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Author (up) Akiskal, H.S. file  url
openurl 
  Title The prevalent clinical spectrum of bipolar disorders: beyond DSM-IV Type Journal Article
  Year 1996 Publication Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology Abbreviated Journal J Clin Psychopharmacol  
  Volume 16 Issue 2 Suppl 1 Pages 4s-14s  
  Keywords Bipolar Disorder/classification/*diagnosis/psychology; Cyclothymic Disorder/classification/diagnosis/psychology; Depressive Disorder/classification/diagnosis/psychology; Diagnosis, Differential; Humans; *Psychiatric Status Rating Scales; Psychotic Disorders/classification/diagnosis/psychology  
  Abstract Based on the author's work and that of collaborators, as well as other contemporaneous research, this article reaffirms the existence of a broad bipolar spectrum between the extremes of psychotic manic-depressive illness and strictly defined unipolar depression. The alternation of mania and melancholia beginning in the juvenile years is one of the most classic descriptions in clinical medicine that has come to us from Greco-Roman times. French alienists in the middle of the nineteenth century and Kraepelin at the turn of that century formalized it into manic-depressive psychosis. In the pre-DSM-III era during the 1960s and 1970s, North American psychiatrists rarely diagnosed the psychotic forms of the disease; now, there is greater recognition that most excited psychoses with a biphasic course, including many with schizo-affective features, belong to the bipolar spectrum. Current data also support Kraepelin's delineation of mixed states, which frequently take on psychotic proportions. However, full syndromal intertwining of depressive and manic states into dysphoric or mixed mania--as emphasized in DSM-IV--is relatively uncommon; depressive symptoms in the midst of mania are more representative of mixed states. DSM-IV also does not formally recognize hypomanic symptomatology that intrudes into major depressive episodes and gives rise to agitated depressive and/or anxious, dysphoric, restless depressions with flight of ideas. Many of these mixed depressive states arise within the setting of an attenuated bipolar spectrum characterized by major depressive episodes and soft signs of bipolarity. DSM-IV conventions are most explicit for the bipolar II subtype with major depressive and clear-cut spontaneous hypomanic episodes; temperamental cyclothymia and hyperthymia receive insufficient recognition as potential factors that could lead to switching from depression to bipolar I disorder and, in vulnerable subjects, to predominantly depressive cycling. In the main, rapid-cycling and mixed states are distinct. Nonetheless, there exist ultrarapid-cycling forms where morose, labile moods with irritable, mixed features constitute patients' habitual self and, for that reason, are often mistaken for “borderline” personality disorder. Clearly, more formal research needs to be conducted in this temperamental interface between more classic bipolar and unipolar disorders. The clinical stakes, however, are such that a narrow concept of bipolar disorder would deprive many patients with lifelong temperamental dysregulation and depressive episodes of the benefits of mood-regulating agents.  
  Call Number Serial 1728  
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Author (up) Gabbard, G.O.; Twemlow, S.W.; Jones, F.C. url  openurl
  Title Differential diagnosis of altered mind/body perception Type Journal Article
  Year 1982 Publication Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal Psychiatry  
  Volume 45 Issue 4 Pages 361-369  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Body Image; Child; Cognition Disorders--diagnosis; Consciousness Disorders--diagnosis, psychology; Depersonalization--diagnosis, psychology; Diagnosis, Differential; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Psychological Tests; Reality Testing; Schizophrenia--diagnosis; Schizophrenic Psychology  
  Abstract Considerable confusion exists in the psychiatric literature concerned with states of consciousness in which there is an altered perception of the mind/body relationship; related but different terms are often used interchangeably, with a lack of definitional rigor. The purpose of this paper is to bring clarity to this group of related phenomena by differentiating out-of-body experience (OBE) from depersonalization, autoscopic phenomena and schizophrenic body distortions (such as boundary loss), which are the principal entities with which the syndrome may be confused. The problem of variable definition of the syndromes is compounded by the fact that some studies deal with psychiatric or medical patients, others focus on nonpatients, and still others deal with both groups. The fact that some groups of persons with experiences of altered mind/body perception do not define themselves as patients, do not seek treatment, and may not need treatment underscores the need for clarification. Following an explication of the different syndromes and their characteristics, we will briefly consider treatment implications.  
  Call Number Serial 31  
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Author (up) Hobson, C.W.; Scott, S.; Rubia, K. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Investigation of cool and hot executive function in ODD/CD independently of ADHD Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines Abbreviated Journal J Child Psychol Psychiatry  
  Volume 52 Issue 10 Pages 1035-1043  
  Keywords Adolescent; Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/diagnosis/*psychology; Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders/diagnosis/*psychology; Child; Cognition/*physiology; Conduct Disorder/diagnosis/*psychology; Diagnosis, Differential; Executive Function/*physiology; Female; Humans; Male; Social Behavior Disorders/diagnosis/*psychology  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Children with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) have shown deficits in 'cool' abstract-cognitive, and 'hot' reward-related executive function (EF) tasks. However, it is currently unclear to what extent ODD/CD is associated with neuropsychological deficits, independently of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: Fifty-nine adolescents with a history of early-onset oppositional problems, 28 with pure ODD/CD symptoms and 31 with ADHD with or without ODD/CD, and 34 healthy controls were administered a task battery measuring motor response inhibition, sustained attention, cognitive flexibility and reward-related decision-making. Findings were analysed using dimensional and group analyses. RESULTS: In group analyses both groups with and without ADHD were impaired in EF measures. Dimensional analyses, however, showed that ODD/CD but not ADHD was related to hot EF based on increased risky decision-making in the Iowa Gambling Task. ODD/CD was also independently related to aspects of cool EF independently of ADHD, namely slower speeds of inhibitory responding and increased intra-subject variability. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show EF deficits associated with ODD/CD independently of ADHD, and implicate reward-related abnormalities in theories of antisocial behaviour development.  
  Call Number Serial 100  
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Author (up) Horwitz, A.V. file  url
openurl 
  Title Distinguishing distress from disorder as psychological outcomes of stressful social arrangements Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Health (London, England : 1997) Abbreviated Journal Health (London)  
  Volume 11 Issue 3 Pages 273-289  
  Keywords Adaptation, Psychological; Affective Symptoms/diagnosis; Behavioral Research/*history; Community Psychiatry/*history; Depression/diagnosis; Diagnosis, Differential; History, 20th Century; Humans; Life Change Events; Mental Disorders/*diagnosis; Military Psychiatry/history; Psychological Theory; Public Policy; *Social Conditions; Stress, Psychological/*diagnosis; World War II  
  Abstract Some studies in the sociology of stress conceptualize their outcome variables as distress, while others treat the same outcomes as mental disorder. This article focuses on the importance of distinguishing between the two. It argues that there are fundamental differences between distress that arises in non-disordered persons and genuine mental disorder but that studies of stress typically fail to distinguish between these conditions. The article outlines the historical developments that led the field to conflate distress and disorder. Finally, it indicates some advantages for research, treatment and policy that can accrue when distress that is initiated and maintained by social conditions is distinguished from mental disorders that are dysfunctions of internal psychological mechanisms.  
  Call Number Serial 2159  
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Author (up) Howlin, P.; Wing, L.; Gould, J. file  url
openurl 
  Title The recognition of autism in children with Down syndrome--implications for intervention and some speculations about pathology Type Journal Article
  Year 1995 Publication Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology Abbreviated Journal Dev Med Child Neurol  
  Volume 37 Issue 5 Pages 406-414  
  Keywords Age Factors; Autistic Disorder/*diagnosis/epidemiology; Child; Communication Disorders/etiology; Comorbidity; Diagnosis, Differential; Down Syndrome/*diagnosis/epidemiology; Humans; Imagination; Interpersonal Relations; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales; Psychometrics; Self Care; Stereotyped Behavior  
  Abstract Although autism can occur in conjunction with a range of other conditions, the association with Down syndrome is generally considered to be relatively rare. Four young boys with Down syndrome are described who were also autistic. All children clearly fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for autism required by the ICD-10 or DSM-III-R, but in each case the parents had faced considerable difficulties in obtaining this diagnosis. Instead, the children's problems had been attributed to their cognitive delays, despite the fact that their behaviour and general progress differed from other children with Down syndrome in many important aspects. The implications, for both families and children, of the failure to diagnose autism when it co-occurs with other conditions such as Down syndrome are discussed. Some speculations about possible pathological associations are also presented.  
  Call Number Serial 969  
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Author (up) Khouzam, H.R.; El-Gabalawi, F.; Pirwani, N.; Priest, F. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Asperger's disorder: a review of its diagnosis and treatment Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Comprehensive Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal Compr Psychiatry  
  Volume 45 Issue 3 Pages 184-191  
  Keywords Asperger Syndrome/*diagnosis/epidemiology/etiology/*therapy; Diagnosis, Differential; Family/psychology; Humans; Prognosis; Role  
  Abstract Asperger's disorder is a pervasive developmental disorder that shares similar features of social impairment disorder, restricted interests, and repetitive behaviors with autistic disorder. Although both Asperger's disorder and autistic disorder persist into adulthood, autistic disorder is usually apparent before the age of 3, while Asperger's disorder usually manifests itself at preschool age. Asperger's disorder in the majority of cases is not associated with delay in language development and there is an increased likelihood to seek social interactions and to engage in activities and friendship with others. In contrast to autistic disorder, most Asperger's disorder patients have normal intellectual functioning and some have motor clumsiness. Although the etiology of Asperger's disorder is still undetermined, this article will review the assessment and treatment interventions that could improve the prognosis of this illness. The historical background, epidemiology, diagnostic features, differential diagnosis, and course and overall management/treatment of Asperger's disorder will be discussed. Despite the absence of a cure for Asperger's disorder, the awareness of its distinctive clinical features that differentiate it from autistic disorder could improve its prognosis and differentiate response to treatment and comorbid conditions.  
  Call Number Serial 151  
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Author (up) Loeber, R.; Burke, J.D.; Lahey, B.B.; Winters, A.; Zera, M. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Oppositional defiant and conduct disorder: a review of the past 10 years, part I Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry  
  Volume 39 Issue 12 Pages 1468-1484  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Age of Onset; *Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders/diagnosis/epidemiology/psychology; Child; Comorbidity; *Conduct Disorder/diagnosis/epidemiology/psychology; Diagnosis, Differential; Female; Humans; Male; Prevalence; Prognosis; Sex Factors  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: To review empirical findings on oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD). METHOD: Selected summaries of the literature over the past decade are presented. RESULTS: Evidence supports a distinction between the symptoms of ODD and many symptoms of CD, but there is controversy about whether aggressive symptoms should be considered to be part of ODD or CD. CD is clearly heterogenous, but further research is needed regarding the most useful subtypes. Some progress has been made in documenting sex differences. Symptoms that are more serious, more atypical for the child's sex, or more age-atypical appear to be prognostic of serious dysfunction. Progress has been made in the methods for assessment of ODD and CD, but some critical issues, such as combined information from different informants, remains to be addressed. A proportion of children with ODD later develop CD, and a proportion of those with CD later meet criteria for antisocial personality disorder. ODD and CD frequently co-occur with other psychiatric conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Although major advances in the study of the prevalence and course of ODD and CD have occurred in the past decade, some key issues remain unanswered.  
  Call Number Serial 101  
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