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Author (up) Aarestrup, F.M.; Bager, F.; Jensen, N.E.; Madsen, M.; Meyling, A.; Wegener, H.C. file  url
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  Title Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from food animals to antimicrobial growth promoters and related therapeutic agents in Denmark Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication APMIS : Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica Abbreviated Journal Apmis  
  Volume 106 Issue 6 Pages 606-622  
  Keywords Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents/*pharmacology; Bacteria/*drug effects/*isolation & purification; Bacterial Infections/drug therapy/veterinary; Cattle; Cattle Diseases/drug therapy/microbiology; Cecum/microbiology; Chickens/growth & development; Drug Resistance, Microbial; Feces/microbiology; Meat/*microbiology; Microbial Sensitivity Tests/veterinary; Poultry Diseases/drug therapy/microbiology; Swine/growth & development; Swine Diseases/drug therapy/microbiology  
  Abstract This study was conducted to describe the occurrence of acquired resistance to antimicrobials used for growth promotion among bacteria isolated from swine, cattle and poultry in Denmark. Resistance to structurally related therapeutic agents was also examined. Three categories of bacteria were tested: 1) indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium), 2) zoonotic bacteria (Campylobacter, Salmonella, Yersinia enterocolitica), and 3) animal pathogens (E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), Staphylococcus hyicus, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae). All antimicrobials used as growth promoters in Denmark and some structurally related therapeutic agents (in brackets) were included: Avilamycin, avoparcin (vancomycin), bacitracin, carbadox, flavomycin, monensin, olaquindox, salinomycin, spiramycin (erythromycin, lincomycin), tylosin (erythromycin, lincomycin), and virginiamycin (pristinamycin). Bacterial species intrinsically resistant to an antimicrobial were not tested towards that antimicrobial. Breakpoints for growth promoters were established by population distribution of the bacteria tested. A total of 2,372 bacterial isolates collected during October 1995 to September 1996 were included in the study. Acquired resistance to all currently used growth promoting antimicrobials was found. A frequent occurrence of resistance were observed to avilamycin, avoparcin, bacitracin, flavomycin, spiramycin, tylosin and virginiamycin, whereas resistance to carbadox, monensin, olaquindox and salinomycin was less frequent. The occurrence of resistance varied by animal origin and bacterial species. The highest levels of resistance was observed among enterococci, whereas less resistance was observed among zoonotic bacteria and bacteria pathogenic to animals. The association between the occurrence of resistance and the consumption of the antimicrobial is discussed. The results show the present level of resistance to growth promoters in bacteria from food animals in Denmark. They will form the baseline for comparison with future prospective studies, thereby enabling the determination of trends over time.  
  Call Number Serial 1676  
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Author (up) Bayliss, C.E.; Waites, W.M. file  url
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  Title Resistance of Serratia marcescens to hydrogen peroxide Type Journal Article
  Year 1981 Publication The Journal of Applied Bacteriology Abbreviated Journal J Appl Bacteriol  
  Volume 50 Issue 1 Pages 131-137  
  Keywords Catalase/metabolism; Drug Resistance, Microbial; Hot Temperature; Hydrogen Peroxide/*pharmacology; Serratia marcescens/*drug effects/enzymology/radiation effects; Ultraviolet Rays  
  Abstract Irradiation with ultraviolet (u.v.) light (71 J/m2) reduced the viable count of suspenrsions of Serratia marcescens, grown in a glycerol-salts defined medium, to five in 104 cells. Subsequent incubation of irradiated cells in hydrogen peroxide failed to decrease the survivors, but u.v. irradiation in the presence of hydrogen peroxide reduced the viable count to fewer than two in 106 cells. Cells grown in defined medium with added iron had more measurable catalase activity and were more resistant to hydrogen peroxide alone and to simultaneous treatment with u.v. irradiation and hydrogen peroxide. Cells grown in a non-defined medium contained little iron and measurable catalase activity but were more resistant to hydrogen peroxide. Treatment with toluene, heat killing or sonication increased the catalase activity detected in all cell suspensions and showed that resistance to hydrogen peroxide and to u.v. irradiation in hydrogen peroxide was related to the total catalase activity within cells.  
  Call Number Serial 489  
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Author (up) Chen, B.; Liang, X.; Nie, X.; Huang, X.; Zou, S.; Li, X. file  url
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  Title The role of class I integrons in the dissemination of sulfonamide resistance genes in the Pearl River and Pearl River Estuary, South China Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Journal of Hazardous Materials Abbreviated Journal J Hazard Mater  
  Volume 282 Issue Pages 61-67  
  Keywords Anti-Bacterial Agents/*analysis; Bacterial Proteins/genetics; China; DNA, Bacterial/analysis; Drug Resistance, Microbial/*genetics; Estuaries; *Genes, Bacterial; Geologic Sediments/analysis; *Integrons; RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/analysis; Rivers; Sulfonamides/*analysis; Water Pollutants/*analysis; Antibiotic resistance genes (ARG); Class 1 intergron, Pearl River Estuary (PRE); South China; Sulfonamide resistance genes (sul1, and sul2)  
  Abstract Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), as a newly emerging contaminant, are unique because they are disseminated through horizontal gene transfer in the environment. In the present study, a class 1 integron gene (int1) and various ARGs (sul1, sul2, sul3, qnrS, and ermB) were measured in water and sediment samples from the Pearl River (PR) to the Pearl River Estuary (PRE), where there is a distinct gradient in anthropogenic impact. The int1, sul1, and sul2 genes were detected in all samples, and their concentrations exhibited a clear trend of decline consistent with anthropogenic impact. Both the int1 and sul genes had dynamically migrated between water and sediments. The relative abundance of the int1 gene normalized to the 16S rRNA gene correlated significantly with the total concentrations of antibiotics in water and sediments. Good correlations were also observed between the abundance of int1 and each type of sul gene in the samples. However, the sul1 gene showed a much stronger relationship with int1 in different seasons, probably due to the presence of sul1 in the conserved region of class 1 integron. Our results strongly support that integrons play an important role in the dissemination of ARGs in human-impacted aquatic environments.  
  Call Number Serial 1217  
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Author (up) Cohen, M.L. file  doi
openurl 
  Title Epidemiology of drug resistance: implications for a post-antimicrobial era Type Journal Article
  Year 1992 Publication Science (New York, N.Y.) Abbreviated Journal Science  
  Volume 257 Issue 5073 Pages 1050-1055  
  Keywords Bacterial Infections/*drug therapy/epidemiology/prevention & control/transmission; Cross Infection; *Drug Resistance, Microbial; Humans; Risk Factors  
  Abstract In the last several years, the frequency and spectrum of antimicrobial-resistant infections have increased in both the hospital and the community. Certain infections that are essentially untreatable have begun to occur as epidemics both in the developing world and in institutional settings in the United States. The increasing frequency of drug resistance has been attributed to combinations of microbial characteristics, selective pressures of antimicrobial use, and societal and technologic changes that enhance the transmission of drug-resistant organisms. Antimicrobial resistance is resulting in increased morbidity, mortality, and health-care costs. Prevention and control of these infections will require new antimicrobial agents, prudent use of existing agents, new vaccines, and enhanced public health efforts to reduce transmission.  
  Call Number Serial 1129  
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Author (up) Delcour, A.H. file  url
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  Title Outer membrane permeability and antibiotic resistance Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Biochimica et Biophysica Acta Abbreviated Journal Biochim Biophys Acta  
  Volume 1794 Issue 5 Pages 808-816  
  Keywords Anti-Bacterial Agents/metabolism; Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins/*metabolism; Cell Membrane Permeability/genetics/*physiology; Drug Resistance, Microbial/*genetics; Gram-Negative Bacteria/*genetics/metabolism; Lipopolysaccharides/physiology; Porins/chemistry/metabolism  
  Abstract To date most antibiotics are targeted at intracellular processes, and must be able to penetrate the bacterial cell envelope. In particular, the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria provides a formidable barrier that must be overcome. There are essentially two pathways that antibiotics can take through the outer membrane: a lipid-mediated pathway for hydrophobic antibiotics, and general diffusion porins for hydrophilic antibiotics. The lipid and protein compositions of the outer membrane have a strong impact on the sensitivity of bacteria to many types of antibiotics, and drug resistance involving modifications of these macromolecules is common. This review will describe the molecular mechanisms for permeation of antibiotics through the outer membrane, and the strategies that bacteria have deployed to resist antibiotics by modifications of these pathways.  
  Call Number Serial 1539  
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