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Author (up) Bignami, A.; Eng, L.F.; Dahl, D.; Uyeda, C.T. file  url
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  Title Localization of the glial fibrillary acidic protein in astrocytes by immunofluorescence Type Journal Article
  Year 1972 Publication Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Brain Res  
  Volume 43 Issue 2 Pages 429-435  
  Keywords Animals; Antibodies; Antibody Formation; Brain/*pathology; *Brain Chemistry; Cerebellum/immunology; Cross Reactions; Dementia/pathology; Dogs/immunology; *Fluorescent Antibody Technique; Gliosis/pathology; Guinea Pigs/immunology; Humans; Immune Sera; Male; Medulla Oblongata/immunology; Middle Aged; *Nerve Tissue Proteins; *Neuroglia; Optic Nerve/immunology; Rabbits/immunology; Rats/immunology  
  Abstract The glial fibrillary acidic (GFA) protein, a brain specific protein extracted from severely gliosed human tissue, is not species specific; cross-reaction occurs between anti-human GFA protein antibodies and brain extracts of rabbit, guinea pig, rat and dog. Using anti-GFA protein antiserum, astrocytes are selectively stained with the indirect immunofluorescence technique in both normal and pathological (gliosed) brain tissue.  
  Call Number Serial 113  
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Author (up) Yarnall, A.; Rochester, L.; Burn, D.J. file  url
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  Title The interplay of cholinergic function, attention, and falls in Parkinson's disease Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Movement Disorders : Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society Abbreviated Journal Mov Disord  
  Volume 26 Issue 14 Pages 2496-2503  
  Keywords *Accidental Falls; Acetylcholine/*physiology; Attention/*physiology; Cholinergic Neurons/pathology/*physiology; Dementia/pathology/physiopathology; Humans; Parkinson Disease/pathology/*physiopathology  
  Abstract Dopamine loss in the substantia nigra causes several of the motor signs seen in Parkinson's disease, but there is now increasing evidence highlighting the importance of cholinergic loss in the pathophysiology of nonmotor symptoms. The nucleus basalis of Meynert supplies the majority of the cholinergic input to the cerebral cortex, with the pedunculopontine nucleus providing many subcortical structures with acetylcholine. Both these structures undergo degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD), with more severe loss associated with cognitive impairment. The risk of dementia in PD is greater than that in control subjects, with impairments in attention, visuospatial function, and executive control dominating. Imaging studies have demonstrated degeneration of the cholinergic system in PD, Parkinson's disease dementia, and dementia with Lewy bodies, with improvements in attention seen following the introduction of cholinesterase inhibitors. Conversely, anticholinergic drugs are associated with cognitive decline, with neuropathology studies indicating the presence of increased neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaque formation. In addition, these drugs are also known to precipitate visual hallucinations, lending support to a cholinergic basis for visual hallucinations in PD. Gait, falls, and cognition may also be related, as evidenced by the findings that fallers perform less well on test of attention than nonfallers and that greater postural instability is associated with worse scores on attention and executive function. It is therefore feasible that cognition (namely, attention), visual hallucinations, falls, and gait are subserved by acetylcholine, and this is further explored in this clinically orientated review.  
  Call Number Serial 317  
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