsychological Tests; Pattern Recognition, Visual; Reaction Time  
  Abstract The present study used a behavioral version of an anti-saccade task, called the 'faces task', developed by [Bialystok, E., Craik, F. I. M., & Ryan, J. (2006). Executive control in a modified anti-saccade task: Effects of aging and bilingualism. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 32, 1341-1354] to isolate the components of executive functioning responsible for previously reported differences between monolingual and bilingual children and to determine the generality of these differences by comparing bilinguals in two cultures. Three components of executive control were investigated: response suppression, inhibitory control, and cognitive flexibility. Ninety children, 8-years old, belonged to one of three groups: monolinguals in Canada, bilinguals in Canada, and bilinguals in India. The bilingual children in both settings were faster than monolinguals in conditions based on inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility but there was no significant difference between groups in response suppression or on a control condition that did not involve executive control. The children in the two bilingual groups performed equivalently to each other and differently from the monolinguals on all measures in which there were group differences, consistent with the interpretation that bilingualism is responsible for the enhanced executive control. These results contribute to understanding the mechanism responsible for the reported bilingual advantages by identifying the processes that are modified by bilingualism and establishing the generality of these findings across bilingual experiences. They also contribute to theoretical conceptions of the components of executive control and their development.  
  Call Number Serial 1179  
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Author (up) Gershoff, E.T.; Grogan-Kaylor, A.; Lansford, J.E.; Chang, L.; Zelli, A.; Deater-Deckard, K.; Dodge, K.A. file  url
openurl 
  Title Parent discipline practices in an international sample: associations with child behaviors and moderation by perceived normativeness Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Child Development Abbreviated Journal Child Dev  
  Volume 81 Issue 2 Pages 487-502  
  Keywords Child; Child Behavior/*ethnology/*psychology; *Cross-Cultural Comparison; *Developing Countries; Female; Humans; Italy; Male; Motivation; Parent-Child Relations; Parenting/*ethnology/*psychology; Punishment; Reward; Social Values/*ethnology; *Socialization  
  Abstract This study examined the associations of 11 discipline techniques with children's aggressive and anxious behaviors in an international sample of mothers and children from 6 countries and determined whether any significant associations were moderated by mothers' and children's perceived normativeness of the techniques. Participants included 292 mothers and their 8- to 12-year-old children living in China, India, Italy, Kenya, Philippines, and Thailand. Parallel multilevel and fixed effects models revealed that mothers' use of corporal punishment, expressing disappointment, and yelling were significantly related to more child aggression symptoms, whereas giving a time-out, using corporal punishment, expressing disappointment, and shaming were significantly related to greater child anxiety symptoms. Some moderation of these associations was found for children's perceptions of normativeness.  
  Call Number Serial 1733  
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Author (up) Hodges, J.; Oei, T.P.S. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Would Confucius benefit from psychotherapy? The compatibility of cognitive behaviour therapy and Chinese values Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Behaviour Research and Therapy Abbreviated Journal Behav Res Ther  
  Volume 45 Issue 5 Pages 901-914  
  Keywords *Asian Continental Ancestry Group; China; Cognition; Cognitive Therapy/*methods; Cross-Cultural Comparison; *Culture; Humans; Treatment Outcome  
  Abstract The purpose of the present paper is to explore the conceptual compatibility between cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) and the common values of Chinese Culture. In order to address such a question, the distinctive processes attributed to CBT (e.g., teaching of skills, emphasis on homework, cognitive processes, present/future focus), as summarized in the meta-analysis by Blagys and Hilsenroth [(2002). Distinctive activities of cognitive-behavioral therapy: A review of the comparative psychotherapy process literature. Clinical Psychology Review, 22, 671-706], and the core values of Chinese Culture, determined through an integration of The Hofstede Project, [Hofstede, G.H. (1980). Culture's consequences: International differences in work related values. Beverly Hills: Sage]. The Chinese Value Survey [Chinese Culture Connection (1987). Chinese values and the search for culture-free dimensions of culture. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 18, 143-164]. The Schwartz Value Survey [Schwartz, S.H. (1994). Cultural dimensions of values: Towards an understanding of national differences. In Kim, U., Trandis, H.C., Katiticibasi, C., Choi, S.C., & Yoon, G. (eds.), Individualism and collectivism: Theory, method and application (pp. 85-119). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage] were used. A strong degree of compatibility between the two was found and it is argued that rather than developing new indigenized therapies, with some structural changes to the processes of CBT, this therapy can be effective for Chinese clients. It is further proposed that Chinese clients may benefit from challenging their irrational cognitions that are bound up in their strict adherence to social norms. Future recommendations for increasing the compatibility of CBT to Chinese culture are discussed.  
  Call Number Serial 455  
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Author (up) Liu, C.; Tardif, T.; Mai, X.; Gehring, W.J.; Simms, N.; Luo, Y.-J. file  url
openurl 
  Title What's in a name? Brain activity reveals categorization processes differ across languages Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Human Brain Mapping Abbreviated Journal Hum Brain Mapp  
  Volume 31 Issue 11 Pages 1786-1801  
  Keywords Adult; Analysis of Variance; Brain Mapping; Cerebral Cortex/*physiology; Concept Formation/*physiology; Cross-Cultural Comparison; Electroencephalography; Evoked Potentials/*physiology; Female; Humans; *Language; Male; Photic Stimulation; Reaction Time/physiology; Surveys and Questionnaires  
  Abstract The linguistic relativity hypothesis proposes that speakers of different languages perceive and conceptualize the world differently, but do their brains reflect these differences? In English, most nouns do not provide linguistic clues to their categories, whereas most Mandarin Chinese nouns provide explicit category information, either morphologically (e.g., the morpheme “vehicle” che1 in the noun “train” huo3che1) or orthographically (e.g., the radical “bug” chong2 in the character for the noun “butterfly” hu2die2). When asked to judge the membership of atypical (e.g., train) vs. typical (e.g., car) pictorial exemplars of a category (e.g., vehicle), English speakers (N = 26) showed larger N300 and N400 event-related potential (ERP) component differences, whereas Mandarin speakers (N = 27) showed no such differences. Further investigation with Mandarin speakers only (N = 22) found that it was the morphologically transparent items that did not show a typicality effect, whereas orthographically transparent items elicited moderate N300 and N400 effects. In a follow-up study with English speakers only (N = 25), morphologically transparent items also showed different patterns of N300 and N400 activation than nontransparent items even for English speakers. Together, these results demonstrate that even for pictorial stimuli, how and whether category information is embedded in object names affects the extent to which typicality is used in category judgments, as shown in N300 and N400 responses.  
  Call Number Serial 1678  
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Author (up) Pi, E.H.; Simpson, G.M. file  url
openurl 
  Title Cross-cultural psychopharmacology: a current clinical perspective Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Psychiatric Services (Washington, D.C.) Abbreviated Journal Psychiatr Serv  
  Volume 56 Issue 1 Pages 31-33  
  Keywords Carrier Proteins/genetics; *Cross-Cultural Comparison; Ethnic Groups/genetics; Humans; Mental Disorders/diagnosis/*drug therapy/ethnology; Pharmacokinetics; *Psychopharmacology/standards  
  Abstract  
  Call Number Serial 1370  
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