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Author (up) Amato, P.R. file  url
  Title Children of divorce in the 1990s: an update of the Amato and Keith (1991) meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Journal of Family Psychology : JFP : Journal of the Division of Family Psychology of the American Psychological Association (Division 43) Abbreviated Journal J Fam Psychol  
  Volume 15 Issue 3 Pages 355-370  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Age Factors; Child; Child Psychology; Child, Preschool; Divorce--psychology; Educational Status; Female; Humans; Male; Marriage--psychology; Mental Health; Research Design; Self Concept; Sex Factors; Social Adjustment; United States--epidemiology  
  Abstract The present study updates the P. R. Amato and B. Keith (1991) meta-analysis of children and divorce with a new analysis of 67 studies published in the 1990s. Compared with children with continuously married parents, children with divorced parents continued to score significantly lower on measures of academic achievement, conduct, psychological adjustment, self-concept, and social relations. After controlling for study characteristics, curvilinear trends with respect to decade of publication were present for academic achievement, psychological well-being, self-concept, and social relations. For these outcomes, the gap between children with divorced and married parents decreased during the 1980s and increased again during the 1990s.  
  Call Number Serial 276  
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Author (up) Domingue, B.W.; Fletcher, J.; Conley, D.; Boardman, J.D. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Genetic and educational assortative mating among US adults Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  
  Volume 111 Issue 22 Pages 7996-8000  
  Keywords Continental Population Groups/genetics; Databases, Genetic; Educational Status; Ethnic Groups/genetics; Female; Genome-Wide Association Study; Genotype; Humans; Male; *Marriage; Metagenomics/*methods; Phenotype; *Sexual Behavior; *Spouses; United States; genetic homogamy; homophily; random mating  
  Abstract Understanding the social and biological mechanisms that lead to homogamy (similar individuals marrying one another) has been a long-standing issue across many fields of scientific inquiry. Using a nationally representative sample of non-Hispanic white US adults from the Health and Retirement Study and information from 1.7 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms, we compare genetic similarity among married couples to noncoupled pairs in the population. We provide evidence for genetic assortative mating in this population but the strength of this association is substantially smaller than the strength of educational assortative mating in the same sample. Furthermore, genetic similarity explains at most 10% of the assortative mating by education levels. Results are replicated using comparable data from the Framingham Heart Study.  
  Call Number Serial 1127  
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Author (up) Forehand, R.; Biggar, H.; Kotchick, B.A. file  url
  Title Cumulative risk across family stressors: short- and long-term effects for adolescents Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology Abbreviated Journal J Abnorm Child Psychol  
  Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 119-128  
  Keywords Achievement; Adaptation, Psychological; Adjustment Disorders/diagnosis/*epidemiology; Adolescent; *Adolescent Psychology; Adult; Affective Symptoms/diagnosis/epidemiology; Analysis of Variance; Child; Conduct Disorder/diagnosis/epidemiology; Depressive Disorder/diagnosis/epidemiology; Educational Measurement; Educational Status; *Family Relations; Female; Humans; Juvenile Delinquency/statistics & numerical data; Male; Parent-Child Relations; Personality Inventory/statistics & numerical data; Risk Factors; Social Adjustment  
  Abstract This study examined the relationship between number of family risk factors during adolescence and three areas of psychosocial adjustment (internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and academic achievement) in adolescence and 6 years later in young adulthood. Risk factors examined included parental divorce, interparental conflict, maternal physical health problems, maternal depressive mood, and mother-adolescent relationship difficulties. The findings indicated both concurrent and long-term associations between number of family risk factors and psychosocial adjustment; however, the results differed based on area of adjustment examined and whether concurrent or longitudinal data were considered. Furthermore, a steep increase in adjustment difficulties occurred when number of risk factors increased from three to four. The results are discussed in the framework of four hypotheses which were tested, and clinical implications are delineated.  
  Call Number Serial 289  
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Author (up) Meisel, V.; Servera, M.; Garcia-Banda, G.; Cardo, E.; Moreno, I. file  url
  Title Neurofeedback and standard pharmacological intervention in ADHD: a randomized controlled trial with six-month follow-up Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Biological Psychology Abbreviated Journal Biol Psychol  
  Volume 94 Issue 1 Pages 12-21  
  Keywords Adolescent; Analysis of Variance; Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/*therapy; Brain Waves/physiology; Central Nervous System Stimulants/*therapeutic use; Child; Educational Status; Electroencephalography; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Male; Methylphenidate/*therapeutic use; Neurofeedback/*methods; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales; Treatment Outcome; Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); EEG biofeedback; Methylphenidate; Neurofeedback; Pharmacological intervention  
  Abstract The present study is a randomized controlled trial that aims to evaluate the efficacy of Neurofeedback compared to standard pharmacological intervention in the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The final sample consisted of 23 children with ADHD (11 boys and 12 girls, 7-14 years old). Participants carried out 40 theta/beta training sessions or received methylphenidate. Behavioral rating scales were completed by fathers, mothers, and teachers at pre-, post-treatment, two-, and six-month naturalistic follow-up. In both groups, similar significant reductions were reported in ADHD functional impairment by parents; and in primary ADHD symptoms by parents and teachers. However, significant academic performance improvements were only detected in the Neurofeedback group. Our findings provide new evidence for the efficacy of Neurofeedback, and contribute to enlarge the range of non-pharmacological ADHD intervention choices. To our knowledge, this is the first randomized controlled trial with a six-month follow-up that compares Neurofeedback and stimulant medication in ADHD.  
  Call Number Serial 1296  
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Author (up) Piper, M.E.; Cook, J.W.; Schlam, T.R.; Jorenby, D.E.; Smith, S.S.; Bolt, D.M.; Loh, W.-Y. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Gender, race, and education differences in abstinence rates among participants in two randomized smoking cessation trials Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Nicotine & Tobacco Research : Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco Abbreviated Journal Nicotine Tob Res  
  Volume 12 Issue 6 Pages 647-657  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; African Continental Ancestry Group; Bupropion/administration & dosage/therapeutic use; *Continental Population Groups; Educational Status; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Nicotine/administration & dosage/therapeutic use; Sex Factors; Smoking Cessation/*statistics & numerical data; Young Adult  
  Abstract INTRODUCTION: Smoking is the leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, but this burden is not distributed equally among smokers. Women, Blacks, and people with low socioeconomic status are especially vulnerable to the health risks of smoking and are less likely to quit. METHODS: This research examined cessation rates and treatment response among 2,850 participants (57.2% women, 11.7% Blacks, and 9.0% with less than a high school education) from two large cessation trials evaluating: nicotine patch, nicotine lozenge, bupropion, bupropion + lozenge, and nicotine patch + lozenge. RESULTS: Results revealed that women, Blacks, and smokers with less education were less likely to quit smoking successfully than men, Whites, and smokers with more education, respectively. Women did not appear to benefit more from bupropion than from nicotine replacement therapy, but women and smokers with less education benefited more from combination pharmacotherapy than from monotherapy. DISCUSSION: Women, Blacks, and smokers with less education are at elevated risk for cessation failure, and research is needed to understand this risk and develop pharmacological and psychosocial interventions to improve their long-term cessation rates.  
  Call Number Serial 375  
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Author (up) Wadsworth, J.; Burnell, I.; Taylor, B.; Butler, N. file  url
  Title The influence of family type on children's behaviour and development at five years Type Journal Article
  Year 1985 Publication Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines Abbreviated Journal J Child Psychol Psychiatry  
  Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 245-254  
  Keywords *Child Behavior; Child Behavior Disorders/psychology; *Child Development; Child, Preschool; Educational Status; *Family Characteristics; Female; Great Britain; Humans; Male; Maternal Age; Parents; Psychomotor Performance; Single Person; Vocabulary  
  Abstract Development and behaviour at five years were assessed in children from a national cohort; comparisons were drawn between those living in one-parent families, in step-parent families and with both natural parents. On average, children from one-parent families scored worst and children from two-parent families best on tests of behaviour, vocabulary and visuomotor co-ordination. The differences remained significant after allowing for associated influences. The behaviour of children from one-parent families and step-parent families was perceived on average as more 'anti-social' than that of children from two-parent families. Children in one-parent families were seen on average as marginally more 'neurotic' than children in two-parent families.  
  Call Number Serial 287  
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Author (up) Williams, M.V.; Parker, R.M.; Baker, D.W.; Parikh, N.S.; Pitkin, K.; Coates, W.C.; Nurss, J.R. file  url
  Title Inadequate functional health literacy among patients at two public hospitals Type Journal Article
  Year 1995 Publication JAMA : the Journal of the American Medical Association Abbreviated Journal Jama  
  Volume 274 Issue 21 Pages 1677-1682  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; California; Cross-Sectional Studies; *Educational Status; Ethnic Groups; Female; Georgia; *Health Services Accessibility; Hospitals, Public; Hospitals, Urban; Humans; Male; Medical Indigency; Middle Aged; *Outpatients; Socioeconomic Factors  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: To determine the ability of patients to complete successfully basic reading and numeracy tasks required to function adequately in the health care setting. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Two urban, public hospitals. PATIENTS: A total of 2659 predominantly indigent and minority patients, 1892 English-speaking and 767 Spanish-speaking, presenting for acute care. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Functional health literacy as measured by the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA), an instrument that measures ability to read and understand medical instructions and health care information presented in prose passages and passages containing numerical information (eg, prescription bottle labels and appointment slips). RESULTS: A high proportion of patients were unable to read and understand written basic medical instructions. Of 2659 patients, 1106 (41.6%) were unable to comprehend directions for taking medication on an empty stomach, 691 (26%) were unable to understand information regarding when a next appointment is scheduled, and 1582 (59.5%) could not understand a standard informed consent document. A total of 665 (35.1%) of 1892 English-speaking patients and 473 (61.7%) of 767 Spanish-speaking patients had inadequate or marginal functional health literacy. The prevalence of inadequate or marginal functional health literacy among the elderly (age > or = 60 years) was 81.3% (187/230) for English-speaking patients and 82.6% (57/69) for Spanish-speaking patients, and was significantly higher (P < .001) than in younger patients. CONCLUSIONS: Many patients at our institutions cannot perform the basic reading tasks required to function in the health care environment. Inadequate health literacy may be an important barrier to patients' understanding of their diagnoses and treatments, and to receiving high-quality care.  
  Call Number Serial 295  
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