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Author Laveist, T.A.; Thorpe, R.J.J.; Mance, G.A.; Jackson, J. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Overcoming confounding of race with socio-economic status and segregation to explore race disparities in smoking Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication (up) Addiction (Abingdon, England) Abbreviated Journal Addiction  
  Volume 102 Suppl 2 Issue Pages 65-70  
  Keywords Adult; African Continental Ancestry Group/statistics & numerical data; Baltimore/epidemiology; Cross-Sectional Studies; European Continental Ancestry Group/statistics & numerical data; Humans; *Prejudice; Prevalence; Smoking/epidemiology/*ethnology; *Socioeconomic Factors  
  Abstract AIMS: We examined the nature of racial disparities in smoking status within a sample that accounts for two major confounding factors in health disparities research--racial segregation and socio-economic status. Also, we sought to determine the generalizability of our sample. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study based on data from the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study in south-west Baltimore, MD (EHDIC-SWB) and a subsample of respondents in the 2002 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) that was matched to EHIDC-SWB. The final matched data set sample size was 2948 adults (1474 EHDIC-SWB; 1474 matched NHIS). MEASUREMENTS: Our outcome variables were life-time and current smoking status and number of cigarettes smoked daily. Independent variables include race, age gender, educational attainment and income. FINDINGS: In the adjusted models, whites had greater odds than blacks of current smoking and reported smoking more cigarettes in the EHDIC-SWB sample, but there were no race differences in current smoking status or in the number of cigarettes smoked per day in the NHIS. The prevalence rates for both life-time and current smoking were substantially greater in the EHDIC-SWB sample, but in comparisons of blacks and whites across samples we found that the magnitude of the difference between the samples was greatest for whites. CONCLUSIONS: Unadjusted national estimates of race disparities as reported in national reports may be biased because of differential risk exposure among people of different race groups. Race differences in social and environmental contexts account partially for racial differences in smoking patterns.  
  Call Number Serial 373  
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Author Wang, C.-W.; Ho, R.T.H.; Chan, C.L.W.; Tse, S. file  url
openurl 
  Title Exploring personality characteristics of Chinese adolescents with internet-related addictive behaviors: trait differences for gaming addiction and social networking addiction Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication (up) Addictive Behaviors Abbreviated Journal Addict Behav  
  Volume 42 Issue Pages 32-35  
  Keywords Adolescent; Anxiety Disorders/*psychology; Behavior, Addictive/*psychology; Cross-Sectional Studies; *Extraversion (Psychology); Female; Hong Kong; Humans; *Internet; Male; Multivariate Analysis; *Personality; Personality Inventory; Regression Analysis; *Social Networking; Video Games/*psychology; Addictive behavior; Adolescents; Gaming addiction; Internet addiction; Personality; Social networking  
  Abstract This study investigated the associations between personality traits, based on the Big Five model, and addictive behaviors to different online activities among adolescents. A sample of 920 participants was recruited from four secondary schools in different districts using random cluster sampling. A structured questionnaire, including demographic information, internet usage pattern, the Internet Addiction Test, the Game Addiction Scale, the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale – Revised, and the Big Five Inventory, was administered to each participant. The results demonstrated a significant difference in personality traits for addictive behaviors related to different online activities. Specifically, higher neuroticism (beta=0.15, p<0.001) and less conscientiousness (beta=0.12, p<0.001) displayed significant associations with internet addiction in general; less conscientiousness (beta=0.09, p<0.01) and low openness (beta=0.06, p<0.05) were significantly associated with gaming addiction; and neuroticism (beta=0.15, p<0.001) and extraversion (beta=0.10, p<0.01) were significantly associated with social networking addiction. Our findings may provide a better understanding of the etiopathology of internet-related addictive behaviors and have implications for psychoeducation and psychotherapy programs.  
  Call Number Serial 1489  
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Author Boggiano, M.M.; Wenger, L.E.; Turan, B.; Tatum, M.M.; Morgan, P.R.; Sylvester, M.D. file  url
openurl 
  Title Eating tasty food to cope. Longitudinal association with BMI Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication (up) Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 87 Issue Pages 365-370  
  Keywords *Adaptation, Psychological; Adolescent; Adult; *Body Mass Index; Body Weight; Bulimia/psychology; Cross-Sectional Studies; Eating/*psychology; Emotions; Feeding Behavior/psychology; Female; Humans; Linear Models; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Motivation; Obesity/psychology; Overweight/psychology; Reproducibility of Results; Risk Factors; Self Report; Students; Young Adult; Assessment; Binge-eating; Emotions; Motivation; Obesity; Reward  
  Abstract The goals of this study were to determine if a change in certain motives to eat highly palatable food, as measured by the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS), could predict a change in body mass index (BMI) over time, to assess the temporal stability of these motive scores, and to test the reliability of previously reported associations between eating tasty foods to cope and BMI. BMI, demographics, and scores on the PEMS and the Binge Eating Scale were obtained from 192 college students. Test-retest analysis was performed on the PEMS motives in groups varying in three gap times between tests. Regression analyses determined what PEMS motives predicted a change in BMI over two years. The results replicated previous findings that eating palatable food for Coping motives (e.g., to forget about problems, reduce negative feelings) is associated with BMI. Test-retest correlations revealed that motive scores, while somewhat stable, can change over time. Importantly, among overweight participants, a change in Coping scores predicted a change in BMI over 2 years, such that a 1-point change in Coping predicted a 1.76 change in BMI (equivalent to a 10.5 lb. change in body weight) independent of age, sex, ethnicity, and initial binge-eating status (Cohen's f(2) effect size = 1.44). The large range in change of Coping scores suggests it is possible to decrease frequency of eating to cope by more than 1 scale point to achieve weight losses greater than 10 lbs. in young overweight adults, a group already at risk for rapid weight gain. Hence, treatments aimed specifically at reducing palatable food intake for coping reasons vs. for social, reward, or conformity reasons, should help achieve a healthier body weight and prevent obesity if this motive-type is identified prior to significant weight gain.  
  Call Number Serial 1202  
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Author Feng, L.; Chiam, P.C.; Kua, E.-H.; Ng, T.P. file  url
openurl 
  Title Use of complementary and alternative medicines and mental disorders in community-living Asian older adults Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication (up) Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics Abbreviated Journal Arch Gerontol Geriatr  
  Volume 50 Issue 3 Pages 243-249  
  Keywords Aged; Aged, 80 and over; *Asian Continental Ancestry Group; Attitude to Health/*ethnology; Complementary Therapies/*utilization; Cross-Sectional Studies; Depression/therapy; Drug Utilization; *Drugs, Chinese Herbal; Female; Humans; Logistic Models; Male; Mental Disorders/*therapy; Middle Aged; Multivariate Analysis; Patient Acceptance of Health Care; Singapore  
  Abstract The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) and its link with mental health is poorly understood. It is not clear whether mentally ill persons use CAM because conventional medical care does not meet their needs. In a nationally representative random sample of 1092 individuals aged 60 in Singapore, we determined CAM use and the prevalence of mental disorders using Geriatric Mental State (GMS) and found that overall CAM use, predominantly Chinese herbal medicines, was reported by an estimated 42.7% of the population. Depression (odds ratio=OR=1.94; 95% CI=1.26-2.98) and poor self-rated mental health (OR=2.44; 95% CI=1.25-4.80) were associated with CAM use, independently of other risks factors and correlates of CAM use. Although depressed Asians more frequently used CAM than conventional health care, we could find no evidence in this study to indicate that among individuals with depression, CAM users compared to nonusers, were less likely to seek treatment from general and mental health professionals or were more likely to have negative beliefs and attitudes about mental illnesses and its treatment. This is consistent with the common observation that the use of CAM complements rather than replaces conventional treatments.  
  Call Number Serial 1347  
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Author Jiang, N.; Lee, Y.O.; Ling, P.M. file  url
openurl 
  Title Association between tobacco and alcohol use among young adult bar patrons: a cross-sectional study in three cities Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication (up) BMC Public Health Abbreviated Journal BMC Public Health  
  Volume 14 Issue Pages 500  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adolescent Health Services; Adult; Alcohol Drinking/*epidemiology/prevention & control; Cities; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Humans; Logistic Models; Male; Restaurants; Smoke-Free Policy; Smoking/*epidemiology/prevention & control; Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology/prevention & control; Tobacco; United States/epidemiology; Young Adult  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Bars and nightclubs are key public venues where young adults congregate and use both tobacco and alcohol, and young adult bar patrons are at high risk for substance use. This study examined the association between cigarette smoking and alcohol use among a random sample of young adult bar patrons from three different cities in the USA. METHODS: Cross-sectional data was collected from a random sample of young adult bar patrons aged 18-29 in San Diego, CA (N = 1,150), Portland, ME (N = 1,019), and Tulsa, OK (N = 1,106) from 2007-2010 (response rate 88%) using randomized time location sampling. Respondents reported the number of days they smoked cigarettes, drank alcohol, and binge drank in the past 30 days. Multinomial logistic regression was used to analyze the association between smoking (nonsmoker, occasional smoker, and regular smoker) and drinking and binge drinking for each city controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and education. Predicted probabilities of each smoking category were calculated by drinking and binge drinking status. The association between smoking and drinking and binge drinking among combined samples was also analyzed, controlling for demographic variables and city. RESULTS: Respondents reported high current smoking rates, ranging from 51% in Portland to 58% in Tulsa. Respondents in Tulsa were more likely to report regular smoking than those in San Diego and Portland, with demographic variables being controlled. Young adult bar patrons also exhibited a strong association between smoking and drinking. In general, as the frequency of drinking and binge drinking increased, the predicted probability of being a smoker, especially a regular smoker, increased in each city. CONCLUSIONS: Young adult bar patrons consistently reported a high smoking rate and a strong relationship between smoking and drinking, regardless of the different bar cultures and tobacco control contexts in each of the three cities. While smoke-free bar policies were negatively associated with regular smoking, these policies alone may not be enough to influence the association between smoking and drinking, particularly if tobacco marketing continues in these venues, or in the absence of programs specifically addressing the co-use of tobacco and alcohol.  
  Call Number Serial 1947  
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Author Foote, H.W.; Hamer, J.D.; Roland, M.M.; Landy, S.R.; Smitherman, T.A. file  url
openurl 
  Title Psychological flexibility in migraine: A study of pain acceptance and values-based action Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication (up) Cephalalgia : an International Journal of Headache Abbreviated Journal Cephalalgia  
  Volume 36 Issue 4 Pages 317-324  
  Keywords *Adaptation, Psychological; Adult; Chronic Pain/psychology; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Humans; Male; Migraine Disorders/*psychology; Surveys and Questionnaires; Migraine; acceptance; acceptance and commitment therapy; disability; headache; psychological flexibility  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Studies of musculoskeletal pain patients confirm that acceptance of pain and values-based action are strong predictors of pain-related disability and that interventions fostering “psychological flexibility” confer positive outcomes. However, data on these processes in migraine remain limited. This cross-sectional study examined relations between components of psychological flexibility and headache among treatment-seeking migraineurs. METHODS: A total of 103 adults (M age = 41.5 (11.9) years; 88.2% female) with ICHD-confirmed migraine (71.8% episodic, 28.2% chronic) across three clinics completed measures of psychological flexibility and headache-related disability. Hierarchical regressions quantified relations between acceptance/values-based action and headache variables after first controlling for pain severity and gender. RESULTS: Acceptance of pain and values-based action accounted for 10% of unique variance in headache severity (DeltaR(2) p = 0.006) and up to 20% in headache-related disability (DeltaR(2) ps = 0.02 and < 0.001) but were weakly related to headache frequency. Psychological flexibility was more strongly associated with MIDAS-measured disability than was headache severity or headache frequency. Significant effects were typically of medium-to-large size and driven primarily by values-based action. CONCLUSIONS: Paralleling results from the broader chronic pain literature, pain acceptance and values-based action play significant roles in headache pain and disability. Further study of interventions targeting these processes may enhance existing treatments.  
  Call Number Serial 2062  
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Author Altman, S.E.; Shankman, S.A. file  url
openurl 
  Title What is the association between obsessive-compulsive disorder and eating disorders? Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication (up) Clinical Psychology Review Abbreviated Journal Clin Psychol Rev  
  Volume 29 Issue 7 Pages 638-646  
  Keywords Anorexia Nervosa/diagnosis/epidemiology/genetics/psychology; Bulimia Nervosa/diagnosis/epidemiology/genetics/psychology; Causality; Comorbidity; Cross-Sectional Studies; Diseases in Twins/genetics/psychology; Feeding and Eating Disorders/diagnosis/epidemiology/genetics/*psychology; Genotype; Humans; Longitudinal Studies; Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis/epidemiology/genetics/*psychology; Personality Disorders/diagnosis/epidemiology/genetics/psychology  
  Abstract Because eating disorders (EDs) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) co-occur at high rates and can have functionally similar clinical presentations, it has been suggested that both constructs might be part of a common spectrum of disorders. Identifying the relationship between EDs and OCD may lead to the discovery of important shared core disease processes and/or mechanisms for maintenance. The objective of this paper is to understand the relationship between EDs and OCD by systematically reviewing epidemiological, longitudinal and family studies guided by five models of comorbidity posited by Klein and Riso (1993) and others. Though this literature is relatively small, the preponderance of evidence from these studies largely suggests that OCD/ED co-occur because of a shared etiological relationship. Limitations to extant literature, and suggestions for future research are discussed.  
  Call Number Serial 1824  
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Author Burt, S.A.; Barnes, A.R.; McGue, M.; Iacono, W.G. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Parental divorce and adolescent delinquency: ruling out the impact of common genes Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication (up) Developmental Psychology Abbreviated Journal Dev Psychol  
  Volume 44 Issue 6 Pages 1668-1677  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adoption/psychology; Aggression/psychology; Antisocial Personality Disorder/epidemiology/*genetics/psychology; Causality; Conduct Disorder/epidemiology/*genetics/psychology; Cross-Sectional Studies; Divorce/*psychology/statistics & numerical data; Female; Genotype; Humans; Internal-External Control; Juvenile Delinquency/*psychology/statistics & numerical data; Male; Risk Factors; Sex Factors; *Social Environment  
  Abstract Although the well-documented association between parental divorce and adolescent delinquency is generally assumed to be environmental (i.e., causal) in origin, genetic mediation is also possible. Namely, the behavior problems often found in children of divorce could derive from similar pathology in the parents, pathology that is both heritable and increases the risk that the parent will experience divorce. To test these alternative hypotheses, the authors made use of a novel design that incorporated timing of divorce in a sample of 610 adoptive and biological families. They reasoned that if genes common to parent and child mediate this association, nonadopted youth should manifest increased delinquency in the presence of parental divorce even if the divorce preceded their birth (i.e., was from a prior parental relationship). However, should the association be environmental in origin, the authors reasoned that adolescents should manifest increased delinquency only in response to divorce exposure, and this association should not vary by adoption status. Results firmly supported the latter, suggesting that it is the experience of parental divorce, and not common genes, that drives the association between divorce and adolescent delinquency.  
  Call Number Serial 293  
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Author Terry-McElrath, Y.M.; Wakefield, M.A.; Emery, S.; Saffer, H.; Szczypka, G.; O'Malley, P.M.; Johnston, L.D.; Chaloupka, F.J.; Flay, B.R. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title State anti-tobacco advertising and smoking outcomes by gender and race/ethnicity Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication (up) Ethnicity & Health Abbreviated Journal Ethn Health  
  Volume 12 Issue 4 Pages 339-362  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adolescent Behavior; Child; Continental Population Groups/*statistics & numerical data; Cross-Sectional Studies; Ethnic Groups/*statistics & numerical data; Female; Health Promotion/*methods; Humans; Male; Peer Group; Sex Factors; Smoking/*ethnology/*prevention & control; Television; United States/epidemiology; United States Dept. of Health and Human Services  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: This paper examines overall and gender- and racial/ethnic-specific relationships between exposure to state-sponsored anti-tobacco televised advertising and smoking-related outcomes among US middle and high school students using five years of cross-sectional nationally representative data. DESIGN: Nationally representative 8th, 10th, and 12th grade student sample data for 1999-2003 were merged with commercial ratings data on mean potential audience exposure to network and cable television anti-tobacco advertising across the 74 largest US designated market areas, resulting in a final sample size for analysis of 122,340. Associations between state-sponsored anti-tobacco televised advertising exposure and youth smoking-related beliefs and behaviours were modelled while controlling for relevant individual and environmental factors as well as other televised tobacco-related advertising. RESULTS: Higher potential for exposure to state anti-tobacco advertising within the previous four months was generally associated with decreasing odds of current smoking across groups. In addition, such exposure was related, to varying degrees, with decreased perceptions that most/all friends smoked, stronger five-year intentions not to smoke, and increased perceived harm of smoking. These relationships appeared possibly to be weaker for Asian students. CONCLUSIONS: The results from these analyses indicate that state anti-tobacco advertising significantly relates to beneficial outcomes -- especially regarding current smoking behaviour -- among US youth as a whole.  
  Call Number Serial 378  
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Author Fredriksen, M.; Halmoy, A.; Faraone, S.V.; Haavik, J. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Long-term efficacy and safety of treatment with stimulants and atomoxetine in adult ADHD: a review of controlled and naturalistic studies Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication (up) European Neuropsychopharmacology : the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology Abbreviated Journal Eur Neuropsychopharmacol  
  Volume 23 Issue 6 Pages 508-527  
  Keywords Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors/adverse effects/*therapeutic use; Adult; Amphetamine/adverse effects/therapeutic use; Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/*drug therapy; Central Nervous System Stimulants/adverse effects/*therapeutic use; Cross-Sectional Studies; Humans; Longitudinal Studies; Methylphenidate/adverse effects/therapeutic use; Propylamines/adverse effects/*therapeutic use; Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic  
  Abstract Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common disorder of childhood that often persists into adulthood. Although stimulant medications are recommended as the first-line treatment for ADHD because of their documented short-term effects in children and adults, less is known about their effects on long-term outcome in adults. Here we review the long-term efficacy and safety of the stimulant drugs methylphenidate and amphetamine, as well as the related compound atomoxetine. We performed a systematic review to identify direct and indirect effects of stimulant therapy on long-term outcome in adults. Five randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and 10 open-label extension studies of initial short-term RCTs, with total follow-up of at least 24weeks, were identified. All these RCTs found that medication was significantly more efficacious than placebo in treating ADHD in adults, and the extension studies showed that this favorable effect of medication was maintained during the open-label follow-up period. However, since the maximum duration of these pharmacological trials was 4years, we also reviewed 18 defined naturalistic longitudinal and cross-sectional studies, to provide more information about longer term functional outcomes, side effects and complications. These observational studies also showed positive correlations between early recognition of the disorder, stimulant treatment during childhood and favorable long-term outcome in adult ADHD patients. In conclusion, stimulant therapy of ADHD has long-term beneficial effects and is well tolerated. However, more longitudinal studies of long duration should be performed. In addition, the ethical issues involved in performing double blind RCTs of many years duration should be further explored.  
  Call Number Serial 1092  
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